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1.
J Racial Ethn Health Disparities ; 2022 Mar 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1719099

ABSTRACT

Early COVID-19 pandemic data suggested racial/ethnic minority and low-income earning people bore the greatest burden of infection. Structural racism, the reinforcement of racial and ethnic discrimination via policy, provides a framework for understanding disparities in health outcomes like COVID-19 infection. Residential racial and economic segregation is one indicator of structural racism. Little attention has been paid to the relationship of infection to relative overall concentrations of risk (i.e., segregation of the most privileged from the most disadvantaged). We used ordinary least squares and geographically weighted regression models to evaluate the relationship between racial and economic segregation, measured by the Index of Concentration at the Extremes, and COVID-19 cases in Louisiana. We found a significant global association between racial segregation and cumulative COVID-19 case rate in Louisiana and variation across the state during the study period. The northwest and central regions exhibited a strong negative relationship indicating greater risk in areas with high concentrations of Black residents. On the other hand, the southeastern part of the state exhibited more neutral or positive relationships indicating greater risk in areas with high concentrations of White residents. Our findings that the relationship between racial segregation and COVID-19 cases varied within a state further support evidence that social and political determinants, not biological, drive racial disparities. Small area measures and measures of polarization provide localized information better suited to tailoring public health policy according to the dynamics of communities at the census tract level, which may lead to better health outcomes.

2.
Social Sciences ; 11(2):88, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1715664

ABSTRACT

Racial-ethnic socialization is a process where parents pass beliefs and behaviors to their children, including critical reflections on race and racism. Currently, it is not well known across racial/ethnic groups in the U.S how parents’ socialization competency (confidence, skills, and stress surrounding the delivery of racial-ethnic socialization) coalesces with the frequency with which they deliver different types of socialization messages (socialization content). The current study utilizes latent profile analysis to examine racial-ethnic socialization content and competency patterns among 203 Black, 194 Latinx, and 188 Asian American parents (n = 585, Mage = 44.46, SD = 9.14, 59.70% mothers) with children 10–18 years old (Mage = 14.30, SD = 2.49, 50.3% female). Furthermore, we relate profiles to sociodemographic and relevant factors posited to impact socialization competency and content delivery, namely, discrimination and critical consciousness dimensions (reflection, motivation, action). We observed three parental profiles: Less Prepared Stressed Low Frequency (LPSLF;n = 285), Prepared Low Stress Frequent (PLSF;n = 204), and Prepared Stressed Frequent (PSF;n = 96) socializers. Profile differences emerged on parental and youth sociodemographic factors, lifetime discrimination exposure, and each parental critical consciousness dimension. This study lays a foundation for the combined study of racial-ethnic socialization competence and content in diverse groups, a practice crucial to understanding 21st century parenting.

5.
Mol Cell ; 81(13): 2851-2867.e7, 2021 07 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240514

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). SARS-CoV-2 relies on cellular RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) to replicate and spread, although which RBPs control its life cycle remains largely unknown. Here, we employ a multi-omic approach to identify systematically and comprehensively the cellular and viral RBPs that are involved in SARS-CoV-2 infection. We reveal that SARS-CoV-2 infection profoundly remodels the cellular RNA-bound proteome, which includes wide-ranging effects on RNA metabolic pathways, non-canonical RBPs, and antiviral factors. Moreover, we apply a new method to identify the proteins that directly interact with viral RNA, uncovering dozens of cellular RBPs and six viral proteins. Among them are several components of the tRNA ligase complex, which we show regulate SARS-CoV-2 infection. Furthermore, we discover that available drugs targeting host RBPs that interact with SARS-CoV-2 RNA inhibit infection. Collectively, our results uncover a new universe of host-virus interactions with potential for new antiviral therapies against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/metabolism , Proteome/metabolism , RNA, Viral/metabolism , RNA-Binding Proteins/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Viral Proteins/metabolism , Virus Replication/physiology , A549 Cells , COVID-19/genetics , Humans , Proteome/genetics , RNA, Viral/genetics , RNA-Binding Proteins/genetics , Viral Proteins/genetics
6.
J Infect ; 83(1): 96-103, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198895

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Patients requiring haemodialysis are at increased risk of serious illness with SARS-CoV-2 infection. To improve the understanding of transmission risks in six Scottish renal dialysis units, we utilised the rapid whole-genome sequencing data generated by the COG-UK consortium. METHODS: We combined geographical, temporal and genomic sequence data from the community and hospital to estimate the probability of infection originating from within the dialysis unit, the hospital or the community using Bayesian statistical modelling and compared these results to the details of epidemiological investigations. RESULTS: Of 671 patients, 60 (8.9%) became infected with SARS-CoV-2, of whom 16 (27%) died. Within-unit and community transmission were both evident and an instance of transmission from the wider hospital setting was also demonstrated. CONCLUSIONS: Near-real-time SARS-CoV-2 sequencing data can facilitate tailored infection prevention and control measures, which can be targeted at reducing risk in these settings.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Bayes Theorem , Hospitals , Humans , Molecular Epidemiology , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects
7.
Vet Rec ; 188(8): e247, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1198417

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study was to find evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection in UK cats. DESIGN: Tissue samples were tested for SARS-CoV-2 antigen using immunofluorescence and for viral RNA by in situ hybridisation. A set of 387 oropharyngeal swabs that had been submitted for routine respiratory pathogen testing was tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA using reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR. RESULTS: Lung tissue collected post-mortem from cat 1 tested positive for both SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antigen and RNA. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in an oropharyngeal swab collected from cat 2 that presented with rhinitis and conjunctivitis. High throughput sequencing of the viral genome revealed five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) compared to the nearest UK human SARS-CoV-2 sequence, and this human virus contained eight SNPs compared to the original Wuhan-Hu-1 reference sequence. An analysis of the viral genome of cat 2 together with nine other feline-derived SARS-CoV-2 sequences from around the world revealed no shared cat-specific mutations. CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that human-to-cat transmission of SARS-CoV-2 occurred during the COVID-19 pandemic in the UK, with the infected cats developing mild or severe respiratory disease. Given the ability of the new coronavirus to infect different species, it will be important to monitor for human-to-cat, cat-to-cat and cat-to-human transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/veterinary , Cat Diseases/virology , Lung/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Zoonoses , Animals , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/transmission , Cats , Female , Humans , RNA, Viral , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United Kingdom/epidemiology
8.
J Eat Disord ; 9(1): 46, 2021 Apr 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1190107

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The COVID-19 pandemic has had detrimental effects on mental health. Literature on the impact on individuals with eating disorders is slowly emerging. While outpatient eating disorder services in Canada have attempted to transition to virtual care, guidelines related to optimal virtual care in this field are lacking. As such, the objective of our Canadian Consensus Panel was to develop clinical practice guidelines related to the provision of virtual care for children, adolescents, and emerging adults living with an eating disorder, as well as their caregivers, during the COVID-19 pandemic and beyond. METHODS: Using scoping review methodology (with literature in databases from 2000 to 2020 and grey literature from 2010 to 2020), the Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development, and Evaluation system, the Appraisal of Guidelines, Research and Evaluation tool, and a panel of diverse stakeholders from across Canada, we developed high quality treatment guidelines that are focused on virtual interventions for children, adolescents, and emerging adults with eating disorders, and their caregivers. RESULTS: Strong recommendations were supported specifically in favour of in-person medical evaluation when necessary for children, adolescents, and emerging adults, and that equity-seeking groups and marginalized youth should be provided equal access to treatment. For children and adolescents, weak recommendations were supported for telehealth family-based treatment (FBT) and online guided parental self-help FBT. For emerging adults, internet cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT)-based guided self-help was strongly recommended. Weak recommendations for emerging adults included CBT-based group internet interventions as treatment adjuncts, internet-based relapse prevention Maudsley Model of Anorexia Nervosa Treatment for Adults (MANTRA) guided self-help, telehealth relapse prevention using MANTRA, and guided CBT-based smartphone apps as treatment adjuncts. For caregivers of children and adolescents, weak recommendations were supported for virtual parent meal support training, and moderated online caregiver forums and support groups. For caregivers of emerging adults, guided parental self-help CBT was strongly recommended, and unguided caregiver psychoeducation self-help was weakly recommended. CONCLUSIONS: Several gaps for future work were identified including the impact of sex, gender, race, and socioeconomic status on virtual care among children, adolescents, and emerging adults with eating disorders, as well as research on more intensive services, such as virtual day hospitals.

9.
PLoS Biol ; 19(2): e3001091, 2021 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1102372

ABSTRACT

The recent emergence of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), the underlying cause of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19), has led to a worldwide pandemic causing substantial morbidity, mortality, and economic devastation. In response, many laboratories have redirected attention to SARS-CoV-2, meaning there is an urgent need for tools that can be used in laboratories unaccustomed to working with coronaviruses. Here we report a range of tools for SARS-CoV-2 research. First, we describe a facile single plasmid SARS-CoV-2 reverse genetics system that is simple to genetically manipulate and can be used to rescue infectious virus through transient transfection (without in vitro transcription or additional expression plasmids). The rescue system is accompanied by our panel of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (against nearly every viral protein), SARS-CoV-2 clinical isolates, and SARS-CoV-2 permissive cell lines, which are all openly available to the scientific community. Using these tools, we demonstrate here that the controversial ORF10 protein is expressed in infected cells. Furthermore, we show that the promising repurposed antiviral activity of apilimod is dependent on TMPRSS2 expression. Altogether, our SARS-CoV-2 toolkit, which can be directly accessed via our website at https://mrcppu-covid.bio/, constitutes a resource with considerable potential to advance COVID-19 vaccine design, drug testing, and discovery science.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Reverse Genetics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , A549 Cells , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/metabolism , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Codon , Humans , Hydrazones/pharmacology , Mice , Morpholines/pharmacology , Open Reading Frames , Plasmids/genetics , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Serine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Vero Cells , Viral Proteins/metabolism
11.
Cell ; 184(5): 1171-1187.e20, 2021 03 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1051523

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 can mutate and evade immunity, with consequences for efficacy of emerging vaccines and antibody therapeutics. Here, we demonstrate that the immunodominant SARS-CoV-2 spike (S) receptor binding motif (RBM) is a highly variable region of S and provide epidemiological, clinical, and molecular characterization of a prevalent, sentinel RBM mutation, N439K. We demonstrate N439K S protein has enhanced binding affinity to the hACE2 receptor, and N439K viruses have similar in vitro replication fitness and cause infections with similar clinical outcomes as compared to wild type. We show the N439K mutation confers resistance against several neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, including one authorized for emergency use by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA), and reduces the activity of some polyclonal sera from persons recovered from infection. Immune evasion mutations that maintain virulence and fitness such as N439K can emerge within SARS-CoV-2 S, highlighting the need for ongoing molecular surveillance to guide development and usage of vaccines and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Genetic Fitness , Immune Evasion , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/chemistry , Antibodies, Neutralizing/genetics , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/virology , Humans , Mutation , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/chemistry , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Virulence
13.
Nat Microbiol ; 6(1): 112-122, 2021 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-989837

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) was first diagnosed in Scotland on 1 March 2020. During the first month of the outbreak, 2,641 cases of COVID-19 led to 1,832 hospital admissions, 207 intensive care admissions and 126 deaths. We aimed to identify the source and number of introductions of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) into Scotland using a combined phylogenetic and epidemiological approach. Sequencing of 1,314 SARS-CoV-2 viral genomes from available patient samples enabled us to estimate that SARS-CoV-2 was introduced to Scotland on at least 283 occasions during February and March 2020. Epidemiological analysis confirmed that early introductions of SARS-CoV-2 originated from mainland Europe (the majority from Italy and Spain). We identified subsequent early outbreaks in the community, within healthcare facilities and at an international conference. Community transmission occurred after 2 March, 3 weeks before control measures were introduced. Earlier travel restrictions or quarantine measures, both locally and internationally, would have reduced the number of COVID-19 cases in Scotland. The risk of multiple reintroduction events in future waves of infection remains high in the absence of population immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , Aged , Europe/epidemiology , Genome, Viral , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Molecular Epidemiology , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Spain/epidemiology , Travel/statistics & numerical data
14.
Soc Sci Med ; 266: 113364, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-752841

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Covid-19 pandemic is straining healthcare systems in the US and globally, which has wide-reaching implications for health. Women experience unique health risks and outcomes influenced by their gender, and this narrative review aims to outline how these differences are exacerbated in the Covid-19 pandemic. OBSERVATIONS: It has been well described that men suffer from greater morbidity and mortality once infected with SARS-CoV-2. This review analyzed the health, economic, and social systems that result in gender-based differences in the areas healthcare workforce, reproductive health, drug development, gender-based violence, and mental health during the Covid-19 pandemic. The increased risk of certain negative health outcomes and reduced healthcare access experienced by many women are typically exacerbated during pandemics. We assess data from previous disease outbreaks coupled with literature from the Covid-19 pandemic to examine the impact of gender on women's SARS-CoV-2 exposure and disease risks and overall health status during the Covid-19 pandemic. CONCLUSIONS: Gender differences in health risks and implications are likely to be expanded during the Covid-19 pandemic. Efforts to foster equity in health, social, and economic systems during and in the aftermath of Covid-19 may mitigate the inequitable risks posed by pandemics and other times of healthcare stress.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Mental Health , Women's Health , Caregivers/psychology , Drug Development/organization & administration , Female , Health Status , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/psychology , Maternal Health Services/organization & administration , Pandemics , Pregnant Women/psychology , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Stress, Psychological/epidemiology , Stress, Psychological/psychology , Workplace/psychology
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