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1.
Frontiers in Psychology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2199242

ABSTRACT

Daily driving is a multi-faceted, real-world, behavioral measure of cognitive functioning requiring multiple cognitive domains working synergistically to complete this instrumental activity of daily living. As the global population of older adult continues to grow, motor vehicle crashes become more frequent among this demographic. Cognitive reserve (CR) is the brain's adaptability or functional robustness despite damage, while brain reserve (BR) refers the structural, neuroanatomical resources. This study examined whether CR and BR predicted changes in adverse driving behaviors in cognitively normal older adults. Cognitively normal older adults (Clinical Dementia Rating 0) were enrolled from longitudinal studies at the Knight Alzheimer's Disease Research Center at Washington University. Participants (n = 186) were >= 65 years of age, required to have Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data, neuropsychological testing data, and at least one full year of naturalistic driving data prior to the beginning of COVID-19 lockdown in the United States (March 2020) as measured by Driving Real World In-vehicle Evaluation System (DRIVES). Findings suggest numerous changes in driving behaviors over time were predicted by increased hippocampal and whole brain atrophy, as well as lower CR scores as proxied by the Wide Range Achievement Test 4. These changes indicate that those with lower BR and CR are more likely to reduce their driving exposure and limit trips as they age and may be more likely to avoid highways where speeding and aggressive maneuvers frequently occur.

2.
Public Health Reports ; : 333549221143093, 2023.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2194746

ABSTRACT

Vaccination is one of the most effective strategies to control the spread of COVID-19 and reduce morbidity and mortality;however, rapid and equitable vaccine distribution is required to achieve such outcomes. We conducted a basic interrupted time-series analysis to examine the short-term impacts of a citywide vaccine equity plan, the Protect Chicago Plus (PCP) plan. We compared vaccine coverage in zip codes in Chicago with high COVID-19 vulnerability, as identified from the Chicago COVID-19 Community Vulnerability Index, with coverage in all other zip codes in Chicago. From our analysis, we observed that implementation of PCP coincided with reduced vaccination disparities between Chicago communities with low and high vulnerability indexes over time. In our analysis of vaccination coverage before program implementation, vaccination coverage climbed nearly twice as fast among non-PCP zip codes (0.19% per day) than among PCP zip codes (0.10% per day) or by 0.09 percentage points (P < .001). In model analysis after program implementation, zip codes prioritized for the program had 0.42% additional coverage per day as compared with 0.27% per day for non-PCP zip codes. Our findings suggest that such programs may improve vaccine equity, but additional research is needed to better understand the longer-term effects of citywide vaccination strategies on vaccine uptake.

3.
The Art of Becoming Indispensable: What School Social Workers Need to Know in Their First Three Years of Practice ; : 85-93, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2190107

ABSTRACT

This chapter discusses the interconnectedness between education policy and practice and provides an overview of historical and emerging policies vital to school social work practice. The chapter covers milestones such the Brown v. Board of Education case, the Elementary and Secondary Education Act, the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, Title VI of the Civil Rights Act, Title XI of the Education Amendments Act of 1972, the Child Abuse Prevention and Treatment Act, and the McKinney–Vento Homeless Assistance Act of 1987. New and emerging policies, including gender and LGBTQ+ rights, social-emotional learning standards, mental health supports, and restorative discipline are explored. Finally, given the elevation of virtual schooling during the COVID-19 pandemic, the chapter highlights emerging policies around technology, privacy, and confidentiality. © Oxford University Press 2022. All rights reserved.

4.
Annals of Tourism Research ; 97(99), 2022.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-2176197

ABSTRACT

Solidarity tourism provides tourists with the opportunity to help others who are suffering during crisis by offering shared resources and a sense of community. Although solidarity in times of crisis promises attention to tourists' desires and wellbeing, there is limited evidence of this. This paper aims to understand how solidarity occurs in times of crisis by applying value co-creation. A total of 21,719 traveller posts were thematically analysed to reveal that solidarity can be achieved in various contexts through tourists' co-created care practices, which have emotional and cognitive value. Practices include co-producing, connecting, co-advocating, co-suffering and consuming collaboratively. This paper conceptualises and illustrates solidarity as a relational practice, which is an effective means of support during crises.

6.
Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS ; 14:14, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2161268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Diagnoses of HIV in the US decreased by 17% in 2020 due to COVID-related disruptions. The extent to which this decrease is attributable to changes in HIV testing versus HIV transmission is unclear. We seek to better understand this issue by analyzing the discrepancy in expected versus observed HIV diagnoses in 2020 among persons who acquired HIV between 2010-2019, as changes in diagnosis patterns in this cohort cannot be attributed to changes in transmission.

7.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg ; 2022.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-2155661

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has resulted in a global pandemic with several hundred million infections worldwide. COVID-19 causes systemic complications that last beyond the initial infection. It is not known whether patients who undergo elective orthopaedic surgeries after COVID-19 are at increased risk of complications. The purpose of this study was to evaluate whether patients who undergo orthopaedic procedures after recent COVID-19 diagnosis are at increased risk of complications compared with those who have not had a recent COVID-19 diagnosis. METHODS: The TriNetX Research Network database was queried for patients undergoing elective orthopaedic surgeries from April 2020 to January 2022 in the following subspecialties: arthroscopic surgery, total joint arthroplasty, lumbar fusion, upper extremity surgery, foot and ankle (FA) surgery. Cohorts were defined by patients undergoing surgery with a diagnosis of COVID-19 from 7 to 90 days before surgery and those with no COVID-19 diagnosis 0 to 90 days before surgery. These cohorts were propensity-score matched based on differences in demographics and comorbidities. The matched cohorts were evaluated using measures of association analysis for complications, emergency department (ER) visits, and readmissions occurring 90 days postoperatively. RESULTS: Patients undergoing arthroscopic surgery were more likely to experience venous thromboembolism (VTE) (P = 0.006), myocardial infarction (P = 0.001), and ER visits (P = 0.001). Patients undergoing total joint arthroplasty were more likely to experience VTE (P < 0.001), myocardial infarction (P < 0.001), pneumonia (P< 0.001), and ER visits (P = 0.037). Patients undergoing lumbar fusion were more likely to experience VTE (P = 0.016), infection (P < 0.001), pneumonia (P < 0.001), and readmission (P = 0.006). Patients undergoing upper extremity surgery were more likely to experience VTE (P = 0.001) and pneumonia (P = 0.015). Patients undergoing foot and ankle surgery were more likely to experience VTE (P < 0.001) and pneumonia (P < 0.001). CONCLUSION: There is an increased risk of complications in patients undergoing orthopaedic surgery after COVID-19 infection;all cohorts were at increased risk of VTE and most at increased risk of pneumonia. Additional investigation is needed to stratify the risk for individual patients.

8.
Health Education Research ; 01:01, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2151990

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to identify barriers and facilitators to comprehensive, school-based physical activity (PA) promotion among adolescents prior to and during the coronavirus disease of 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, considering the perspectives of students, parents, and school staff. Data were collected from 2020 to 2021 using semi-structured individual interviews with students (n = 15), parents (n = 20), and school staff (n = 8) at a Title I middle school (i.e. high percentage of students from low-income families). Two theoretical frameworks guided analysis: the Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program framework and Bronfenbrenner's ecological systems theory. Using an iteratively developed codebook, data were coded, thematically analyzed, and synthesized. PA barriers and facilitators were present throughout the school day, at home, and in the community. Key determinants included pandemic-induced challenges (e.g. COVID-19 exposure);neighborhood characteristics/weather (e.g. neighborhood safety);school-family communication/collaboration;implementation climate (i.e. school staff's support for programming);time, spatial, and monetary resources (e.g. funding);staffing capacity/continuity and school champions;staffing creativity and adaptability;PA opportunities before, during, and after school;and child's motivation/engagement. Efforts to improve school-based PA programs, irrespective of pandemic conditions, should include strategies that address factors at the community, school, family and individual levels. School-family communication/collaboration, school staff programming support, and PA opportunities throughout the day can help promote comprehensive, school-based PA.

10.
Journal for Advancement of Marketing Education ; 30(1):40-48, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2125927

ABSTRACT

Purpose of the Study: Given the social restrictions surrounding COVID-19, the virtual career fair (VCF) has replaced most traditional in-person career fairs and it may even continue as a viable post-pandemic alternative. This research primarily explores best practices for a VCF and furthermore investigates factors that impact satisfaction of student VCF participants. Method/Design and Sample: Survey data collected from students participating in a virtual career fair investigate the role of students’ preparation time, student perception of employer preparedness and the number of private, one-on-one text and video chat invites students receive in impacting student satisfaction. Results: Findings from a regression analysis reveal that student’s own preparation time and their perception of employer preparedness influenced student satisfaction with the VCF. Additionally, qualitative feedback from both students and employers support the use of best practices. Value to Marketing Educators: Involved faculty and university administrators can adopt the recommended best practices as a framework for planning, conducting, and evaluating successful VCFs. Both universities and employers will benefit as a result. © 2022, Marketing Management Association. All rights reserved.

11.
Economic Modelling ; 119:106120, 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2122426

ABSTRACT

The rising concerns about climate change and environmental degradation have urged various stakeholder to focus on sustainable investments that are facing a drag from the Covid-19 pandemic. Since environmental and Covid-19 challenges are global, it is critical to assess the interlinkages of sustainable investments. In this research, we employ the dependence, centrality, and dynamic network approach to examine the interdependence and its determinants across multiple countries between January 2009 and March 2021. The findings indicate France as the lead risk transmitter while Japan and Taiwan show risk reception among international markets. We observe an increase in dependence during economic turmoil notably in Covid-19 episode. The centrality network revealed the prominent significance of sustainable investments in the European countries that can be attributed to their exceptional efforts to combat the climate change. Finally, our results suggest that the volatility in gold prices is the key driver of interdependence of sustainable investments.

12.
Journal of the Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry ; 63:S29-S30, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2105194
13.
Journal of the Academy of Consultation-Liaison Psychiatry ; 63:S29-S29, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2105193
14.
Cardiovascular Disease in Racial and Ethnic Minority Populations, 2 Edition ; : 1-11, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2102083
15.
Surg Open Sci ; 10: 168-173, 2022 Oct.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2061888

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented health care challenges mandating surgical service reconfiguration. Within our hospital, emergency and elective streams were separated and self-contained Protected Elective Surgical Units were developed to mitigate against infection-related morbidity. Aims of this study were to determine the risk of COVID-19 transmission and mortality and whether the development of Protected Elective Surgical Units can result in significant reduction in risk. Methods: A retrospective observational study of consecutive patients from 18 specialties undergoing elective or emergency surgery under general, spinal, or epidural anaesthetic over a 12-month study period was undertaken. Primary outcome measures were 30-day postoperative COVID-19 transmission rate and mortality. Secondary adjusted analyses were performed to ascertain hospital and Protected Elective Surgical Unit transmission rates. Results: Between 15 March 2020 and 14 March 2021, 9,925 patients underwent surgery: 6,464 (65.1%) elective, 5,116 (51.5%) female, and median age 57 (39-70). A total of 69.5% of all procedures were performed in Protected Elective Surgical Units. Overall, 30-day postoperative COVID-19 transmission was 2.8% (3.4% emergency vs 1.2% elective P < .001). Protected Elective Surgical Unit postoperative transmission was significantly lower than non-Protected Elective Surgical Unit (0.42% vs 3.2% P < .001), with an adjusted likely in-hospital Protected Elective Surgical Unit transmission of 0.04%. The 30-day all-cause mortality was 1.7% and was 14.6% in COVID-19-positive patients. COVID-19 infection, age > 70, male sex, American Society of Anesthesiologists grade > 2, and emergency surgery were all independently associated with mortality. Conclusion: This study has demonstrated that Protected Elective Surgical Units can facilitate high-volume elective surgical services throughout peaks of the COVID-19 pandemic while minimising viral transmission and mortality. However, mortality risk associated with perioperative COVID-19 infection remains high.

16.
Surgery open science ; 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2046206

ABSTRACT

Background The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented healthcare challenges mandating surgical service reconfiguration. Within our hospital, emergency and elective streams were separated and self-contained Protected Elective Surgical Units (PESU) were developed to mitigate against infection related morbidity. Aims of this study were to determine the risk of COVID-19 transmission and mortality and whether the development of PESUs can result in significant reduction in risk. Methods A retrospective observational study of consecutive patients from 18 specialties, undergoing elective or emergency surgery under general, spinal or epidural anaesthetic over a 12-month study period was undertaken. Primary outcome measures were 30-day post-operative COVID-19 transmission rate and mortality. Secondary adjusted analyses were performed to ascertain hospital and PESU transmission rates. Results Between 15th March 2020 and 14th March 2021, 9,925 patients underwent surgery, 6,464 (65.1%) elective, 5,116 (51.5%) female and median age 57 (39–70). 69.5% of all procedures were performed in PESUs. Overall, 30-day post-operative COVID-19 transmission was 2.8% (3.4% emergency vs 1.2% elective p < 0.001). PESU post-operative transmission was significantly lower than non-PESU (0.42% vs 3.2% p < 0.001), with an adjusted likely in-hospital PESU transmission of 0.04%. The 30-day all-cause mortality was 1.7%, and 14.6% in COVID-19 positive patients. COVID-19 infection, age > 70, male gender, ASA > 2 and emergency surgery were all independently associated with mortality. Conclusion This study has demonstrated that PESUs can facilitate high volume elective surgical services throughout peaks of the COVID-19 pandemic whilst minimising viral transmission and mortality. However, mortality risk associated with perioperative COVID-19 infection remains high.

17.
Annals of Emergency Medicine ; 78(4 Suppl):S123-S124, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-2035735

ABSTRACT

Background: Fluid boluses are amongst the strongest recommendations for the management of septic patients, and they are generally administered with the goal increasing cardiac output and improving tissue perfusion. Early identification of volume responsiveness is challenging and dependent on many patient factors, but it may prevent the harmful consequences of hypervolemia. Left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) velocity time integral (VTI) has been used as a predictor of volume responsiveness. Study Objectives: The purpose of this study was to determine whether lack of volume responsiveness, defined as =15% change in LVOT VTI, is associated with increased risk of mortality, admission to an intensive care unit (ICU), or rapid response team activation within 24 hours of hospital arrival (composite outcome measure). We hypothesize that septic patients who are not volume responders will be more critically ill and therefore at greater risk of experiencing the composite outcome.

18.
Journal of Clinical Oncology ; 40(16), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2009632

ABSTRACT

Background: Immunotherapy is becoming a common therapy in cancer patients. Cancer patients on systemic therapy are a vulnerable population, making them highly susceptible to illness from any infection. The purpose of this study was to collect and analyze data reported by patients regarding the side effects of COVID-19 vaccines (Pfizer-BioNTech and Moderna) in cancer patients with solid tumors receiving immunotherapy. Due to the lack of studies and inclusion of cancer patients in the clinical trials for the vaccine, it is pivotal to investigate of the effects of the SARS-2-CoV vaccine on patients receiving immunotherapy to begin to bridge the current gap in knowledge. Methods: We performed a twophased retrospective analysis of adult patients (age ≥18 years) who received either Moderna or Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccinations and were currently on immunotherapy (December 15th, 2020, through July 31st, 2021). Phase 1 included a tertiary health system (n = 15,910) in Northeast Georgia. Phase 2 involved cross-tabulation with the VAERS CDC database to compare results at a national level (n = 374,667). The primary endpoints were severity of side effects, timing of side effects and the relationship between the vaccines. The method to evaluate outcome was the Pearson-Chi-Squared test. Results: Results showed that patients on immunotherapy were more likely to have at least one side effect in the tertiary health system (OR 6.727 [95% CI, 2.748 -16.465] compared to least two side effects in the national dataset (X2 = 7.032, p < 0.05). This difference was driven by the Moderna vaccine recipients, demonstrating a higher likelihood of experiencing two or more side effects (X2 = 6.159, p < 0.05). Those receiving the Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine did not demonstrate statistically significant side effects. The most common reaction noted was weakness in both datasets, which was more likely to occur after the Moderna vaccine. Gender analysis showed no difference in side effects in those receiving immunotherapy. In terms of timing of side effects, patients on immunotherapy (M = 10.66, SD = 25.1) had a delayed side effect onset of 10 days vs. four days. (M = 4.72, SD = 15.5, p < 0.05). Conclusions: Both local and national datasets demonstrate cancer patients receiving immunotherapy compared to those that were on immunotherapy, were more likely to experience mild vaccine side effects, specifically weakness being the most common. There was no statistically significant increase in more serious adverse reactions. Additionally, side effect onset was delayed in patients on immunotherapy. These findings provide a foundation for understanding mRNA vaccines in patients on immunotherapy, with future research needs involving larger sample sizes.

19.
Pediatrics ; 149, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-2003190

ABSTRACT

Background: The COVID-19 pandemic presented novel barriers to physical activity engagement for children and their families. Identifying what resources parents and children are interested in receiving can support efforts to mitigate the negative impact of the pandemic on youth physical activity behavior. This study aimed to identify physical activity-related information needs during the COVID-19 pandemic among a nationally representative sample of parents of children ages 6-10 and parent-child dyads of children ages 11-17. Methods: A crosssectional survey was conducted by a market research company (YouGov) in October-November 2020. Weighted percentages and corresponding 95% confidence intervals were calculated for information needs around physical activity, overall and by parent and child demographics. Parents were asked about their interest in information about helping their family be physically active during the pandemic, and children were asked about their own interest in information about being physically active. Results: Final analytic sample was 1000 parents (55.4% female;74.7% White;74.0% non-Hispanic);500 children ages 11-17 (52.1% male;77.6% White;77.4% non-Hispanic). Over 40% of parents and children were interested in information about being active during the pandemic [41.9% (95% CI: 38.9%-45.5%) and 41.5% (95% CI: 36.5%-46.7%), respectively]. Parents were more likely to be interested in information if they worked from home compared to outside the home [53.3% (95% CI: 43.3%-63.0%) versus 22.0% (95% CI: 14.9%-31.3%), respectively];had children attending school remotely compared to in-person [47.3% (95% CI: 40.2%-54.5%) versus 27.5% (95% CI: 19.6%-37.1%), respectively];and lived in a big city (66.5%;95% CI: 54.5%-76.7%) compared to a suburban area (42.5%;95% CI: 34.2%-51.2%), small town (34.6%;95% CI: 22.8%-48.8%), or rural area (34.1%;95% CI: 22.8%-47.6%). Children most interested were those who did not have resources for online activity engagement (65.3%;95% CI: 51.8%-76.7%), and those worried about their safety (55.2%;95% CI: 44.4%-65.6%) or getting infected with COVID-19 (57.8%;95% CI: 49.5%-65.6%). Children were also more likely to be interested in information if their parents worked full-time compared to not working [48.6% (95% CI: 41.7%-55.6%) versus 31.5% (95% CI:24.1%-39.9%), respectively], and lived in big city compared to a rural area [57.2% (95% CI: 45.3%-68.3%) versus 27.8% (95% CI: 17.8%-40.7%)]. Conclusion: Families most interested in physical activity-related resources were those whose organized activity opportunities may have been disrupted by the pandemic. Identifying felt needs is an important step in developing tailored interventions that effectively and sustainably support families in promoting activity among youth. Behavioral interventions oriented around increasing youth physical activity should provide guidance that resonates with families and accounts for setting-specific constraints and stressors.

20.
27th ACM Conference on Innovation and Technology in Computer Science Education, ITiCSE 2022 ; 1:235-240, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1962404

ABSTRACT

Pair programming is an active learning technique with several benefits to students, including increasing participation and improving outcomes, particularly for female computer science students. However, most of the literature highlights the effects of pair programming in introductory courses, where students have different prior programming experience and thus may experience group issues. This work analyzes the effect of pair programming in an upper-level computer science course, where students have a more consistent background education, particularly in languages learned and coding best practices. Secondly, the effect of remote pair programming on student outcomes is still an open question of increasing importance with the advent of Covid-19. This work utilized split sections with a control and treatment group in a large, public university. In addition to comparing pair programming to individual programming, results were analyzed by modality (remote vs. in person) and by gender, focusing on how pair programming benefits female computer science students in confidence, persistence in the major, and outcomes. We found that pair programming groups scored higher on assignments and exams, that remote pair programming groups performed as well as in person groups, and that female students increased their confidence in asking questions in class and scored 12% higher in the course when utilizing pair programming. © 2022 ACM.

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