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1.
J Diabetes Complications ; 36(12): 108355, 2022 Nov 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105322

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Determine characteristics of Medicare beneficiaries with diabetes and multiple chronic conditions (MCC) associated with being unable to obtain medical services during COVID-19. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS: Retrospective cohort study of data from COVID-19 Supplements of Medicare Current Beneficiary Surveys administered in Summer (N = 11,114, unweighted) and Fall (N = 9686, unweighted) 2020, and Winter 2021 (N = 11,107, unweighted). Binary logistic regression was used to model for adjusted odds of self-reports of being unable to access different types of care. RESULTS: In three time periods from March 2020 through March/April 2021 beneficiaries with diabetes plus MCC combinations reported being unable to get medical care, compared to beneficiaries with diabetes alone. Notably, patterns persisted at the 12-month mark with beneficiaries with diabetes plus cancer (OR = 1.24), and diabetes plus cancer/stroke (OR = 2.53) experiencing increased odds of being unable to get care because of COVID-19, compared to beneficiaries with diabetes alone. By March/April 2021 beneficiaries with diabetes plus COPD (OR = 1.08), diabetes plus stroke (OR = 1.49), and diabetes plus Alzheimer's (OR = 1.09) experienced increased odds of being unable to get treatment for ongoing conditions. Beneficiaries with diabetes plus Alzheimer's (OR = 1.40) also experienced increased odds of being unable to get a regular check-up 12 months into the pandemic. Finally, members of racial/ethnic minority groups experienced increased odds of being unable to obtain services at various times during the pandemic compared to non-Hispanic Whites, with increased odds persisting at 12 months for non-Hispanic Blacks and Hispanics. CONCLUSIONS: Beneficiaries with MCC, and minorities, experienced increased odds of being unable to obtain some services during COVID-19, even when controlling for similar diabetes and MCC combinations. Work remains for providers and public health systems to dismantle and reimagine systems to provide equitable access to care.

2.
Annals of epidemiology ; JOUR:84-84, 75.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2101968
4.
J Mol Biol ; : 167876, 2022 Nov 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2095671

ABSTRACT

We recently demonstrated that inhibitor binding reorganizes the oxyanion loop of a monomeric catalytic domain of SARS CoV-2 main protease (MPro) from an unwound (E) to a wound (active, E*) conformation, independent of dimerization. Here we assess the effect of the flanking N-terminal residues, to imitate the MPro precursor prior to its autoprocessing, on conformational equilibria rendering stability and inhibitor binding. Thermal denaturation (Tm) of C145A mutant, unlike H41A, increases by 6.8 °C, relative to wild-type mature dimer. An inactivating H41A mutation to maintain a miniprecursor containing TSAVL[Q or E] of the flanking nsp4 sequence in an intact form [(-6)MProH41A and (-6*)MProH41A, respectively], and its corresponding mature MProH41A were systematically examined. While the H41A mutation exerts negligible effect on Tm and dimer dissociation constant (Kdimer) of MProH41A, relative to the wild type MPro, both miniprecursors show a 4-5 °C decrease in Tm and >85-fold increase in Kdimer as compared to MProH41A. The Kd for the binding of the covalent inhibitor GC373 to (-6*)MProH41A increases ∼12-fold, relative to MProH41A, concomitant with its dimerization. While the inhibitor-free dimer exhibits a state in transit from E to E* with a conformational asymmetry of the protomers' oxyanion loops and helical domains, inhibitor binding restores the asymmetry to mature-like oxyanion loop conformations (E*) but not of the helical domains. Disorder of the terminal residues 1-2 and 302-306 observed in both structures suggest that N-terminal autoprocessing is tightly coupled to the E-E* equilibrium and stable dimer formation.

5.
Lancet Reg Health West Pac ; : 100627, 2022 Oct 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2082109

ABSTRACT

Frontline healthcare workers (HCWs) in hospitals have been among the most vulnerable members of the population since the COVID-19 pandemic, affecting not only physical but also mental health. Complementary approaches to providing information for HCWs on taking care of their mental health need development and scaling-up. Behaviorally designed interventions take into consideration the context, resistance, and impact in facilitating behavior change in a specific target segment towards an intended aspiration. The behaviorally designed interventions sought to build individual resilience aligned with the Mental Health and Psychosocial Support Services framework. These included strengthening the provision of non-specialized services and community support among the range of interventions that address mental health problems. These benefit the vulnerable sectors of the population who are at most risk of experiencing chronic stress. Scaling-up of low-cost and subtle tools is a worthy investment for government institutions to ensure that HCWs are continuously supported so they can continue to provide adequate and quality care to those afflicted by COVID-19.

8.
2022 Portland International Conference on Management of Engineering and Technology, PICMET 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2081362

ABSTRACT

The COVID 19 pandemic has brought about an unprecedented economic and social crisis that has affected many businesses. Due to health concerns, many organizations are being managed virtually. This can be challenging, especially for employees and employers that are used to face-to-face interaction and for those who are not tech-savvy. organizational leaders need to develop strategies and methods to maintain business, as well as maintain the productivity levels of employees. This research paper investigates the most effective ways to lead virtual teams during a pandemic to answer the question: what challenges did virtual team leaders face during the COVID-19 pandemic and how were they addressed? This paper consists of a study based on a short literature review and the survey responses of a sample size of 42 from working professionals across various job levels. A second survey of an additional 21 managers and leaders was also conducted. The authors identified the key challenges of leading and working in virtual teams from the survey results, including communication hardships and the obstacles with onboarding new employees remotely. Drawing on the team's experiences and knowledge from the related literature review as well, this paper proposes a set of best practices based on the patterns observed in the survey in order to answer the research question. The paper also includes the scope of future work that can be done in this field. © 2022 PICMET.

9.
PLoS One ; 17(10): e0276384, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2079766

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Real-world data on COVID-19 vaccine effectiveness are needed to validate evidence from randomized clinical trials. Accordingly, this study aims to evaluate, in a real-world setting in Brazil, the effectiveness of Pfizer-BioNTech BNT162b2 against symptomatic COVID-19 and COVID-19-related complications across diverse populations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A test-negative case-control study with follow-up of cases is currently being conducted in Toledo, a city in southern Brazil, following a mass COVID-19 vaccination campaign with BNT162b2. The study is being conducted among patients aged 12 years or older seeking care in the public health system with acute respiratory symptoms and tested for SARS-CoV-2 on reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Cases are RT-PCR positive and controls RT-PCR negative. Test-positive cases are prospectively followed through structured telephone interviews performed at 15 days post-enrollment, and at 1, 3, 6, 9 and 12 months. Baseline demographic, clinical, and vaccination data are being collected by means of structured interviews and medical registry records reviews at the time of enrollment. All RT-PCR-positive samples are screened for mutations to identify SARS-CoV-2 variants. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The study protocol has been approved by the research ethics committee of all participant sites. Study findings will be disseminated through peer-reviewed publications and conference presentations. TRAIL REGISTRATION: Clinicatrials.gov: NCT05052307.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , BNT162 Vaccine , Brazil/epidemiology , Case-Control Studies , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
10.
J Afr Am Stud (New Brunsw) ; 26(3): 314-338, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2075646

ABSTRACT

This research analyzes the statistically significant differences that exist between Blacks and Whites living in Atlanta via their social, economic, educational, and housing characteristics during COVID. Hypothesis tests confirmed what visual scatterplots and correlations inferred. The statistics overwhelmingly substantiate that all six of the important quality of life metrics viewed in this study are more favorable towards predominately White neighborhoods, as opposed to predominately Black neighborhoods. In particular, neighborhoods with a super majority of White residents tended to have higher life expectancies at the times of their births, sustained lower violent crime rates, held higher median household incomes, had a smaller percentage of its children living below the poverty level, had higher percentages of residents with at least a high school diploma, and maintained more occupied housing units, when compared to neighborhoods with a super majority of Black residents.

11.
Trop Med Infect Dis ; 7(10)2022 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2071794

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Maritime and river travel may be associated with respiratory viral spread via infected passengers and/or crew and potentially through other transmission routes. The transmission models of SARS-CoV-2 associated with cruise ship travel are based on transmission dynamics of other respiratory viruses. We aimed to provide a summary and evaluation of relevant data on SARS-CoV-2 transmission aboard cruise ships, report policy implications, and highlight research gaps. METHODS: We searched four electronic databases (up to 26 May 2022) and included studies on SARS-CoV-2 transmission aboard cruise ships. The quality of the studies was assessed based on five criteria, and relevant findings were reported. RESULTS: We included 23 papers on onboard SARS-CoV-2 transmission (with 15 reports on different aspects of the outbreak on Diamond Princess and nine reports on other international cruises), 2 environmental studies, and 1 systematic review. Three articles presented data on both international cruises and the Diamond Princess. The quality of evidence from most studies was low to very low. Index case definitions were heterogeneous. The proportion of traced contacts ranged from 0.19 to 100%. Studies that followed up >80% of passengers and crew reported attack rates (AR) up to 59%. The presence of a distinct dose-response relationship was demonstrated by findings of increased ARs in multi-person cabins. Two studies performed viral cultures with eight positive results. Genomic sequencing and phylogenetic analyses were performed in individuals from three cruises. Two environmental studies reported PCR-positive samples (cycle threshold range 26.21-39.00). In one study, no infectious virus was isolated from any of the 76 environmental samples. CONCLUSION: Our review suggests that crowding and multiple persons per cabin were associated with an increased risk of transmission on cruise ships. Variations in design, methodology, and case ascertainment limit comparisons across studies and quantification of transmission risk. Standardized guidelines for conducting and reporting studies on cruise ships of acute respiratory infection transmission should be developed.

12.
J Laryngol Otol ; 136(12): 1314-1319, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2069839

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To document changes in evaluation protocols for acute invasive fungal sinusitis during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic, and to analyse concordance between clinical and histopathological diagnoses based on new practice guidelines. METHODS: Protocols for the evaluation of patients with suspected acute invasive fungal sinusitis both prior and during the coronavirus disease 2019 period are described. A retrospective analysis of patients presenting with suspected acute invasive fungal sinusitis from 1 May to 30 June 2021 was conducted, with assessment of the concordance between clinical and final diagnoses. RESULTS: Among 171 patients with high clinical suspicion, 160 (93.6 per cent) had a final histopathological diagnosis of invasive fungal sinusitis, concordant with the clinical diagnosis, with sensitivity of 100 per cent, positive predictive value of 93.6 per cent and negative predictive value of 100 per cent. CONCLUSION: The study highlights a valuable screening tool with good accuracy, involving emphasis on 'red flag' signs in high-risk populations. This could be valuable in situations demanding the avoidance of aerosol-generating procedures and in resource-limited settings facilitating early referral to higher level care centres.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Invasive Fungal Infections , Sinusitis , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Pandemics , Workflow , Sinusitis/diagnosis , Sinusitis/therapy , Sinusitis/microbiology , Invasive Fungal Infections/diagnosis , Acute Disease
13.
Am J Surg ; 2022 Oct 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2068647

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on volume and outcomes of Acute Care Surgery patients, and we hypothesized that inpatient mortality would increase due to COVID+ and resource constraints. METHODS: An American College of Surgeons verified Level I Trauma Center's trauma and operative emergency general surgery (EGS) registries were queried for all patients from Jan. 2019 to Dec. 2020. April 1st, 2020, was the demarcation date for pre- and during COVID pandemic. Primary outcome was inpatient mortality. RESULTS: There were 14,460 trauma and 3091 EGS patients, and month-over-month volumes of both remained similar (p > 0.05). Blunt trauma decreased by 7.4% and penetrating increased by 31%, with a concomitant 25% increase in initial operative management (p < 0.001). Despite this, trauma (3.7%) and EGS (2.9-3.0%) mortality rates remained stable which was confirmed on multivariate analysis; p > 0.05. COVID + mortality was 8.8% and 3.7% in trauma and EGS patients, respectively. CONCLUSION: Acute Care Surgeons provided high quality care to trauma and EGS patients during the pandemic without allowing excess mortality despite many hardships and resource constraints.

14.
J Neuroeng Rehabil ; 19(1): 108, 2022 10 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2064818

ABSTRACT

We diagnosed 66 peripheral nerve injuries in 34 patients who survived severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). We combine this new data with published case series re-analyzed here (117 nerve injuries; 58 patients) to provide a comprehensive accounting of lesion sites. The most common are ulnar (25.1%), common fibular (15.8%), sciatic (13.1%), median (9.8%), brachial plexus (8.7%) and radial (8.2%) nerves at sites known to be vulnerable to mechanical loading. Protection of peripheral nerves should be prioritized in the care of COVID-19 patients. To this end, we report proof of concept data of the feasibility for a wearable, wireless pressure sensor to provide real time monitoring in the intensive care unit setting.


Subject(s)
Brachial Plexus , COVID-19 , Peripheral Nerve Injuries , Wearable Electronic Devices , Brachial Plexus/injuries , COVID-19/diagnosis , Feasibility Studies , Humans
15.
J Bronchology Interv Pulmonol ; 2022 Apr 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2063067

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can cause severe respiratory failure leading to prolonged mechanical ventilation. Data are just emerging about the practice and outcomes of tracheostomy in these patients. We reviewed our experience with tracheostomies for SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the demographics, comorbidities, timing of mechanical ventilation, tracheostomy, and intensive care unit and hospital lengths of stay in SARS-CoV-2 patients who received tracheostomies performed by the interventional pulmonary team. A tertiary care, teaching hospital in Chicago, Illinois. From March 2020 to April 2021, our center had 473 patients intubated for SARS-CoV-2, and 72 (15%) had percutaneous bedside tracheostomy performed by the interventional pulmonary team. RESULTS: Median time from intubation to tracheostomy was 20 (interquartile range: 16 to 25) days. Demographics and comorbidities were similar between early and late tracheostomy, but early tracheostomy was associated with shorter intensive care unit lengths of stay and a shorter total duration of ventilation. To date, 39 (54%) patients have been decannulated, 17 (24%) before hospital discharge; median time to decannulation was 22 (IQR: 18 to 36) days. Patients that were decannulated were younger (56 vs. 69 y). The rate of decannulation for survivors was 82%. No providers developed symptoms or tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSION: Tracheostomy enhances care for patients with prolonged respiratory failure from SARS-CoV-2 since early tracheostomy is associated with shorter duration of critical care, and decannulation rates are high for survivors. It furthermore appears safe for both patients and operators.

16.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2022 Oct 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2062047

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The SARS-CoV-2 omicron (B.1.1.529 BA.1) lineage was first detected in November, 2021, and is associated with reduced vaccine effectiveness. By March, 2022, BA.1 had been replaced by sub-lineage BA.2 in the USA. As new variants evolve, vaccine performance must be continually assessed. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness and durability of BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) against hospital and emergency department admissions for BA.1 and BA.2. METHODS: In this test-negative, case-control study, we sourced data from the electronic health records of adult (aged ≥18 years) members of Kaiser Permanente Southern California (KPSC), which is a health-care system in the USA, who were admitted to one of 15 KPSC hospitals or emergency departments (without subsequent hospitalisation) between Dec 27, 2021, and June 4, 2022, with an acute respiratory infection and were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by RT-PCR. Omicron sub-lineage was determined by use of sequencing, spike gene target failure, and the predominance of variants in certain time periods. Our main outcome was the effectiveness of two or three doses of BNT162b2 in preventing emergency department or hospital admission. Variant-specific vaccine effectiveness was evaluated by comparing the odds ratios from logistic regression models of vaccination between test-positive cases and test-negative controls, adjusting for the month of admission, age, sex, race and ethnicity, body-mass index, Charlson Comorbidity Index, previous influenza or pneumococcal vaccines, and previous SARS-CoV-2 infection. We also assessed effectiveness by the time since vaccination. This study is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04848584, and is ongoing. FINDINGS: Of 65 813 total admissions during the study period, we included 16 994 in our analyses, of which 7435 were due to BA.1, 1056 were due to BA.2, and 8503 were not due to SARS-CoV-2. In adjusted analyses, two-dose vaccine effectiveness was 40% (95% CI 27 to 50) for hospitalisation and 29% (18 to 38) for emergency department admission against BA.1 and 56% (31 to 72) for hospitalisation and 16% (-5 to 33) for emergency department admission against BA.2. Three-dose vaccine effectiveness was 79% (74 to 83) for hospitalisation and 72% (67 to 77) for emergency department admission against BA.1 and 71% (55 to 81) for hospitalisation and 21% (1 to 37) for emergency department admission against BA.2. Less than 3 months after the third dose, vaccine effectiveness was 80% (74 to 84) for hospitalisation and 74% (69 to 78) for emergency department admission against BA.1. Vaccine effectiveness 3 months or more after the third dose was 76% (69 to 82) against BA.1-related hospitalisation and 65% (56 to 73) against BA.1-related emergency department admission. Against BA.2, vaccine effectiveness was 74% (47 to 87) for hospitalisation and 59% (40 to 72) for emergency department admission at less than 3 months after the third dose and 70% (53 to 81) for hospitalisation and 5% (-21 to 25) for emergency department admission at 3 months or more after the third dose. INTERPRETATION: Two doses of BNT162b2 provided only partial protection against BA.1-related and BA.2-related hospital and emergency department admission, which underscores the need for booster doses against omicron. Although three doses offered high levels of protection (≥70%) against hospitalisation, variant-adapted vaccines are probably needed to improve protection against less severe endpoints, like emergency department admission, especially for BA.2. FUNDING: Pfizer.

18.
Communications medicine ; 2(1), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2057874

ABSTRACT

Background A comprehensive understanding of the SARS-CoV-2 infection dynamics and the ensuing host immune responses is needed to explain the pathogenesis as it relates to viral transmission. Knowledge gaps exist surrounding SARS-CoV-2 in vivo kinetics, particularly in the earliest stages after exposure. Methods An ongoing, workplace clinical surveillance study was used to intensely sample a small cohort longitudinally. Nine study participants who developed COVID-19 between November, 2020 and March, 2021 were monitored at high temporal resolution for three months in terms of viral loads as well as associated inflammatory biomarker and antibody responses. CD8 + T cells targeting SARS-CoV-2 in blood samples from study participants were evaluated. Results Here we show that the resulting datasets, supported by Bayesian modeling, allowed the underlying kinetic processes to be described, yielding a number of unexpected findings. Early viral replication is rapid (median doubling time, 3.1 h), providing a narrow window between exposure and viral shedding, while the clearance phase is slow and heterogeneous. Host immune responses different widely across participants. Conclusions Results from our small study give a rare insight into the life-cycle of COVID-19 infection and hold a number of important biological, clinical, and public health implications. Plain language summary Managing the response to the COVID-19 pandemic requires information about how quickly the virus reproduces and the effect on the immune system of the person who is infected. We measured the speed at which SARS-CoV-2 reproduces in unvaccinated individuals at various timepoints between when they first became infected, and there was no longer any detectable virus present in their bodies. We also measured changes in their immune response. Our findings can be used to develop guidelines for the clinical management of COVID-19 patients and optimize testing procedures to determine whether people are infected with SARS-CoV-2. Gunawardana et al. monitor the viral load, inflammatory biomarkers and antibody response long-term in people who developed COVID-19. Early viral replication is rapid, providing a narrow window between exposure and viral shedding.

19.
Elife ; 112022 09 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2056252

ABSTRACT

Physician-scientists have epitomized the blending of deep, rigorous impactful curiosity with broad attention to human health for centuries. While we aspire to prepare all physicians with an appreciation for these skills, those who apply them to push the understanding of the boundaries of human physiology and disease, to advance treatments, and to increase our knowledge base in the arena of human health can fulfill an essential space for our society, economies, and overall well-being. Working arm in arm with basic and translational scientists as well as expert clinicians, as peers in both groups, this career additionally serves as a bridge to facilitate the pace and direction of research that ultimately impacts health. Globally, there are remarkable similarities in challenges in this career path, and in the approaches employed to overcome them. Herein, we review how different countries train physician-scientists and suggest strategies to further bolster this career path.


Subject(s)
Biomedical Research , Physicians , Biomedical Research/education , Career Choice , Humans
20.
J Telemed Telecare ; : 1357633X221125836, 2022 Oct 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053543

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a dramatic increase in telemedicine care delivery. This raises the question of whether the visit type affects the care provided to patients in the pediatric gastroenterology clinic. The aim of this study is to assess whether diagnostic, treatment, and outcome measures differ between telemedicine and in-person visits in patients seen in pediatric gastroenterology clinics for the chief complaint of abdominal pain. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective analysis of patients aged 0-22 who underwent their initial pediatric gastroenterology clinic visit, for abdominal pain, between March and September 2020 (n = 1769). The patients were divided into two groups: in-person or telemedicine. Clinical outcome measures were compared from the initial gastroenterology visit and followed for a total of 3 months. RESULTS: There was an increase number of images (M = 0.52 vs. 0.36, p < 0.001), labs (M = 4.87 vs. 4.05; p = 0.001), medications (M = 2.24 vs. 1.67; p < 0.001), and referrals (M = 0.70 vs. 0.54; p < 0.001) performed per visit in the in-person group. Electronic communications (3.97 vs. 5.12 p <0.003) was less frequent after in-person visits. There was no difference in number of procedures (M = 0.128 vs. 0.122, p = 0.718), emergency room visits (M = 0.037 vs. 0.017 p = 0.61), follow-up visits (M = 1.21 vs. 1.21 p = 0.922), or telephone encounters (M = 1.21 vs. 1.12 p = 0.35) between the two groups. CONCLUSION: Telemedicine utilizes less resources while having comparable outcome measurements in children with a chief complaint of abdominal pain.

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