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1.
BMJ Open ; 12(12), 2022.
Article in English | PubMed Central | ID: covidwho-2161863

ABSTRACT

Objectives: To evaluate the impact of culturally and linguistically tailored informational videos delivered via social media campaigns on COVID-19 vaccine uptake in Indigenous Maya communities in Guatemala. Methods: Our team designed a series of videos utilising community input and evaluated the impact using a pre–post intervention design. In-person preintervention surveys were collected from a sample of respondents in four rural municipalities in Guatemala in March 2022. Facebook, Instagram and browser ads were flooded with COVID-19 vaccine informational videos in Spanish, Kaqchikel and Kiche for 3 weeks. Postintervention surveys were conducted by telephone among the same participants in April 2022. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the OR of COVID-19 vaccine uptake following exposure to the intervention videos. Results: Preintervention and postintervention surveys were collected from 1572 participants. The median age was 28 years;63% (N=998) identified as women, and 36% spoke an Indigenous Mayan language. Twenty-one per cent of participants (N=327) reported watching the intervention content on social media. At baseline, 89% (N=1402) of participants reported having at least one COVID-19 vaccine, compared with 97% (N=1507) in the follow-up. Those who reported watching the videos had 1.78 times the odds (95% CI 1.14 to 2.77) of getting vaccinated after watching the videos compared with those who did not see the videos when adjusted by age, community, sex and language. Conclusion: Our findings suggest that culturally and linguistically tailored videos addressing COVID-19 vaccine misinformation deployed over social media can increase vaccinations in a rural, indigenous population in Guatemala, implying that social media content can influence vaccination uptake. Providing accurate, culturally sensitive information in local languages from trusted sources may help increase vaccine uptake in historically marginalised populations.

2.
The Law and Regulation of Medicines and Medical Devices, Second Edition ; : 411-422, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1973235

ABSTRACT

This chapter reveals some of the major changes in the European and UK regulatory framework following the UK leaving the EU (Brexit), public health consequences of the supply of infected blood products, and the Covid-19 pandemic. It covers issues that occurred after Brexit, the independent medicines and medical devices safety review, and the UK blood enquiry. It also mentions the Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA) that became the UK’s standalone regulator of medicines and medical devices since 1 January 2021, acting independently in joint work with other international regulators. The chapter elaborates on the UK’s intention to develop a new regulatory framework for medical devices that reflect the Independent Medicines and Medical Devices Safety Review published in July 2020. It highlights the European Medicines Agency’s (EMA) cooperation with the World Health Organization (WHO) on developing potential Covid-19 treatments by facilitating large-scale clinical trials. © Oxford University Press 2021.

3.
Canadian Journal of Respiratory Critical Care and Sleep Medicine ; : 5, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1927256

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: The long-term trajectory of people recovering from COVID-19 and the cause of COVID-19;imaging;patient persistent symptoms remains poorly understood. OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine how pulmonary function tests (PFTs), patient-reported outcome pulmonary function measures (PROMs) and radiologic features change over 12months in people hospitalized with COVID-19. METHODS: A prospective, consecutive cohort of patients hospitalized with PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 were recruited. Longitudinal clinical data, PROMs, PFTs and computed tomography (CT) chests were collected at 3, 6 and/or 12months after symptom onset. Repeated analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Friedman tests were used to compare changes in outcomes over time. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: Eighty-one patients were enrolled with 70 completing the 12-month visit. At 3months, the mean diffusing capacity of the lung for carbon monoxide was reduced at 76 +/- 16%-predicted and improved to 80 +/- 16%-predicted at 6months (p<0.001). The median values for dyspnea, cough, sleep and quality of life (QoL) were abnormal at 3months, with QoL being the only PROM that significantly improved at 6 months. There was no further statistically significant change in PFT parameters or PROMs between 6 and 12 months. The percentages of lung affected by ground glass and reticulation at 3months were 11.3% (IQR 5.6-19.6) and 4.4% (IQR 1.6-7.9), respectively. These improved at 12months with ground glass being 0% (IQR 0-3.3) and reticulation 1.7% (IQR 0-3.3). CONCLUSIONS: PFTs improve between 3 and 6 months, with no change over the subsequent 6months in patients hospitalized with COVID-19. Despite improved and nearly normal physiologic and radiologic results in most patients, 60% report abnormal PROMs at 12months.

4.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:1, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1881030
5.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 205:1, 2022.
Article in English | English Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1880548
6.
Molecular Genetics and Metabolism ; 132:S216, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1735097

ABSTRACT

It is difficult to assign a precise frequency of infections that defines an increased susceptibility to infections reflecting an impaired immune response given the majority of patients with intact immune systems still contract multiple upper respiratory infections each year, usually of viral origin. In fact, the average child may experience up to six to eight upper respiratory infections each year. The frequency of these infections may be related to environmental exposures but also may be triggered by genetic susceptibility. As an example, respiratory disease complicates the management of several inherited metabolic diseases, either at presentation or as late-onset features. More recently, children of all ages have been shown to contract COVID-19;however, children with underlying medical conditions are at increased risk. COVID-19 has been known for almost a year now, with several studies identifying genetic risk factors are associated with severe COVID-19. In the context of a health system wide genomic medicine program “Genomic Answers for Kids” at Children’s Mercy, Kansas City, we performed a retrospective analysis of rare variants predicted to be deleterious at 12 known loci known to govern TLR3- and IRF7- dependant type I Interferon immunity of all patients/families (>2000) tested for suspected genetic disorders. We bioinformatically extracted all rare variants in those 12 genes linked to type I interferon pathway from our internal warehouse. From those, ~340 variants were further analyzed based on inheritance, minor allele frequency in population datasets, and in silico prediction. The vast majority of this subgroup of GA4 K patients were referred for a suspected neurological disorder with or without multiple congenital anomalies (~75%). Only 15% were referred for metabolic disorders. Of those, 50% have a known genetic diagnosis unrelated to Immune deficiency. Of the selected index cases, the medical records, and if available the outpatient records, were reviewed to document the occurrence of recurrent infection and/or COVID-19. Preliminary data showed 46 “extremely” rare variants were detected in 37 GA4 K patients;6/37 (16%) have ≥2 in 1–12 genes, one GA4 K patient has 4 “extremely” rare variants in IRF7, and 3/37 GA4 K patients are deceased (~1%). Moreover, a novel disease gene was uncovered in a previously undiagnosed family, of which we identified an additional two affected individuals from an international collaboration. Finally, in a family with apparently dominant transmission of tumid lupus we observe putative causal variant in gene UNC93B1 – linking chronic inflammatory disorder (with known type I interferon association) to mutations predisposing to COVID-19. Recurrent or persistent infection is usually a manifestation of primary immunodeficiency. While most children with recurrent infections have a normal immunity, it is important to remember a subset of patients have an unrecognized genetic susceptibility to infection. Further analysis and monitoring are on-going. As we are continuing to struggle with the COVID-19 pandemic, combined with flu season, understanding precisely who may be at higher risk of infection and complications is critical and could play an important role in ongoing efforts to in disease prevention and the development of better treatment protocols

7.
Can J Public Health ; 113(1): 87-95, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1727048

ABSTRACT

SETTING: In Alberta, a small team of specialized public health experts typically complete case investigation and contact tracing. High COVID-19 case counts and a shortage of trained public health professionals required a rapid and significant adaptation of staffing models to meet the population's needs. INTERVENTION: A tiered, interdisciplinary staffing model, based on those in critical care, was developed, piloted, and implemented in the Alberta Health Services' Communicable Disease Control department in late 2020 to complete case investigation and contact tracing. The final model included novice, non-regulated professionals divided into pods of four to six investigators, led by an experienced regulated investigator. Team leads oversaw five pods. Communicable disease nurses provided an additional tier of clinical expertise. During the model development, roles and responsibilities of team members were delineated, ratios for supervision were tested, and rapid training was provided. OUTCOMES: The tiered staffing model began in November 2020 with staff members in two pods. At its peak in early May 2021, 72 pods of 502 non-regulated members, 134 regulated investigators, and 4 communicable disease nurses completed 780-973 case investigations daily, or 40-45% of all positive cases in Alberta. In comparison, the same number of regulated investigators working independently in the traditional staffing model without non-regulated pods completed, on average, 249 case investigations daily. IMPLICATIONS: A tiered staffing model can be effective at maximizing the skills of the experienced members of the case investigation team to maintain case investigation and contact tracing activities during a pandemic.


RéSUMé: LIEU: En Alberta, une petite équipe de spécialistes de la santé publique mène généralement les enquêtes et la recherche des contacts. Un nombre élevé de cas de COVID-19 et une pénurie de professionnels de la santé publique formés ont nécessité une adaptation rapide et importante des modèles de dotation des équipes pour répondre aux besoins de la population. INTERVENTION: Un modèle de dotation interdisciplinaire à plusieurs niveaux axé sur les patients aux soins intensifs a été élaboré, mis à l'essai et appliqué par la division de la lutte contre les maladies transmissibles des Services de santé de l'Alberta vers la fin de 2020 pour mener les enquêtes et la recherche des contacts. Le modèle final incluait des membres novices de professions non réglementées divisés en modules de quatre à six chercheurs et chercheuses sous la direction d'un chercheur ou d'une chercheuse d'expérience membre d'une profession réglementée. Les chefs d'équipes supervisaient cinq modules. Des infirmières et infirmiers en maladies transmissibles constituaient un niveau supplémentaire d'expérience clinique. Durant l'élaboration du modèle, les fonctions des membres des équipes ont été définies, les ratios d'encadrement ont été testés, et une formation rapide a été fournie. RéSULTATS: L'application du modèle de dotation à plusieurs niveaux a commencé en novembre 2020 avec des effectifs dans deux modules. À son sommet au début de mai 2021, 72 modules, composés de 502 membres de professions non réglementées, de 134 chercheurs et chercheuses de professions réglementées et de 4 infirmières et infirmiers en maladies transmissibles, ont mené de 780 à 973 enquêtes par jour, ce qui englobait entre 40 et 45 % des cas positifs en Alberta. À titre de comparaison, le même nombre de chercheurs et de chercheuses de professions réglementées, travaillant indépendamment selon le modèle de dotation classique sans modules non réglementés, a mené en moyenne 249 enquêtes par jour. CONSéQUENCES: Un modèle de dotation à plusieurs niveaux peut maximiser les compétences des membres expérimentés de l'équipe d'enquête pour maintenir les activités d'enquête et de recherche des contacts durant une pandémie.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Contact Tracing , Alberta , Health Services , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Critical Care Medicine ; 50(1 SUPPL):780, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1691794

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Opioid overdose deaths increased over two decades, with the incidence accelerated further during the COVID-19 pandemic. While opioids remain mainstay for trauma-related pain management, organizations are focused on reducing use. This study aimed to determine if a hospitalwide Alternatives to Opiates (ALTO) program reduced opioid prescribing at discharge after trauma. METHODS: A single-center, retrospective analysis of patients ≥18 years old admitted for ≥24 hours with primary diagnosis of traumatic injury between August 1, 2018 - October 31, 2019 was performed. Admissions before July 1, 2019, represent the control group, whereas admissions on/after represent the ALTO group. Patients with alcohol or polysubstance abuse, chronic opioid use, or in-hospital mortality were excluded. The primary outcome was incidence of opioid prescribing at discharge. Secondary outcomes were percent with in-hospital non-opioid and multimodal analgesia, and hospital and intensive care unit (ICU) length of stay (LOS). A sample size of 129 patients was needed to observe a 30% reduction in primary outcome and maintain 80% power to detect a statistically significant difference using alpha < 0.05. RESULTS: A total of 703 patients were included, 471 in the control and 232 in the ALTO groups. Mean age was 59±22 years and 58.7% were male. Mean initial Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 9.1±7.7 and Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI) was 2.7±2.7. In-hospital opioid prescribing was higher (70.4% vs. 87.5%, p< 0.0001), and opioid discontinuation at hospital discharge occurred less frequently (60.5% vs. 56.2%, p=0.1237) after ALTO implementation. Surgical intervention, lack of ICU admission, ISS ≥9 and CCI ≤1 was associated with lower incidence of opioid discontinuation at discharge in both groups. Most patients received nonopioid (93.6 vs. 98.7%, p=0.0051) and multimodal analgesia (84.3% vs. 87.5%, p=0.3083) during hospitalization. Median hospital LOS [5(3-9) vs. 4(3-7), p=0.3427] and ICU LOS [2(0-4) vs. 3(2-5), p=0.3461] were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Opioids remain mainstay for traumarelated pain management. In our study, ALTO was not associated with a reduction in in-hospital opioid prescribing or at discharge. Identification and implementation of strategies to further reduce opioid prescribing at discharge in trauma patients are needed.

9.
American Journal of Infectious Diseases ; 18(1), 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1690130

ABSTRACT

Management of Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) with high-dose corticosteroids and interleukin-2 inhibitors has potential benefits, but is associated with immunosuppression and risk of secondary infections. This single-center, retrospective, cohort study evaluated the incidence of candidemia and associated risk factors in hospitalized COVID-19 patients. Twenty-three patients developed candidemia and were matched to 77 non-candidemic COVID-19 controls. The primary outcome was incidence of candidemia. Secondary outcomes included time to first positive fungal blood culture and antifungal initiation, antifungal treatment duration, fungal isolate identification, candidemia risk factors, in-hospital mortality, Intensive Care Unit (ICU) and hospital Length of Stay (LOS) and mechanical ventilation duration. Candidemia incidence was 0.7% (23/3101). Mean time from hospital admission to first positive fungal blood culture was 26.2±14.3 days, with systemic antifungal therapy initiated in 19 patients;seven started antifungal therapy the same day cultures were drawn and 12 within 24 h of preliminary culture results positive for yeast. The remaining four patients expired prior to culture results. Mean duration of antifungal therapy was 9.7±6.6 days. Candida albicans was the most frequently identified isolate. Candidemic patients were more likely to be admitted to the ICU, receive high-dose corticosteroid, renal replacement therapy, mechanical ventilation, central line, tocilizumab and broad-spectrum antimicrobials. They also had higher mortality (82% vs. 22%, p<0.0001) and longer ICU LOS (25 vs 0 days, p<0.0001), hospital LOS (39 vs 10 days, p<0.0001) and mechanical ventilation days (19 vs 0 days, p<0.0001). Candidemia occurrence is rare in COVID-19 patients, but can result in worse clinical outcomes such as high mortality and longer hospital stay. Clinicians should attempt to minimize risk factors and perform routine workup for systemic candida infections in COVID-19 patients in the ICU, on mechanical ventilation and with multiple risk factors.

10.
Plos Medicine ; 18(9):25, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1686086

ABSTRACT

Background In South Africa, breastfeeding promotion is a national health priority. Regular perinatal home visits by community health workers (CHWs) have helped promote exclusive breast-feeding (EBF) in underresourced settings. Innovative, digital approaches including mobile video content have also shown promise, especially as access to mobile technology increases among CHWs. We measured the effects of an animated, mobile video series, the Philani MObile Video Intervention for Exclusive breastfeeding (MOVIE), delivered by a cadre of CHWs ("mentor mothers"). Methods and findings We conducted a stratified, cluster-randomized controlled trial from November 2018 to March 2020 in Khayelitsha, South Africa. The trial was conducted in collaboration with the Philani Maternal Child Health and Nutrition Trust, a nongovernmental community health organization. We quantified the effect of the MOVIE intervention on EBF at 1 and 5 months (primary outcomes), and on other infant feeding practices and maternal knowledge (secondary outcomes). We randomized 1,502 pregnant women in 84 clusters 1:1 to 2 study arms. Participants' median age was 26 years, 36.9% had completed secondary school, and 18.3% were employed. Mentor mothers in the video intervention arm provided standard-of-care counseling plus the MOVIE intervention;mentor mothers in the control arm provided standard of care only. Within the causal impact evaluation, we nested a mixed-methods performance evaluation measuring mentor mothers' time use and eliciting their subjective experiences through in-depth interviews. At both points of follow-up, we observed no statistically significant differences between the video intervention and the control arm with regard to EBF rates and other infant feeding practices [EBF in the last 24 hours at 1 month: RR 0.93 (95% CI 0.86 to 1.01, P= 0.091);EBF in the last 24 hours at 5 months: RR 0.90 (95% CI 0.77 to 1.04, P= 0.152)]. We observed a small, but significant improvement in maternal knowledge at the 1-month follow-up, but not at the 5-month follow-up. The interpretation of the results from this causal impact evaluation changes when we consider the results of the nested mixed-methods performance evaluation. The mean time spent per home visit was similar across study arms, but the intervention group spent approximately 40% of their visit time viewing videos. The absence of difference in effects on primary and secondary endpoints implies that, for the same time investment, the video intervention was as effective as face-to-face counseling with a mentor mother. The videos were also highly valued by mentor mothers and participants. Study limitations include a high loss to follow-up at 5 months after premature termination of the trial due to the COVID-19 pandemic and changes in mentor mother service demarcations. Conclusions This trial measured the effect of a video-based, mobile health (mHealth) intervention, delivered by CHWs during home visits in an underresourced setting. The videos replaced about two-fifths of CHWs' direct engagement time with participants in the intervention arm. The similar outcomes in the 2 study arms thus suggest that the videos were as effective as face-to-face counselling, when CHWs used them to replace a portion of that counselling. Where CHWs are scarce, mHealth video interventions could be a feasible and practical solution, supporting the delivery and scaling of community health promotion services.

11.
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems ; 5:13, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1581089

ABSTRACT

Cellular agriculture, the manufacturing of animal-sourced foods by cell cultures, may promote food security by providing a food source that is available, accessible, utilized, and stable. The extent to which cellular agriculture can promote food security, however, will depend in part on the supply system by which it produces food. Many cellular agriculture companies appear poised to follow a centralized supply system, in which production is concentrated within a small number of large plants and products are distributed over a wide area. This model benefits from economies of scale, but has several weaknesses to food security. By being built of a handful of plants with products distributed by a large transportation network, the centralized model is vulnerable to closures, as became clear for animal-sourced centralized system during the COVID-19 pandemic. Cellular agriculture systems are being built now;therefore, alternative supply system models of decentralized and distributed systems should be considered as the systems of cellular agriculture production are established. This paper defines both the requirements of food security and three possible supply system models that cellular agriculture could take and evaluates each model based on the requirements of food security.

12.
American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine ; 203(9):2, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1407513
15.
Clinical Lactation ; 12(1):6-14, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1133744

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Some hospitals have instituted separation of mothers and their newborn(s) when SARS-CoV-2 is suspected or confirmed in the mother. Limited data are available for SARS-CoV-2 vertical transmission, including studies on breast milk. This article looks at SARS CoV-2 case studies and data to date as well as prior pertinent research. Methods: Informal searches of PUBMED, CINAHL and Ovid Emcare were used to identify early reports of vertical transmissions of the novel Coronavirus, case reports, and population based reports of early evolving protocols and their outcomes. As this is a novel virus the authors used previously identified anti-infectivity and antiviral mechanisms of human milk on other similar viruses to guide analysis. Further this article reviewed the well established literature regarding the risks of undue infant separation which negatively affect nearly every aspect of infant and maternal health. Results: Informal searches conducted in the spring and early summer of 2020 identified 14 early reports attempting to analyze the initial and evolving global response to SARS-CoV-2 and the effects of the virus on the maternal-infant dyad. Conclusion: The feasibility of single-family rooms and support for breastfeeding as an alternative approach that addresses many of the risks favorably and reduces economic cost, both in lifetime disease burden and direct care are discussed. Initial reports seem to indicate that immediate separation of the mother from her newborn is likely to increase the risk to both mother and infant. © Copyright 2021 United States Lactation Consulting Association.

16.
JACCP Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy ; 3(8):1553-1554, 2020.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1092537

ABSTRACT

Introduction: In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare institutions faced challenges that required operational agility to facilitate provision of optimal patient care. Research Question or Hypothesis: This research was performed to elucidate how pharmacy departments adapted their staffing models and the impact on frontline staff satisfaction. Study Design: Critical care pharmacists in ACCP and ASHP list-serves were electronically invited to participate in a 28-question survey in April/May 2020. Methods: Likert-like questions used a 1-5 (strongly agree to strongly disagree) scale, and responses were compared based on degree of satisfaction with pharmacy leadership strategies implemented. Practice model changes were compared before and during COVID-19. Multivariate logistic regression was used to assess the effects of independent variables on the primary outcome, satisfaction with pharmacy leadership response. Results: Respondents (N = 168) representing 40 United States participated. Forty percent of respondents experienced a surge, 68% experienced a staffing model change, and the majority (64.9%) were satisfied overall with their pharmacy leadership's response to the COVID-19 pandemic. Both specialists (50% vs. 21%, P = 0.013) and unit-based generalists (65% vs. 35%, P < 0.001) decreased rounding in the unit. Disagreement with “Satisfied with leadership efforts to protect staff (limiting in-person meetings, changing code response)” decreased the odds of satisfaction by 96% [Odds Ratio (OR) 0.043 (95% CI 0.005-0.336), P = 0.003). Disagreement with “Satisfied with voice of front-line staff” was associated with an 84% reduction in satisfaction [OR 0.165 (95% CI 0.049- 0.549), P = 0.003]. Eliminating inperson rounds associated with a 95% decrease in satisfaction with pharmacy leadership [OR 0.053 (95% CI 0.007-0.392), P = 0.004]. Disagreement with “I believe I am at increased risk of getting COVID-19 due to departmental staffing decisions (as compared to ICU peers in other institutions)” increased satisfaction [OR 3.8, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.06-13.91]. Conclusion: Frontline staff perceptions can inform practice model changes to improve employee satisfaction while providing safe, reliable, and responsible patient care.

17.
Epidemiol Infect ; 149: e36, 2021 01 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1053940

ABSTRACT

This paper describes the epidemiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in Northern Ireland (NI) between 26 February 2020 and 26 April 2020, and analyses enhanced surveillance and contact tracing data collected between 26 February 2020 and 13 March 2020 to estimate secondary attack rates (SAR) and relative risk of infection among different categories of contacts of individuals with laboratory confirmed severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Our results show that during the study period COVID-19 cumulative incidence and mortality was lower in NI than the rest of the UK. Incidence and mortality were also lower than in the Republic of Ireland (ROI), although these observed differences are difficult to interpret given considerable differences in testing and surveillance between the two nations. SAR among household contacts was 15.9% (95% CI 6.6%-30.1%), over 6 times higher than the SAR among 'high-risk' contacts at 2.5% (95% CI 0.9%-5.4%). The results from logistic regression analysis of testing data on contacts of laboratory-confirmed cases show that household contacts had 11.0 times higher odds (aOR: 11.0, 95% CI 1.7-70.03, P-value: 0.011) of testing positive for SARS-CoV-2 compared to other categories of contacts. These results demonstrate the importance of the household as a locus of SARS-CoV-2 transmission, and the urgency of identifying effective interventions to reduce household transmission.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Child, Preschool , Contact Tracing , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Northern Ireland/epidemiology , Population Surveillance , Young Adult
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