Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 21
Filter
1.
Frontiers in pediatrics ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1824302

ABSTRACT

Aicardi-Goutières syndrome (AGS) is a rare hereditary early-onset encephalopathy. The syndrome was first described in 1984, and is characterised by upregulation of the type I interferon (IFN) pathway, which is involved in the host immune response against viral infections, including SARS-CoV-2. Whilst defects in type I IFN pathways have been described in association with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), less is known about the outcomes of upregulation. We describe an unusual case of generalised panniculitis as a post-COVID-19 phenomenon in a child with AGS. Our patient was initially managed with systemic steroid therapy, but due to relapse of symptoms on weaning, an alternative therapy was sought. In this case, a novel use of ruxolitinib, a JAK inhibitor, has resulted in lasting remission without complications. We discuss the probable protective role of IFN upregulation following COVID-19 infection in AGS and possible immunological mechanisms driving the panniculitis and therapeutic response in our case.

2.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-330333

ABSTRACT

Background Uncertainties remain about the benefit of a 3rd COVID-19 vaccine for people with attenuated response to earlier vaccines. This is of particular relevance for people with multiple sclerosis (pwMS) treated with anti-CD20 therapies and fingolimod, who have substantially reduced antibody responses to initial vaccine course. Methods PwMS taking part in a seroprevalence study without a detectable IgG response following COVID-19 vaccines 1&2 were invited to participate. Participants provided a dried blood spot +/-venous blood sample 2-12 weeks following COVID-19 vaccine 3. Humoral and T cell responses to SARS-CoV-2 spike protein and nucleocapsid antigen were measured. The relationship between evidence of prior COVID-19 infection and immune response to COVID-19 vaccine 3 was evaluated using Fishers exact test. Results Of 81 participants, 79 provided a dried blood spot sample, of whom 38 also provided a whole blood sample;2 provided only whole blood. Anti-SARS-CoV-2-spike IgG seroconversion post-COVID-19 vaccine 3 occurred in 26/79 (33%) participants;26/40 (65%) had positive T-cell responses. Overall, 31/40 (78%) demonstrated either humoral or cellular immune response post-COVID-19 vaccine 3. There no association between laboratory evidence of prior COVID-19 infection and anti-spike seroconversion following COVID-19 vaccine 3. Conclusions Approximately one third of pwMS who were seronegative after initial COVID-19 vaccination seroconverted after booster (third) vaccination, supporting the use of boosters in this group. Almost 8 out of 10 had a measurable immune response following 3rd COVID-19 vaccine. Key messages What is already known The benefits of COVID vaccination are well described. It is unknown whether there is additional benefit afforded from a third COVID-19 vaccination in those people who have failed to mount a serological response to their initial vaccine course. What this study adds Approximately one third of people with MS in our study, all of whom had failed to response to initial vaccine course, developed anti-spike antibodies following a third COVID-19 vaccine. Two-thirds of participants had T cell response to vaccination. No people taking fingolimod appeared to mount a T cell response to vaccination. How this study might influence practice These findings highlight potential benefits of booster vaccinations to a substantial proportion of immunosuppressed people who have failed to respond to initial vaccination course. The clinical correlates of antibody and T-cell responses to COVID-19 remain uncertain but they are almost certainly associated with milder subsequent disease in the general population.

3.
Transplantation ; 2022 03 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1741069

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 is associated with high mortality among transplant recipients. Comparative data that define humoral responses to the Oxford-AstraZeneca (AZ) and BNT162b2(Pfizer-BioNTech) vaccines are limited. METHODS: We recruited 920 kidney transplant patients receiving at least 1 dose of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 vaccine excluding patients with virus preexposure. Serological status was determined with the COVID-SeroKlir ELISA (Kantaro-EKF Diagnostics). Patients with a corrected antibody level of <0.7 AU/mL were considered seronegative. RESULTS: Four hundred ninety-five AZ and 141 Pfizer patients had a sample analyzed after first and 593 after second dose (346 AZ versus 247 Pfizer). After first dose, 25.7% of patients seroconverted (26.6% AZ, 22.8% Pfizer). After second dose 148 (42.8%) of AZ seroconverted compared with 130 (52.6%) of Pfizer (P = 0.02; hazard ratio, 1.48; 95% confidence interval, 1.07-2.06). When negative responders were excluded, Pfizer patients were shown to have significantly higher response than AZ patients (median 2.6 versus 1.78 AU/mL, P = 0.005).Patients on mycophenolate had a reduced seroconversion rate (42.2% versus 61.4%; P < 0.001; hazard ratio, 2.17) and reduced antibody levels (0.47 versus 1.22 AU/mL, P = 0.001), and this effect was dose dependent (P = 0.05). Prednisolone reduced the seroconversion from 58.2% to 43.6% (P = 0.03) among Pfizer but not in AZ recipients. Regression analysis showed that antibody levels were reduced by older age (P = 0.002), mycophenolate (P < 0.001), AZ vaccine (vs Pfizer; P = 0.001), and male gender (P = 0.02). Sixteen of 17 serious postvaccine infections occurred to patients who did not seroconvert. CONCLUSIONS: Both seroconversion and antibody levels are lower in AZ compared with Pfizer vaccinated recipients following 2 vaccine doses. Mycophenolate was associated with lower antibody responses in a dose-dependent manner. Serious postvaccine infections occurred among seronegative recipients.

4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Mar 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1713633

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: SARS-CoV-2 infection can lead to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome needing intensive care admission and may lead to death. As a virus that transmits by respiratory droplets and aerosols, determining the duration of viable virus shedding from the respiratory tract is critical for patient prognosis, and informs infection control measures both within healthcare settings and the public domain. METHODS: We prospectively examined upper and lower airway respiratory secretions for both viral RNA and infectious virions in mechanically ventilated patients admitted to the intensive care unit of the University Hospital of Wales. Samples were taken from the oral cavity (saliva), oropharynx (sub-glottic aspirate), or lower respiratory tract (non-directed bronchoalveolar lavage (NBL) or bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL)) and analyzed by both qPCR and plaque assay. RESULTS: 117 samples were obtained from 25 patients. qPCR showed extremely high rates of positivity across all sample types, however live virus was far more common in saliva (68%) than in BAL/NBAL (32%). Average titres of live virus were higher in subglottic aspirates (4.5x10 7) than in saliva (2.2x10 6) or BAL/NBAL (8.5x10 6) and reached >10 8 PFU/ml in some samples. The longest duration of shedding was 98 days, while most patients (14/25) shed live virus for 20 days or longer. CONCLUSIONS: Intensive care unit patients infected with SARS-CoV-2 can shed high titres of virus both in the upper and lower respiratory tract and tend to be prolonged shedders. This information is important for decision making around cohorting patients, de-escalation of PPE, and undertaking potential aerosol generating procedures.

5.
6.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 149(2): 557-561.e1, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1670624

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with some types of immunodeficiency can experience chronic or relapsing infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). This leads to morbidity and mortality, infection control challenges, and the risk of evolution of novel viral variants. The optimal treatment for chronic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is unknown. OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to characterize a cohort of patients with chronic or relapsing COVID-19 disease and record treatment response. METHODS: We conducted a UK physician survey to collect data on underlying diagnosis and demographics, clinical features, and treatment response of immunodeficient patients with chronic (lasting ≥21 days) or relapsing (≥2 episodes) of COVID-19. RESULTS: We identified 31 patients (median age 49 years). Their underlying immunodeficiency was most commonly characterized by antibody deficiency with absent or profoundly reduced peripheral B-cell levels; prior anti-CD20 therapy, and X-linked agammaglobulinemia. Their clinical features of COVID-19 were similar to those of the general population, but their median duration of symptomatic disease was 64 days (maximum 300 days) and individual patients experienced up to 5 episodes of illness. Remdesivir monotherapy (including when given for prolonged courses of ≤20 days) was associated with sustained viral clearance in 7 of 23 clinical episodes (30.4%), whereas the combination of remdesivir with convalescent plasma or anti-SARS-CoV-2 mAbs resulted in viral clearance in 13 of 14 episodes (92.8%). Patients receiving no therapy did not clear SARS-CoV-2. CONCLUSIONS: COVID-19 can present as a chronic or relapsing disease in patients with antibody deficiency. Remdesivir monotherapy is frequently associated with treatment failure, but the combination of remdesivir with antibody-based therapeutics holds promise.


Subject(s)
Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/therapy , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/therapeutic use , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Alanine/therapeutic use , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/pathology , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , Chronic Disease , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/pathology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/virology , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Middle Aged , Recombinant Fusion Proteins/administration & dosage , Recurrence , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Treatment Failure
7.
J Clin Immunol ; 2022 Jan 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653614

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Terminal complement pathway deficiencies often present with severe and recurrent infections. There is a lack of good-quality data on these rare conditions. This study investigated the clinical outcome and genetic variation in a large UK multi-center cohort with primary and secondary terminal complement deficiencies. METHODS: Clinicians from seven UK centers provided anonymised demographic, clinical, and laboratory data on patients with terminal complement deficiencies, which were collated and analysed. RESULTS: Forty patients, median age 19 (range 3-62) years, were identified with terminal complement deficiencies. Ten (62%) of 16 patients with low serum C5 concentrations had underlying pathogenic CFH or CFI gene variants. Two-thirds were from consanguineous Asian families, and 80% had an affected family member. The median age of the first infection was 9 years. Forty-three percent suffered meningococcal serotype B and 43% serotype Y infections. Nine (22%) were treated in intensive care for meningococcal septicaemia. Two patients had died, one from intercurrent COVID-19. Twenty-one (52%) were asymptomatic and diagnosed based on family history. All but one patient had received booster meningococcal vaccines and 70% were taking prophylactic antibiotics. DISCUSSION: The genetic etiology and clinical course of patients with primary and secondary terminal complement deficiency are variable. Patients with low antigenic C5 concentrations require genetic testing, as the low level may reflect consumption secondary to regulatory defects in the pathway. Screening of siblings is important. Only half of the patients develop septicaemia, but all should have a clear management plan.

9.
Front Immunol ; 12: 744696, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1485054

ABSTRACT

Background: Little is known about the mortality of hospital-acquired (nosocomial) COVID-19 infection globally. We investigated the risk of mortality and critical care admission in hospitalised adults with nosocomial COVID-19, relative to adults requiring hospitalisation due to community-acquired infection. Methods: We systematically reviewed the peer-reviewed and pre-print literature from 1/1/2020 to 9/2/2021 without language restriction for studies reporting outcomes of nosocomial and community-acquired COVID-19. We performed a random effects meta-analysis (MA) to estimate the 1) relative risk of death and 2) critical care admission, stratifying studies by patient cohort characteristics and nosocomial case definition. Results: 21 studies were included in the primary MA, describing 8,251 admissions across 8 countries during the first wave, comprising 1513 probable or definite nosocomial COVID-19, and 6738 community-acquired cases. Across all studies, the risk of mortality was 1.3 times greater in patients with nosocomial infection, compared to community-acquired (95% CI: 1.005 to 1.683). Rates of critical care admission were similar between groups (Relative Risk, RR=0.74, 95% CI: 0.50 to 1.08). Immunosuppressed patients diagnosed with nosocomial COVID-19 were twice as likely to die in hospital as those admitted with community-acquired infection (RR=2.14, 95% CI: 1.76 to 2.61). Conclusions: Adults who acquire SARS-CoV-2 whilst already hospitalised are at greater risk of mortality compared to patients admitted following community-acquired infection; this finding is largely driven by a substantially increased risk of death in individuals with malignancy or who had undergone transplantation. These findings inform public health and infection control policy and argue for individualised clinical interventions to combat the threat of nosocomial COVID-19, particularly for immunosuppressed groups. Systematic Review Registration: PROSPERO CRD42021249023.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19/mortality , Hospitalization , Immunocompromised Host , Inpatients , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , COVID-19/therapy , Disease-Free Survival , Humans , Risk Factors , Survival Rate
10.
Ann Neurol ; 91(1): 89-100, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1479378

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of disease modifying therapies on immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccines in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHODS: Four hundred seventy-three people with MS provided one or more dried blood spot samples. Information about coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and vaccine history, medical, and drug history were extracted from questionnaires and medical records. Dried blood spots were eluted and tested for antibodies to SARS-CoV-2. Antibody titers were partitioned into tertiles with people on no disease modifying therapy as a reference. We calculated the odds ratio of seroconversion (univariate logistic regression) and compared quantitative vaccine response (Kruskal Wallis) following the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine according to disease modifying therapy. We used regression modeling to explore the effect of vaccine timing, treatment duration, age, vaccine type, and lymphocyte count on vaccine response. RESULTS: Compared to no disease modifying therapy, the use of anti-CD20 monoclonal antibodies (odds ratio = 0.03, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.01-0.06, p < 0.001) and fingolimod (odds ratio = 0.04; 95% CI = 0.01-0.12) were associated with lower seroconversion following the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. All other drugs did not differ significantly from the untreated cohort. Both time since last anti-CD20 treatment and total time on treatment were significantly associated with the response to the vaccination. The vaccine type significantly predicted seroconversion, but not in those on anti-CD20 medications. Preliminary data on cellular T-cell immunity showed 40% of seronegative subjects had measurable anti-SARS-CoV-2 T cell responses. INTERPRETATION: Some disease modifying therapies convey risk of attenuated serological response to SARS-CoV-2 vaccination in people with MS. We provide recommendations for the practical management of this patient group. ANN NEUROL 20219999:n/a-n/a.


Subject(s)
Antirheumatic Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunocompromised Host , Multiple Sclerosis/immunology , Seroconversion/drug effects , Adult , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antibodies, Viral/drug effects , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Multiple Sclerosis/drug therapy , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom
11.
Ann Behav Med ; 56(3): 219-234, 2022 03 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1475764

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The prevalence and prognosis of post-acute stage SARS-CoV-2 infection fatigue symptoms remain largely unknown. AIMS: We performed a systematic review to evaluate the prevalence of fatigue in post-recovery from SARS-CoV-2 infection. METHOD: Medline, Embase, PsycINFO, CINAHL, Web of Science, Scopus, trial registries, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and Google Scholar were searched for studies on fatigue in samples that recovered from polymerase chain reaction (PCR) diagnosed COVID-19. English, French, and Spanish studies were included. Meta-analyses were conducted separately for each recruitment setting. RESULTS: We identified 41 studies with 9,362 patients that recovered from COVID-19. Post-COVID-19 patients self-report of fatigue was higher compared to healthy controls (risk ratio (RR) = 3.688, 95%CI [2.502, 5.436], p < .001). Over 50% of patients discharged from inpatient care reported symptoms of fatigue during the first (event rate [ER] = 0.517, 95%CI [0.278, 0.749]) and second month following recovery (ER = 0.527, 95%CI [0.337, 0.709]). Ten percent of the community patients reported fatigue in the first-month post-recovery. Patient setting moderated the association between COVID-19 recovery and fatigue symptoms (R2 = 0.11, p < .001). Female patients recovering from COVID-19 had a greater self-report of fatigue (odds ratio [OR] = 1.782, 95%CI [1.531, 2.870]). Patients recruited through social media had fatigue above 90% across multiple time points. Fatigue was highest in studies from Europe. CONCLUSION: Fatigue is a symptom associated with functional challenges which could have economic and social impacts. Developing long-term planning for fatigue management amongst patients beyond the acute stages of SARS-CoV-2 infection is essential to optimizing patient care and public health outcomes. Further studies should examine the impact of sociodemographic, pandemic-related restrictions and pre-existing conditions on fatigue.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/complications , Fatigue/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2
12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-291469

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To define the burden of morbidity and mortality arising from COVID-19 in individuals with primary (PID) and secondary immunodeficiency (SID) in the United Kingdom. Methods In March 2020, the United Kingdom Primary Immunodeficiency Network (UKPIN) established a registry of cases to collate the outcomes of individuals with PID and SID following SARS-CoV-2 infection and treatment. Anonymised demographic data, pre-SARS-CoV-2 infection lymphocyte counts, co-morbidities, targeted treatments and outcomes were collected. Three groups were analysed in further detail: individuals with common variable immunodeficiency (CVID), individuals with any PID, including CVID, receiving immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IgRT) and individuals with secondary immunodeficiency. Results A total of 310 cases of SARS-CoV-2 infection in individuals with PID or SID have now been reported in the UK. The overall mortality within the cohort was 17.7% (n = 55/310). Individuals with CVID demonstrated an infection fatality rate (IFR) of 18.3% (n = 17/93), individuals with PID receiving IgRT had an IFR of 16.3% (n = 26/159) and individuals with SID, an IFR of 27.2% (n = 25/92). Individuals with PID and SID, had higher inpatient mortality and died at a younger age than the general population. Increasing age, low pre-SARS-CoV-2 infection lymphocyte count and the presence of common co-morbidities increased the risk of mortality in PID. Access to specific COVID-19 treatments in this cohort was limited: only 22.9% (n = 33/144) of patients admitted to hospital received dexamethasone, remdesivir, an anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody-based therapeutic (e.g. REGN-COV2 or convalescent plasma) or tocilizumab as a monotherapy or in combination. Dexamethasone, remdesivir and anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody-based therapeutics appeared efficacious in PID and SID. Conclusion Compared to the general population, individuals with PID or SID are at high risk of mortality following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Increasing age, low baseline lymphocyte count and the presence of co-morbidities are additional risk factors for poor outcome in this cohort.

13.
Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol ; 21(6): 525-534, 2021 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447630

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The clinical outcomes from COVID-19 in monogenic causes of predominant antibody deficiency have pivotal implications for our understanding of the antiviral contribution of humoral immunity. This review summarizes the lessons learned from COVID-19 infection in X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) due to genetic defects in Bruton's tyrosine kinase (BTK). RECENT FINDINGS: Key molecular pathways underlying the development of severe COVID-19 are emerging, highlighting the possible contribution of BTK to hyperinflammation. SARS-CoV-2 specific T-cell responses and complement activation appear insufficient to achieve viral clearance in some B-cell deficient individuals. Whilst appearing efficacious in this group, use of convalescent plasma has been recently associated with the evolution of viral escape variants. Early data suggests individuals with XLA can mount a viral-specific T-cell vaccine response, however, the clinical significance of this is still emerging. SUMMARY: In contrast to reports made early in the pandemic, we show XLA patients remain susceptible to severe disease. Persistent infection was common and is likely to carry a significant symptom burden and risk of novel variant evolution. COVID-19 infection in this vulnerable, antibody deficient group due to genetic, therapeutic or disease causes may require prompt and specific intervention for both patient and societal benefit.


Subject(s)
Agammaglobulinaemia Tyrosine Kinase/genetics , Agammaglobulinemia/complications , COVID-19/immunology , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/complications , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Agammaglobulinemia/genetics , Agammaglobulinemia/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/virology , Evolution, Molecular , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/genetics , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked/immunology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Severity of Illness Index
16.
Thorax ; 76(12): 1246-1249, 2021 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322847

ABSTRACT

The burden of nosocomial SARS-CoV-2 infection remains poorly defined. We report on the outcomes of 2508 adults with molecularly-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 admitted across 18 major hospitals, representing over 60% of those hospitalised across Wales between 1 March and 1 July 2020. Inpatient mortality for nosocomial infection ranged from 38% to 42%, consistently higher than participants with community-acquired infection (31%-35%) across a range of case definitions. Those with hospital-acquired infection were older and frailer than those infected within the community. Nosocomial diagnosis occurred a median of 30 days following admission (IQR 21-63), suggesting a window for prophylactic or postexposure interventions, alongside enhanced infection control measures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cross Infection , Adult , Cross Infection/epidemiology , Hospitals , Humans , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Wales/epidemiology
17.
Immunology ; 164(1): 135-147, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295026

ABSTRACT

Detecting antibody responses during and after SARS-CoV-2 infection is essential in determining the seroepidemiology of the virus and the potential role of antibody in disease. Scalable, sensitive and specific serological assays are essential to this process. The detection of antibody in hospitalized patients with severe disease has proven relatively straightforward; detecting responses in subjects with mild disease and asymptomatic infections has proven less reliable. We hypothesized that the suboptimal sensitivity of antibody assays and the compartmentalization of the antibody response may contribute to this effect. We systematically developed an ELISA, optimizing different antigens and amplification steps, in serum and saliva from non-hospitalized SARS-CoV-2-infected subjects. Using trimeric spike glycoprotein, rather than nucleocapsid, enabled detection of responses in individuals with low antibody responses. IgG1 and IgG3 predominate to both antigens, but more anti-spike IgG1 than IgG3 was detectable. All antigens were effective for detecting responses in hospitalized patients. Anti-spike IgG, IgA and IgM antibody responses were readily detectable in saliva from a minority of RT-PCR confirmed, non-hospitalized symptomatic individuals, and these were mostly subjects who had the highest levels of anti-spike serum antibodies. Therefore, detecting antibody responses in both saliva and serum can contribute to determining virus exposure and understanding immune responses after SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Immunoglobulin A/immunology , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , Immunoglobulin M/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Antigens, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Saliva
18.
J Clin Pathol ; 75(4): 255-262, 2022 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1090886

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The role of specific blood tests to predict poor prognosis in patients admitted with infection from SARS-CoV-2 remains uncertain. During the first wave of the global pandemic, an extended laboratory testing panel was integrated into the local pathway to guide triage and healthcare resource utilisation for emergency admissions. We conducted a retrospective service evaluation to determine the utility of extended tests (D-dimer, ferritin, high-sensitivity troponin I, lactate dehydrogenase and procalcitonin) compared with the core panel (full blood count, urea and electrolytes, liver function tests and C reactive protein). METHODS: Clinical outcomes for adult patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 admitted between 17 March and 30 June 2020 were extracted, alongside costs estimates for individual tests. Prognostic performance was assessed using multivariable logistic regression analysis with 28-day mortality used as the primary endpoint and a composite of 28-day intensive care escalation or mortality for secondary analysis. RESULTS: From 13 500 emergency attendances, we identified 391 unique adults admitted with COVID-19. Of these, 113 died (29%) and 151 (39%) reached the composite endpoint. 'Core' test variables adjusted for age, gender and index of deprivation had a prognostic area under the curve of 0.79 (95% CI 0.67 to 0.91) for mortality and 0.70 (95% CI 0.56 to 0.84) for the composite endpoint. Addition of 'extended' test components did not improve on this. CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest use of the extended laboratory testing panel to risk stratify community-acquired COVID-19 positive patients on admission adds limited prognostic value. We suggest laboratory requesting should be targeted to patients with specific clinical indications.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Emergency Service, Hospital , Humans , Retrospective Studies , Risk Assessment , SARS-CoV-2
19.
Ann Clin Biochem ; 58(2): 123-131, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1067019

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serological assays for Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have roles in seroepidemiology, convalescent plasma-testing, antibody durability and vaccine studies. Currently, SARS-CoV-2 serology is performed using serum/plasma collected by venepuncture. Dried blood spot (DBS) testing offers significant advantages as it is minimally invasive, avoids venepuncture with specimens being mailed to the laboratory. METHODS: A pathway utilizing a newborn screening laboratory infrastructure was developed using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay to detect IgG antibodies against the receptor-binding domain of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in DBS specimens. Paired plasma and DBS specimens from SARS-CoV-2 antibody-positive and -negative subjects and polymerase chain reaction positive subjects were tested. DBS specimen stability, effect of blood volume and punch location were also evaluated. RESULTS: DBS specimens from antibody-negative (n = 85) and -positive (n = 35) subjects and polymerase chain reaction positive subjects (n = 11) had a mean (SD; range) optical density (OD) of 0.14 (0.046; 0.03-0.27), 0.98 (0.41; 0.31-1.64) and 1.12 (0.37; 0.49-1.54), respectively. An action value OD >0.28 correctly assigned all cases. The weighted Deming regression for comparison of the DBS and the plasma assay yielded: y = 0.004041 + 1.005x, r = 0.991, Sy/x 0.171, n = 82. Extraction efficiency of antibodies from DBS specimens was >99%. DBS specimens were stable for at least 28 days at ambient room temperature and humidity. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 IgG receptor-binding domain antibodies can be reliably detected in DBS specimens. DBS serological testing offers lower costs than either point of care or serum/plasma assays that require patient travel, phlebotomy and hospital/clinic resources; the development of a DBS assay may be particularly important for resource poor settings.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , COVID-19/immunology , Dried Blood Spot Testing , Immunoglobulin G/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , COVID-19/diagnosis , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology
20.
J Allergy Clin Immunol ; 147(2): 520-531, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-792893

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is uncertainty about the impact of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in individuals with rare inborn errors of immunity (IEI), a population at risk of developing severe coronavirus disease 2019. This is relevant not only for these patients but also for the general population, because studies of IEIs can unveil key requirements for host defense. OBJECTIVE: We sought to describe the presentation, manifestations, and outcome of SARS-CoV-2 infection in IEI to inform physicians and enhance understanding of host defense against SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: An invitation to participate in a retrospective study was distributed globally to scientific, medical, and patient societies involved in the care and advocacy for patients with IEI. RESULTS: We gathered information on 94 patients with IEI with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Their median age was 25 to 34 years. Fifty-three patients (56%) suffered from primary antibody deficiency, 9 (9.6%) had immune dysregulation syndrome, 6 (6.4%) a phagocyte defect, 7 (7.4%) an autoinflammatory disorder, 14 (15%) a combined immunodeficiency, 3 (3%) an innate immune defect, and 2 (2%) bone marrow failure. Ten were asymptomatic, 25 were treated as outpatients, 28 required admission without intensive care or ventilation, 13 required noninvasive ventilation or oxygen administration, 18 were admitted to intensive care units, 12 required invasive ventilation, and 3 required extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. Nine patients (7 adults and 2 children) died. CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that (1) more than 30% of patients with IEI had mild coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and (2) risk factors predisposing to severe disease/mortality in the general population also seemed to affect patients with IEI, including more younger patients. Further studies will identify pathways that are associated with increased risk of severe disease and are nonredundant or redundant for protection against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Genetic Diseases, Inborn/epidemiology , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , Severity of Illness Index , Young Adult
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL