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1.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf ; 2022 Apr 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1782663

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: How completely do hospital discharge diagnoses identify cases of myopericarditis after an mRNA vaccine? METHODS: We assembled a cohort 12-39 year-old patients, insured by Kaiser Permanente Northwest, who received at least one dose of an mRNA vaccine (Pfizer-BioNTech or Moderna) between December 2020 and October 2021. We followed them for up to 30 days after their second dose of an mRNA vaccine to identify encounters for myocarditis, pericarditis or myopericarditis. We compared two identification methods: A method that searched all encounter diagnoses using a brief text description (e.g., ICD-10-CM code I40.9 is defined as 'acute myocarditis, unspecified'). We searched the text description of all inpatient or outpatient encounter diagnoses (in any position) for "myocarditis" or "pericarditis." The other method was developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's Vaccine Safety Datalink (VSD), which searched for emergency department visits or hospitalizations with a select set of discharge ICD-10-CM diagnosis codes. For both methods, two physicians independently reviewed the identified patient records and classified them as confirmed, probable or not cases using the CDC's case definition. RESULTS: The encounter methodology identified 14 distinct patients who met the confirmed or probable CDC case definition for acute myocarditis or pericarditis with an onset within 21 days of receipt of COVID-19 vaccination. When we extended the search for relevant diagnoses to 30 days since vaccination, we identified two additional patients (for a total of 16 patients) who met the case definition for acute myocarditis or pericarditis, but those patients had been misdiagnosed at the time of their original presentation. Three of these patients had an ICD-10-CM code of I51.4 "Myocarditis, Unspecified;" that code was omitted by the VSD algorithm (in the late fall of 2021). The VSD methodology identified 11 patients who met the CDC case definition for acute myocarditis or pericarditis. Seven (64%) of the 11 patients had initial care for myopericarditis outside of a KPNW facility and their diagnosis could not be ascertained by the VSD methodology until claims were submitted (median delay of 33 days; range of 12-195 days). Among those who received a second dose of vaccine (n = 146 785), we estimated a risk as 95.4 cases of myopericarditis per million second doses administered (95% CI, 52.1-160.0). CONCLUSION: We identified additional valid cases of myopericarditis following an mRNA vaccination that would be missed by the VSD's search algorithm, which depends on select hospital discharge diagnosis codes. The true incidence of myopericarditis is markedly higher than the incidence reported to US advisory committees in the fall of 2021. The VSD should validate its search algorithm to improve its sensitivity for myopericarditis.

3.
J Pharm Biomed Anal ; 212: 114646, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1699455

ABSTRACT

SBECD (Captisol®) with an average degree of substitution of 6.5 sulfobutylether functional groups (SBE = 6.5), is a solubility enhancer for remdesivir (RDV) and a major component in Veklury, which was approved by FDA for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 over 12 years old and weighing over 40 kg who require hospitalization. SBECD is cleared mainly by renal filtration, thus, potential accumulation of SBECD in the human body is a concern for patients dosed with Veklury with compromised renal function. An LC-MS/MS method was developed and validated for specific, accurate, and precise determination of SBECD concentrations in human plasma. In this method, the hexa-substituted species, SBE6, was selected for SBECD quantification, and the mass transition from its dicharged molecular ion [(M-2H)/2]2-, Molecular (parent) Ion (Q1)/Molecular (parent) Ion (Q3) of m/z 974.7/974.7, was selected for quantitative analysis of SBECD. Captisol-G (SBE-γ-CD, SBE = 3) was chosen as the internal standard. With 25 µL of formic-acid-treated sample and with a calibration range of 10.0-1000 µg/mL, the method was validated with respect to pre-established criteria based on regulatory guidelines and was applied to determine SBECD levels in plasma samples collected from pediatric patients during RDV clinical studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , beta-Cyclodextrins , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , COVID-19/drug therapy , Child , Chromatography, Liquid , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Sodium , Tandem Mass Spectrometry/methods
4.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327550

ABSTRACT

Abstract: Purpose: The risk of myopericarditis following COVID-19 booster vaccination has not been extensively evaluated. We provide a timely case ascertainment of myocarditis following COVID-19 booster vaccine in individuals age 18-39 years from an integrated health system. Methods: We studied a cohort of 65,785 Kaiser Permanente (KP) Northwest Health Plan members aged 18-39 years who received a COVID-19 vaccine booster at least 5 months following completion of the primary series. We identified cases of myopericarditis by searching the electronic health record for the National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) text label for myocarditis or pericarditis diagnosis codes in all inpatient and outpatient encounters through January 18th 2022. The cohort was followed for 21 days after their booster. We excluded anyone with a documented diagnosis of myocarditis or pericarditis before their first COVID-19 vaccination. Two physicians independently reviewed the identified patient records and applied the CDC myocarditis and pericarditis surveillance case definition to classify records as confirmed, probable or excluded based on the prior published definition. Results: Our method identified 6 patients who met the confirmed or probable CDC case definition for acute myocarditis or pericarditis within 21 days of COVID-19 booster dose among 65,785 eligible members. Four cases occurred in 27,253 men. Overall, we estimated 9.1 cases (exact 95% CI 3.4 to 19.9) of post-booster myopericarditis per 100,000 booster doses given. In men, we estimated 14.7 cases (exact 95% CI 4.0 to 37.6) per 100,000 booster doses given. Conclusion: We identified a rate of 9.1 cases of myopericarditis per 100,000 COVID-19 booster doses which is higher than prior estimates reported by the Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System (VAERS). Myopericarditis occurs following COVID-19 booster vaccine and may be underreported by current surveillance methods. High sensitivity of these case estimates is essential when modeling risk and benefit for sequential COVID-19 vaccinations for the general population.

6.
Lancet Public Health ; 6(11): e805-e816, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467001

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: High-resolution data for how mortality and longevity have changed in England, UK are scarce. We aimed to estimate trends from 2002 to 2019 in life expectancy and probabilities of death at different ages for all 6791 middle-layer super output areas (MSOAs) in England. METHODS: We performed a high-resolution spatiotemporal analysis of civil registration data from the UK Small Area Health Statistics Unit research database using de-identified data for all deaths in England from 2002 to 2019, with information on age, sex, and MSOA of residence, and population counts by age, sex, and MSOA. We used a Bayesian hierarchical model to obtain estimates of age-specific death rates by sharing information across age groups, MSOAs, and years. We used life table methods to calculate life expectancy at birth and probabilities of death in different ages by sex and MSOA. FINDINGS: In 2002-06 and 2006-10, all but a few (0-1%) MSOAs had a life expectancy increase for female and male sexes. In 2010-14, female life expectancy decreased in 351 (5·2%) of 6791 MSOAs. By 2014-19, the number of MSOAs with declining life expectancy was 1270 (18·7%) for women and 784 (11·5%) for men. The life expectancy increase from 2002 to 2019 was smaller in MSOAs where life expectancy had been lower in 2002 (mostly northern urban MSOAs), and larger in MSOAs where life expectancy had been higher in 2002 (mostly MSOAs in and around London). As a result of these trends, the gap between the first and 99th percentiles of MSOA life expectancy for women increased from 10·7 years (95% credible interval 10·4-10·9) in 2002 to reach 14·2 years (13·9-14·5) in 2019, and for men increased from 11·5 years (11·3-11·7) in 2002 to 13·6 years (13·4-13·9) in 2019. INTERPRETATION: In the decade before the COVID-19 pandemic, life expectancy declined in increasing numbers of communities in England. To ensure that this trend does not continue or worsen, there is a need for pro-equity economic and social policies, and greater investment in public health and health care throughout the entire country. FUNDING: Wellcome Trust, Imperial College London, Medical Research Council, Health Data Research UK, and National Institutes of Health Research.


Subject(s)
Life Expectancy/trends , Mortality/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Bayes Theorem , Child , Child, Preschool , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Registries , Residence Characteristics/statistics & numerical data , Risk Assessment , Spatio-Temporal Analysis , Young Adult
7.
Ann Surg ; 2021 Aug 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356744

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To separately compare the long-term risk of mortality among bariatric surgical patients undergoing either RYGB or SG to large, matched, population-based cohorts of patients with severe obesity who did not undergo surgery. BACKGROUND: Bariatric surgery has been associated with reduced long-term mortality compared to usual care for severe obesity which is particularly relevant in the COVID-19 era. Most prior studies involved the Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) operation and there is less long-term data on the sleeve gastrectomy (SG). METHODS: In this retrospective, matched cohort study, patients with a body mass index ≥35 kg/m2 who underwent bariatric surgery from January 2005 to September 2015 in three integrated health systems in the United States were matched to nonsurgical patients on site, age, sex, body mass index, diabetes status, insulin use, race/ethnicity, combined Charlson/Elixhauser comorbidity score, and prior health care utilization, with follow-up through September 2015. Each procedure (RYGB, SG) was compared to its own control group and the two surgical procedures were not directly compared to each other. Multivariable-adjusted Cox regression analysis investigated time to all-cause mortality (primary outcome) comparing each of the bariatric procedures to usual care. Secondary outcomes separately examined the incidence of cardiovascular-related death, cancer related-death, and diabetes related-death. RESULTS: Among 13,900 SG, 17,258 RYGB, and 87,965 nonsurgical patients, the 5-year follow-up rate was 70.9%, 72.0%, and 64.5%, respectively. RYGB and SG were each associated with a significantly lower risk of all-cause mortality compared to nonsurgical patients at 5-years of follow-up (RYGB: HR = 0.43; 95% CI: 0.35,0.54; SG: HR = 0.28; 95% CI: 0.13,0.57) Similarly, RYGB was associated with a significantly lower 5-year risk of cardiovascular- (HR = 0.27; 95% CI: 0.20, 0.37), cancer- (HR = 0.54; 95% CI: 0.39, 0.76), and diabetes-related mortality (HR = 0.23; 95% CI:0.15, 0.36). There was not enough follow-up time to assess 5-year cause-specific mortality in SG patients, but at 3-years follow up, there was significantly lower risk of cardiovascular- (HR = 0.33; 95% CI:0.19, 0.58), cancer- (HR = 0.26; 95% CI:0.11, 0.59), and diabetes-related (HR = 0.15; 95% CI:0.04, 0.53) mortality for SG patients. CONCLUSION: This study confirms and extends prior findings of an association with better survival following bariatric surgery in RYGB patients compared to controls and separately demonstrates that the SG operation also appears to be associated with lower mortality compared to matched control patients with severe obesity that received usual care. These results help to inform the trade-offs between long-term benefits and risks of bariatric surgery.

8.
Arch Clin Neuropsychol ; 36(6): 887-896, 2021 Aug 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1075458

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Teleneuropsychology (TNP) has been shown to be a valid assessment method compared with in-person neuropsychological evaluations. Interest in delivering TNP directly to patients' homes has arisen in response to the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. However, prior research has typically involved patients tested in clinical settings, and the validity of in-home TNP testing has not yet been established. The present study aims to explore the validity and clinical utility of in-home TNP testing in a mixed clinical sample in the wake of COVID-19. METHODS: Test profiles for 111 in-home TNP patients were retrospectively compared with 120 patients who completed in-person evaluations. The TNP test battery consisted of tests measuring attention/processing speed, verbal memory, naming, verbal fluency, and visuoconstruction. TNP scores of cognitively normal (CN) patients were compared with patients with neurocognitive disorders (NCD), and score profiles were examined among suspected diagnostic groups of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and vascular disease (VaD). RESULTS: TNP test scores did not significantly differ from in-person testing across all tests except the Hopkins Verbal Learning Test-Revised Discrimination Index. Within the TNP group, significant differences between the CN and NCD groups were found for all tests, and the memory and semantic fluency tests yielded large effect sizes (d ≥ 0.8). Score profiles among the AD, PD, and VaD groups were explored. CONCLUSIONS: These findings support the validity of in-home TNP testing compared with in-person neuropsychological testing. Practice considerations, limitations, and future directions are discussed.


Subject(s)
Alzheimer Disease , COVID-19 , Humans , Neuropsychological Tests , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
9.
SSRN; 2020.
Preprint | SSRN | ID: ppcovidwho-752

ABSTRACT

The course of a pandemic is dictated not just by biology, but also by law. And crucially, unlike biology, law can be readily adapted in response to a pandemic.

10.
Am J Pharm Educ ; 84(6): ajpe8157, 2020 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-646319

ABSTRACT

The administrative response to the coronavirus identified in 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic for a variety of units housed in the University of Oklahoma College of Pharmacy is described. Continuity of operations, essential vs nonessential personnel, distance learning, online testing procedures for the Doctor of Pharmacy degree program, and the impact on development are discussed.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Education, Pharmacy/organization & administration , Pharmaceutical Services/organization & administration , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Schools, Pharmacy/organization & administration , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Education, Distance/organization & administration , Faculty, Pharmacy/organization & administration , Humans , Pandemics , Pharmaceutical Services/economics , SARS-CoV-2 , Schools, Pharmacy/economics
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