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1.
Front Pharmacol ; 12: 743582, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1822394

ABSTRACT

The development of immune checkpoint inhibitors (ICIs) has revolutionized cancer treatment, with agents such as nivolumab, pembrolizumab, and cemiplimab targeting programmed cell death protein-1 (PD-1) and durvalumab, avelumab, and atezolizumab targeting PD-ligand 1 (PD-L1). Ipilimumab targets cytotoxic T lymphocyte-associated antigen-4 (CTLA-4). These inhibitors have shown remarkable efficacy in melanoma, lung cancer, urothelial cancer, and a variety of solid tumors, either as single agents or in combination with other anticancer modalities. Additional indications are continuing to evolve. Checkpoint inhibitors are associated with less toxicity when compared to chemotherapy. These agents enhance the antitumor immune response and produce side- effects known as immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Although the incidence of immune checkpoint inhibitor pneumonitis (ICI-Pneumonitis) is relatively low, this complication is likely to cause the delay or cessation of immunotherapy and, in severe cases, may be associated with treatment-related mortality. The primary mechanism of ICI-Pneumonitis remains unclear, but it is believed to be associated with the immune dysregulation caused by ICIs. The development of irAEs may be related to increased T cell activity against cross-antigens expressed in tumor and normal tissues. Treatment with ICIs is associated with an increased number of activated alveolar T cells and reduced activity of the anti-inflammatory Treg phenotype, leading to dysregulation of T cell activity. This review discusses the pathogenesis of alveolar pneumonitis and the incidence, diagnosis, and clinical management of pulmonary toxicity, as well as the pulmonary complications of ICIs, either as monotherapy or in combination with other anticancer modalities, such as thoracic radiotherapy.

2.
World J Surg ; 2022 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1777717

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Hospital acquired infections are common, costly, and potentially preventable adverse events. This study aimed to determine the effect of the COVID-19 pandemic-related escalation in infection prevention and control measures on the incidence of hospital acquired infection in surgical patients in a low COVID-19 environment in Australia. METHOD: This was a retrospective cohort study in a tertiary institution. All patients undergoing a surgical procedure from 1 April 2020 to 30 June 2020 (COVID-19 pandemic period) were compared to patients pre-pandemic (1 April 2019-30 June 2019). The primary outcome investigated was odds of overall hospital acquired infection. The secondary outcome was patterns of involved microorganisms. Univariable and multivariable logistic regression analysis was performed to assess odds of hospital acquired infection. RESULTS: There were 5945 admission episodes included in this study, 224 (6.6%) episodes had hospital acquired infections in 2019 and 179 (7.1%) in 2020. Univariable logistic regression analysis demonstrated no evidence of change in odds of having a hospital acquired infection between cohorts (OR 1.08, 95% CI 0.88-1.33, P = 0.434). The multivariable regression analysis adjusting for potentially confounding co-variables also demonstrated no evidence of change in odds of hospital acquired infection (OR 0.93, 95% CI 0.74-1.16, P = 0.530). CONCLUSION: Increased infection prevention and control measures did not affect the incidence of hospital acquired infection in surgical patients in our institution, suggesting that there may be a plateau effect with these measures in a system with a pre-existing high baseline of practice.

3.
Cancer Discov ; 12(2): 303-330, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1685769

ABSTRACT

The ongoing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has left patients with current or past history of cancer facing disparate consequences at every stage of the cancer trajectory. This comprehensive review offers a landscape analysis of the current state of the literature on COVID-19 and cancer, including the immune response to COVID-19, risk factors for severe disease, and impact of anticancer therapies. We also review the latest data on treatment of COVID-19 and vaccination safety and efficacy in patients with cancer, as well as the impact of the pandemic on cancer care, including the urgent need for rapid evidence generation and real-world study designs. SIGNIFICANCE: Patients with cancer have faced severe consequences at every stage of the cancer journey due to the COVID-19 pandemic. This comprehensive review offers a landscape analysis of the current state of the field regarding COVID-19 and cancer. We cover the immune response, risk factors for severe disease, and implications for vaccination in patients with cancer, as well as the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer care delivery. Overall, this review provides an in-depth summary of the key issues facing patients with cancer during this unprecedented health crisis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/complications , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Humans , Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics
4.
J Occup Environ Med ; 2022 Feb 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1672352

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: This study investigated severity, prevalence, and predictors of workplace disruption and mental health symptoms in Australian junior and senior hospital medical staff during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional survey collected data on demographics, workplace disruption, personal relationships, and mental health. RESULTS: One thousand twenty-one (62.1%) senior and 745 (37.9%) junior medical staff, located primarily in Victoria, completed the survey. Work disruptions were common but varied by seniority, with junior staff more frequently exposed to COVID-19 (P < 0.001). Symptoms of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder and burnout were common but significantly higher in junior doctors (P = 0.011 to <0.001). Common predictors for experiencing mental health symptoms were identified, including prior mental health diagnoses and worsening personal relationships. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 has had significant but varied impacts on junior and senior doctors, with junior doctors particularly susceptible to harm to mental health. Interventions to safeguard hospital medical staff and prevent attrition of this important workforce are urgently needed.

5.
Intern Med J ; 2022 Jan 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1642673

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has affected different parts of Australia in distinct ways across 2020 and 2021. In 2020, Melbourne was the epicentre of COVID-19. As one of the key tertiary centres caring for the patients affected by the outbreaks, the Royal Melbourne Hospital managed the majority of the Victorian inpatient caseload. AIMS: to review the demographics, management and outcomes of patients with COVID-19 cared for by the Royal Melbourne Hospital services in 2020 Methods - A single health service retrospective cohort analysis of demographics, interventions and outcomes was conducted to characterise the RMH experience in 2020 RESULTS: From January to December 2020, 433 patients required more than 24hours' admission. The demographics of affected patients and outcomes changed over the course of the study. Overall, 47% required oxygen (203/433), most frequently with low flow devices (nasal prongs or hudson mask) (36%, 154/433) and 11% (47/433) of patients required admission to intensive care. We recorded a 30-day mortality of 24% (104/433) mortality overall, rising to over 50% in patients aged over 80. CONCLUSIONS: The experience of this health service in 2020 demonstrated changing demographics over time, with associated differences in outcomes; notably marked mortality in older populations, frequent complications and limited inter-site transfer possible with mobilized resources. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

6.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 18(24)2021 12 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, hospital medical staff (HMS) have faced significant personal, workplace, and financial disruption. Many have experienced psychosocial burden, exceeding already concerning baseline levels. This study examines the types and predictors of coping strategies and help-seeking behaviours utilised by Australian junior and senior HMS during the first year of the pandemic. METHODS: A cross-sectional online survey of Australian frontline healthcare workers was conducted between 27 August and 23 October 2020. Data collected included demographics, personal and workplace disruptions, self-reported and validated mental health symptoms, coping strategies, and help-seeking. RESULTS: The 9518 participants included 1966 hospital medical staff (62.1% senior, 37.9% junior). Both groups experienced a high burden of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and burnout. Coping strategies varied by seniority, with maintaining exercise the most common strategy for both groups. Adverse mental health was associated with increased alcohol consumption. Engagement with professional support, although more frequent among junior staff, was uncommon in both groups. CONCLUSIONS: Junior and senior staff utilised different coping and help-seeking behaviours. Despite recognition of symptoms, very few HMS engaged formal support. The varied predictors of coping and help-seeking identified may inform targeted interventions to support these cohorts in current and future crises.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Help-Seeking Behavior , Adaptation, Psychological , Australia/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
7.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292208

ABSTRACT

Background: Throughout the COVID-19 pandemic, hospital medical staff (HMS) have faced significant personal, workplace, and financial disruption. Many have experienced psychosocial burden, exceeding already concerning baseline levels. This study examines the types and predictors of coping strategies and help-seeking behaviours utilised by Australian junior and senior HMS during the first year of the pandemic. Methods: A cross-sectional online survey of Australian frontline healthcare workers was conducted between 27th August and 23rd October 2020. Data collected included demographics, personal and workplace disruptions, self-reported and validated mental health symptoms, coping strategies, and help-seeking. Results: The 9518 participants included 1966 hospital medical staff (62.1% senior, 37.9% junior). Both groups experienced a high burden of anxiety, depression, post-traumatic stress disorder, and burnout. Coping strategies varied by seniority, with maintaining exercise the most common strategy for both groups. Adverse mental health was associated with increased alcohol consumption. Engagement with professional support, although more frequent among junior staff, was uncommon in both groups. Conclusions: Junior and senior staff utilised different coping and help-seeking behaviours. Despite recognition of symptoms, very few HMS engaged formal support. The varied predictors of coping and help-seeking identified may inform targeted interventions to support these cohorts in current and future crises.

8.
Life (Basel) ; 11(11)2021 Oct 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1480849

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Photobiomodulation therapy, alone (PBMT) or combined with a static magnetic field (PBMT-sMF), has been demonstrated to be effective in the regeneration of tissues, modulation of inflammatory processes, and improvement in functional capacity. However, the effects of PBMT-sMF on the pulmonary system and COVID-19 patients remain scarce. Therefore, in this case report, we demonstrated the use of PBMT-sMF for peripheral oxygen saturation, pulmonary function, massive lung damage, and fibrosis as a pulmonary complication after COVID-19. CASE REPORT: A 53-year-old Mexican man who presented with decreased peripheral oxygen saturation, massive lung damage, and fibrosis after COVID-19 received PBMT-sMF treatment once a day for 45 days. The treatment was irradiated at six sites in the lower thorax and upper abdominal cavity and two sites in the neck area. We observed that the patient was able to leave the oxygen support during the treatment, and increase his peripheral oxygen saturation. In addition, the patient showed improvements in pulmonary severity scores and radiological findings. Finally, the patient presented with normal respiratory mechanics parameters in the medium-term, indicating total pulmonary recovery. CONCLUSIONS: The use of PBMT-sMF may potentially lead to safe treatment of and recovery from pulmonary complications after COVID-19, with regard to the structural and functional aspects.

10.
Gen Psychiatr ; 34(5): e100577, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1405225

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has had a profound and prolonged impact on healthcare services and healthcare workers. AIMS: The Australian COVID-19 Frontline Healthcare Workers Study aimed to investigate the severity and prevalence of mental health issues, as well as the social, workplace and financial disruptions experienced by Australian healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A nationwide, voluntary, anonymous, single timepoint, online survey was conducted between 27 August and 23 October 2020. Individuals self-identifying as frontline healthcare workers in secondary or primary care were invited to participate. Participants were recruited through health organisations, professional associations or colleges, universities, government contacts and national media. Demographics, home and work situation, health and psychological well-being data were collected. RESULTS: A total of 9518 survey responses were received; of the 9518 participants, 7846 (82.4%) participants reported complete data. With regard to age, 4110 (52.4%) participants were younger than 40 years; 6344 (80.9%) participants were women. Participants were nurses (n=3088, 39.4%), doctors (n=2436, 31.1%), allied health staff (n=1314, 16.7%) or in other roles (n=523, 6.7%). In addition, 1250 (15.9%) participants worked in primary care. Objectively measured mental health symptoms were common: mild to severe anxiety (n=4694, 59.8%), moderate to severe burnout (n=5458, 70.9%) and mild to severe depression (n=4495, 57.3%). Participants were highly resilient (mean (SD)=3.2 (0.66)). Predictors for worse outcomes on all scales included female gender; younger age; pre-existing psychiatric condition; experiencing relationship problems; nursing, allied health or other roles; frontline area; being worried about being blamed by colleagues and working with patients with COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The COVID-19 pandemic is associated with significant mental health symptoms in frontline healthcare workers. Crisis preparedness together with policies and practices addressing psychological well-being are needed.

11.
Gen Hosp Psychiatry ; 72: 124-130, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1364025

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Australian COVID-19 Frontline Healthcare Workers Study investigated coping strategies and help-seeking behaviours, and their relationship to mental health symptoms experienced by Australian healthcare workers (HCWs) during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: Australian HCWs were invited to participate a nationwide, voluntary, anonymous, single time-point, online survey between 27th August and 23rd October 2020. Complete responses on demographics, home and work situation, and measures of health and psychological wellbeing were received from 7846 participants. RESULTS: The most commonly reported adaptive coping strategies were maintaining exercise (44.9%) and social connections (31.7%). Over a quarter of HCWs (26.3%) reported increased alcohol use which was associated with a history of poor mental health and worse personal relationships. Few used psychological wellbeing apps or sought professional help; those who did were more likely to be suffering from moderate to severe symptoms of mental illness. People living in Victoria, in regional areas, and those with children at home were significantly less likely to report adaptive coping strategies. CONCLUSIONS: Personal, social, and workplace predictors of coping strategies and help-seeking behaviour during the pandemic were identified. Use of maladaptive coping strategies and low rates of professional help-seeking indicate an urgent need to understand the effectiveness of, and the barriers and enablers of accessing, different coping strategies.


Subject(s)
Adaptation, Psychological , COVID-19 , Health Personnel , Pandemics , Psychological Distress , Adult , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Health Personnel/psychology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Help-Seeking Behavior , Humans , Male , Mental Disorders/epidemiology , Middle Aged , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
GastroHep ; 3(4): 212-228, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1333040

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The current COVID-19 pandemic, caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has drastically impacted societies worldwide. Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is expected to play a key role in the management of this pandemic. Inflammatory conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often require chronic immunosuppression, which can influence vaccination decisions. AIM: This review article aims to describe the most commonly available SARS-CoV-2 vaccination vectors globally, assess the potential benefits and concerns of vaccination in the setting of immunosuppression and provide medical practitioners with guidance regarding SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in patients with IBD. METHODS: All published Phase 1/2 and/or Phase 3 and 4 studies of SARS-CoV-2 vaccinations were reviewed. IBD international society position papers, safety registry data and media releases from pharmaceutical companies as well as administrative and medicines regulatory bodies were included. General vaccine evidence and recommendations in immunosuppressed patients were reviewed for context. Society position papers regarding special populations, including immunosuppressed, pregnant and breast-feeding individuals were also evaluated. Literature was critically analysed and summarised. RESULTS: Vaccination against SARS-CoV-2 is supported in all adult, non-pregnant individuals with IBD without contraindication. There is the potential that vaccine efficacy may be reduced in those who are immunosuppressed; however, medical therapies should not be withheld in order to undertake vaccination. SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are safe, but data specific to immunosuppressed patients remain limited. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 vaccination is essential from both an individual patient and community perspective and should be encouraged in patients with IBD. Recommendations must be continually updated as real-world and trial-based evidence emerges.

15.
J Immunother Cancer ; 9(7)2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1318086

ABSTRACT

Expanding the US Food and Drug Administration-approved indications for immune checkpoint inhibitors in patients with cancer has resulted in therapeutic success and immune-related adverse events (irAEs). Neurologic irAEs (irAE-Ns) have an incidence of 1%-12% and a high fatality rate relative to other irAEs. Lack of standardized disease definitions and accurate phenotyping leads to syndrome misclassification and impedes development of evidence-based treatments and translational research. The objective of this study was to develop consensus guidance for an approach to irAE-Ns including disease definitions and severity grading. A working group of four neurologists drafted irAE-N consensus guidance and definitions, which were reviewed by the multidisciplinary Neuro irAE Disease Definition Panel including oncologists and irAE experts. A modified Delphi consensus process was used, with two rounds of anonymous ratings by panelists and two meetings to discuss areas of controversy. Panelists rated content for usability, appropriateness and accuracy on 9-point scales in electronic surveys and provided free text comments. Aggregated survey responses were incorporated into revised definitions. Consensus was based on numeric ratings using the RAND/University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) Appropriateness Method with prespecified definitions. 27 panelists from 15 academic medical centers voted on a total of 53 rating scales (6 general guidance, 24 central and 18 peripheral nervous system disease definition components, 3 severity criteria and 2 clinical trial adjudication statements); of these, 77% (41/53) received first round consensus. After revisions, all items received second round consensus. Consensus definitions were achieved for seven core disorders: irMeningitis, irEncephalitis, irDemyelinating disease, irVasculitis, irNeuropathy, irNeuromuscular junction disorders and irMyopathy. For each disorder, six descriptors of diagnostic components are used: disease subtype, diagnostic certainty, severity, autoantibody association, exacerbation of pre-existing disease or de novo presentation, and presence or absence of concurrent irAE(s). These disease definitions standardize irAE-N classification. Diagnostic certainty is not always directly linked to certainty to treat as an irAE-N (ie, one might treat events in the probable or possible category). Given consensus on accuracy and usability from a representative panel group, we anticipate that the definitions will be used broadly across clinical and research settings.


Subject(s)
Drug-Related Side Effects and Adverse Reactions/diagnosis , Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors/adverse effects , Immunotherapy/adverse effects , Nervous System Diseases/diagnosis , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Consensus , Humans , Nervous System Diseases/chemically induced , Nervous System Diseases/immunology , Neurologists/statistics & numerical data , Oncologists/statistics & numerical data , Patient Care Team/organization & administration , Patient Care Team/statistics & numerical data
17.
BMJ Open ; 11(6): e045975, 2021 06 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282097

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The threat of a pandemic, over and above the disease itself, may have significant and broad effects on a healthcare system. We aimed to describe the impact of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic (during a relatively low transmission period) and associated societal restrictions on presentations, admissions and outpatient visits. DESIGN: We compared hospital activity in 2020 with the preceding 5 years, 2015-2019, using a retrospective cohort study design. SETTING: Quaternary hospital in Melbourne, Australia. PARTICIPANTS: Emergency department presentations, hospital admissions and outpatient visits from 1 January 2015 to 30 June 2020, n=896 934 episodes of care. INTERVENTION: In Australia, the initial peak COVID-19 phase was March-April. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Separate linear regression models were fitted to estimate the impact of the pandemic on the number, type and severity of emergency presentations, hospital admissions and outpatient visits. RESULTS: During the peak COVID-19 phase (March and April 2020), there were marked reductions in emergency presentations (10 389 observed vs 14 678 expected; 29% reduction; p<0.05) and hospital admissions (5972 observed vs 8368 expected; 28% reduction; p<0.05). Stroke (114 observed vs 177 expected; 35% reduction; p<0.05) and trauma (1336 observed vs 1764 expected; 24% reduction; p<0.05) presentations decreased; acute myocardial infarctions were unchanged. There was an increase in the proportion of hospital admissions requiring intensive care (7.0% observed vs 6.0% expected; p<0.05) or resulting in death (2.2% observed vs 1.5% expected; p<0.05). Outpatient attendances remained similar (30 267 observed vs 31 980 expected; 5% reduction; not significant) but telephone/telehealth consultations increased from 2.5% to 45% (p<0.05) of total consultations. CONCLUSIONS: Although case numbers of COVID-19 were relatively low in Australia during the first 6 months of 2020, the impact on hospital activity was profound.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Emergency Service, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Telemedicine , Australia/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Humans , Outpatient Clinics, Hospital/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Telemedicine/statistics & numerical data
18.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 77(5): 748-756.e1, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1152906

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: During the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, patients receiving maintenance dialysis are a highly vulnerable population due to their comorbidities and circumstances that limit physical distancing during treatment. This study sought to characterize the risk factors for and outcomes following COVID-19 in this population. STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: Maintenance dialysis patients in clinics of a midsize national dialysis provider that had at least 1 patient who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) from February to June 2020. PREDICTORS: Demographics, dialysis characteristics, residence in a congregated setting, comorbid conditions, measurements of frailty, and use of selected medications. OUTCOMES: COVID-19, defined as having a positive SARS-CoV-2 test result, and all-cause mortality among those with COVID-19. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Logistic regression analyses conducted to identify clinical characteristics associated with COVID-19 and risk factors associated with mortality among patients following COVID-19. RESULTS: 438 of 7948 (5.5%) maintenance dialysis patients developed COVID-19. Male sex, Black race, in-center dialysis (vs home dialysis), treatment at an urban clinic, residence in a congregate setting, and greater comorbidity were associated with contracting COVID-19. Odds of COVID-19 were 17-fold higher for those residing in a congregated setting (odds ratio [OR], 17.10 [95% CI, 13.51-21.54]). Of the 438 maintenance dialysis patients with COVID-19, 109 (24.9%) died. Older age, heart disease, and markers of frailty were associated with mortality. LIMITATIONS: No distinction was detected between symptomatic and asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 positivity, with asymptomatic screening limited by testing capacity during this initial COVID-19 surge period. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 is common among patients receiving maintenance dialysis, particularly those residing in congregate settings. Among maintenance dialysis patients with COVID-19, mortality is high, exceeding 20%.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Infection Control/methods , Kidney Failure, Chronic , Renal Dialysis , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Comorbidity , Female , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Frailty/etiology , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Mortality , Nursing Homes/statistics & numerical data , Renal Dialysis/methods , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , United States/epidemiology
19.
Clin Cancer Res ; 27(10): 2678-2697, 2021 05 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1015729

ABSTRACT

Five years ago, the Melanoma Research Foundation (MRF) conducted an assessment of the challenges and opportunities facing the melanoma research community and patients with melanoma. Since then, remarkable progress has been made on both the basic and clinical research fronts. However, the incidence, recurrence, and death rates for melanoma remain unacceptably high and significant challenges remain. Hence, the MRF Scientific Advisory Council and Breakthrough Consortium, a group that includes clinicians and scientists, reconvened to facilitate intensive discussions on thematic areas essential to melanoma researchers and patients alike, prevention, detection, diagnosis, metastatic dormancy and progression, response and resistance to targeted and immune-based therapy, and the clinical consequences of COVID-19 for patients with melanoma and providers. These extensive discussions helped to crystalize our understanding of the challenges and opportunities facing the broader melanoma community today. In this report, we discuss the progress made since the last MRF assessment, comment on what remains to be overcome, and offer recommendations for the best path forward.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Medical Oncology/methods , Melanoma/therapy , Practice Guidelines as Topic , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Skin Neoplasms/therapy , Biomedical Research/methods , Biomedical Research/trends , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Medical Oncology/organization & administration , Medical Oncology/trends , Melanoma/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Skin Neoplasms/diagnosis
20.
J Crohns Colitis ; 14(14 Suppl 3): S769-S773, 2020 Oct 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-883091

ABSTRACT

Patients with inflammatory bowel diseases [IBD] are frequently treated with immunosuppressant medications. During the coronavirus disease 2019 [COVID-19] pandemic, recommendations for IBD management have included that patients should stay on their immunosuppressant medications if they are not infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 [SARS-CoV-2], but to temporarily hold these medications if symptomatic with COVID-19 or asymptomatic but have tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. As more IBD patients are infected globally, it is important to also understand how to manage IBD medications during convalescence while an individual with IBD is recovering from COVID-19. In this review, we address the differences between a test-based versus a symptoms-based strategy as related to COVID-19, and offer recommendations on when it is appropriate to consider restarting IBD therapy in patients testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 or with clinical symptoms consistent with COVID-19. In general, we recommend a symptoms-based approach, due to the current lack of confidence in the accuracy of available testing and the clinical significance of prolonged detection of virus via molecular testing.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Clinical Laboratory Techniques , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Immunocompromised Host , Immunosuppressive Agents/administration & dosage , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/drug therapy , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Asymptomatic Infections , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Testing , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Drug Administration Schedule , Humans , Immunosuppressive Agents/therapeutic use , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/complications , Inflammatory Bowel Diseases/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
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