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1.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 8(1): 212, 2022 Sep 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2038986

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: We describe a protocol for FIRE CORAL, an observational cohort study that examines the recovery from COVID-19 disease following acute hospitalization with an emphasis on functional, imaging, and respiratory evaluation. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: FIRE CORAL is a multicenter prospective cohort study of participants recovering from COVID-19 disease with in-person follow-up for functional and pulmonary phenotyping conducted by the National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute (NHLBI) Prevention and Early Treatment of Acute Lung Injury (PETAL) Network. FIRE CORAL will include a subset of participants enrolled in Biology and Longitudinal Epidemiology of PETAL COVID-19 Observational Study (BLUE CORAL), an NHLBI-funded prospective cohort study describing the clinical characteristics, treatments, biology, and outcomes of hospitalized patients with COVID-19 across the PETAL Network. FIRE CORAL consists of a battery of in-person assessments objectively measuring pulmonary function, abnormalities on lung imaging, physical functional status, and biospecimen analyses. Participants will attend and perform initial in-person testing at 3 to 9 months after hospitalization. The primary objective of the study is to determine the feasibility of longitudinal assessments investigating multiple domains of recovery from COVID-19. Secondarily, we will perform descriptive statistics, including the prevalence and characterization of abnormalities on pulmonary function, chest imaging, and functional status. We will also identify potential clinical and biologic factors that predict recovery or the occurrence of persistent impairment of pulmonary function, chest imaging, and functional status. ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: FIRE CORAL is approved via the Vanderbilt University central institutional review board (IRB) and via reliance agreement with the site IRBs. Results will be disseminated via the writing group for the protocol committee and reviewed by the PETAL Network publications committee prior to publication. Data obtained via the study will subsequently be made publicly available via NHLBI's biorepository. STRENGTHS AND LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY: Strengths: First US-based multicenter cohort of pulmonary and functional outcomes in patients previously hospitalized for COVID-19 infection Longitudinal biospecimen measurement allowing for biologic phenotyping of abnormalities Geographically diverse cohort allowing for a more generalizable understanding of post-COVID pulmonary sequela Limitations: Selected cohort given proximity to a participating center Small cohort which may be underpowered to identify small changes in pulmonary function.

2.
BMJ Open ; 12(7): e061285, 2022 Jul 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962308

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Determine the safety, feasibility and initial efficacy of a multicomponent telerehabilitation programme for COVID-19 survivors. DESIGN: Pilot randomised feasibility study. SETTING: In-home telerehabilitation. PARTICIPANTS: 44 participants (21 female, mean age 52 years) discharged home following hospitalisation with COVID-19 (with and without intensive care unit (ICU) stay). INTERVENTIONS: Participants were block randomised 2:1 to receive 12 individual biobehaviourally informed, app-facilitated, multicomponent telerehabilitation sessions with a licenced physical therapist (n=29) or to a control group (n=15) consisting of education on exercise and COVID-19 recovery trajectory, physical activity and vitals monitoring, and weekly check-ins with study staff. Interventions were 100% remote and occurred over 12 weeks. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was feasibility, including safety and session adherence. Secondary outcomes included preliminary efficacy outcomes including tests of function and balance; patient-reported outcome measures; a cognitive assessment; and average daily step count. The 30 s chair stand test was the main secondary (efficacy) outcome. RESULTS: No adverse events (AEs) occurred during testing or in telerehabilitation sessions; 38% (11/29) of the intervention group compared with 60% (9/15) of the control group experienced an AE (p=0.21), most of which were minor, over the course of the 12-week study. 27 of 29 participants (93%; 95% CI 77% to 99%) receiving the intervention attended ≥75% of sessions. Both groups demonstrated clinically meaningful improvement in secondary outcomes with no statistically significant differences between groups. CONCLUSION: Fully remote telerehabilitation was safe, feasible, had high adherence for COVID-19 recovery, and may apply to other medically complex patients including those with barriers to access care. This pilot study was designed to evaluate feasibility; further efficacy evaluation is needed. TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04663945.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Mobile Applications , Telerehabilitation , Feasibility Studies , Female , Humans , Middle Aged , Pilot Projects , Survivors
3.
Alcohol Clin Exp Res ; 46(6): 1094-1102, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956674

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE: Investigations show that medications for alcohol use disorders (MAUD) reduce heavy drinking and relapses. However, only 1.6% of individuals with alcohol use disorders (AUD) receive MAUD across care settings. The epidemiology of MAUD prescribing in the acute care setting is incompletely described. We hypothesized that MAUD would be under prescribed in inpatient acute care hospital settings compared to the outpatient, emergency department (ED), and inpatient substance use treatment settings. METHODS: We evaluated electronic health record (EHR) data from adult patients with an International Classification of Diseases, 10th revision (ICD-10) alcohol-related diagnosis in the University of Colorado Health (UCHealth) system between January 1, 2016 and 31 December, 2019. Data from patients with an ICD-10 diagnosis code for opioid use disorder and those receiving MAUD prior to their first alcohol-related episode were excluded. The primary outcome was prescribing of MAUD, defined by prescription of naltrexone, acamprosate, and/or disulfiram. We performed bivariate and multivariate analyses to identify independent predictors of MAUD prescribing at UCHealth. RESULTS: We identified 48,421 unique patients with 136,205 alcohol-related encounters at UCHealth. Encounters occurred in the ED (42%), inpatient acute care (17%), inpatient substance use treatment (18%), or outpatient primary care (12%) settings. Only 2270 (5%) patients received MAUD across all settings. Female sex and addiction medicine consults positively predicted MAUD prescribing. In contrast, encounters outside inpatient substance use treatment, Hispanic ethnicity, and black or non-white race were negative predictors of MAUD prescribing. Compared to inpatient substance use treatment, inpatient acute care hospitalizations for AUD was associated with a 93% reduced odds of receiving MAUD. CONCLUSIONS: AUD-related ED and inpatient acute care hospital encounters in our healthcare system were common. Nevertheless, prescriptions for MAUD were infrequent in this population, particularly in inpatient settings. Our findings suggest that the initiation of MAUD for patients with alcohol-related diagnoses in acute care settings deserves additional evaluation.


Subject(s)
Alcoholism , Opioid-Related Disorders , Adult , Alcoholism/drug therapy , Alcoholism/epidemiology , Colorado/epidemiology , Delivery of Health Care , Ethanol/therapeutic use , Female , Humans , Naltrexone/therapeutic use
4.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(5): e1010359, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865350

ABSTRACT

As of January 2022, at least 60 million individuals are estimated to develop post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC) after infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). While elevated levels of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells have been observed in non-specific PASC, little is known about their impact on pulmonary function which is compromised in the majority of these individuals. This study compares frequencies of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells and inflammatory markers with lung function in participants with pulmonary PASC and resolved COVID-19 (RC). Compared to RC, participants with respiratory PASC had between 6- and 105-fold higher frequencies of IFN-γ- and TNF-α-producing SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells in peripheral blood, and elevated levels of plasma CRP and IL-6. Importantly, in PASC participants the frequency of TNF-α-producing SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, which exhibited the highest levels of Ki67 indicating they were activity dividing, correlated positively with plasma IL-6 and negatively with measures of lung function, including forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), while increased frequencies of IFN-γ-producing SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells associated with prolonged dyspnea. Statistical analyses stratified by age, number of comorbidities and hospitalization status demonstrated that none of these factors affect differences in the frequency of SARS-CoV-2 T cells and plasma IL-6 levels measured between PASC and RC cohorts. Taken together, these findings demonstrate elevated frequencies of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells in individuals with pulmonary PASC are associated with increased systemic inflammation and decreased lung function, suggesting that SARS-CoV-2-specific T cells contribute to lingering pulmonary symptoms. These findings also provide mechanistic insight on the pathophysiology of PASC that can inform development of potential treatments to reduce symptom burden.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-6 , Lung , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha
5.
J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg ; 2022 Mar 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1796408

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine the influence of venovenous extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) on outcomes of mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 during the first 120 days after hospital discharge. METHODS: Five academic centers conducted a retrospective analysis of mechanically ventilated patients with COVID-19 admitted during March through May 2020. Survivors had access to a multidisciplinary postintensive care recovery clinic. Physical, psychological, and cognitive deficits were measured using validated instruments and compared based on ECMO status. RESULTS: Two hundred sixty two mechanically ventilated patients were compared with 46 patients cannulated for venovenous ECMO. Patients receiving ECMO were younger and traveled farther but there was no significant difference in gender, race, or body mass index. ECMO patients were mechanically ventilated for longer durations (median, 26 days [interquartile range, 19.5-41 days] vs 13 days [interquartile range, 7-20 days]) and were more likely to receive inhaled pulmonary vasodilators, neuromuscular blockade, investigational COVID-19 therapies, blood transfusions, and inotropes. Patients receiving ECMO experienced greater bleeding and clotting events (P < .01). However, survival at discharge was similar (69.6% vs 70.6%). Of the 217 survivors, 65.0% had documented follow-up within 120 days. Overall, 95.5% were residing at home, 25.7% had returned to work or usual activity, and 23.1% were still using supplemental oxygen; these rates did not differ significantly based on ECMO status. Rates of physical, psychological, and cognitive deficits were similar. CONCLUSIONS: Our data suggest that COVID-19 survivors experience significant physical, psychological, and cognitive deficits following intensive care unit admission. Despite a more complex critical illness course, longer average duration of mechanical ventilation, and longer average length of stay, patients treated with venovenous ECMO had similar survival at discharge and outcomes within 120 days of discharge.

6.
BMC Geriatr ; 22(1): 251, 2022 03 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1759697

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 is a global pandemic with poorly understood long-term consequences. Determining the trajectory of recovery following COVID-19 hospitalization is critical for prioritizing care, allocating resources, facilitating prognosis, and informing rehabilitation. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate recovery following COVID-19 hospitalization. METHODS: Participants age 18 years or older who were hospitalized for ≥24 h due to COVID-19 completed phone/video call virtual assessments (including the 10-time chair rise test) and survey forms at three time points (2-6, 12, and 18 weeks) after hospital discharge. Univariate logistic and linear regression models assessed the associations of the outcomes with primary predictors (categorical age, sex, race/ethnicity group, and categorical pre-hospitalization frailty) at baseline; the same were used to assess differences in change from week 2-6 (continuous outcomes) or outcome persistence/worsening (categorical) at last contact. RESULTS: One hundred nine adults (age 53.0 [standard deviation 13.1]; 53% female) participated including 43 (39%) age 60 or greater; 59% identified as an ethnic and/or racial minority. Over 18 weeks, the mean time to complete the 10-time chair rise test decreased (i.e., improved) by 6.0 s (95% CI: 4.1, 7.9 s; p < 0.001); this change did not differ by pre-hospital frailty, race/ethnicity group, or sex, but those age ≥ 60 had greater improvement. At weeks 2-6, 67% of participants reported a worse Clinical Frailty Scale category compared to their pre-hospitalization level, whereas 42% reported a worse frailty score at 18 weeks. Participants who did not return to pre-hospitalization levels were more likely to be female, younger, and report a pre-hospitalization category of 'very fit' or 'well'. CONCLUSIONS: We found that functional performance improved from weeks 2-6 to 18 weeks of follow-up; that incident clinical frailty developed in some individuals following COVID-19; and that age, sex, race/ethnicity, and pre-hospitalization frailty status may impact recovery from COVID-19. Notably, individuals age 60 and older were more likely than those under age 45 years to return to their pre-hospitalization status and to make greater improvements in functional performance. The results of the present study provide insight into the trajectory of recovery among a representative cohort of individuals hospitalized due to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Frailty , Telemedicine , Female , Frailty/diagnosis , Frailty/epidemiology , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Physical Functional Performance , Prospective Studies , Quality of Life
7.
Critical care explorations ; 4(3), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1738096

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The multifaceted long-term impairments resulting from critical illness and COVID-19 require interdisciplinary management approaches in the recovery phase of illness. Operational insights into the structure and process of recovery clinics (RCs) from heterogeneous health systems are needed. This study describes the structure and process characteristics of existing and newly implemented ICU-RCs and COVID-RCs in a subset of large health systems in the United States. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. SETTING: Thirty-nine RCs, representing a combined 156 hospitals within 29 health systems participated. PATIENTS: None. INTERVENTIONS: None. MEASUREMENT AND MAIN RESULTS: RC demographics, referral criteria, and operating characteristics were collected, including measures used to assess physical, psychologic, and cognitive recoveries. Thirty-nine RC surveys were completed (94% response rate). ICU-RC teams included physicians, pharmacists, social workers, physical therapists, and advanced practice providers. Funding sources for ICU-RCs included clinical billing (n = 20, 77%), volunteer staff support (n = 15, 58%), institutional staff/space support (n = 13, 46%), and grant or foundation funding (n = 3, 12%). Forty-six percent of RCs report patient visit durations of 1 hour or longer. ICU-RC teams reported use of validated scales to assess psychologic recovery (93%), physical recovery (89%), and cognitive recovery (86%) more often in standard visits compared with COVID-RC teams (psychologic, 54%;physical, 69%;and cognitive, 46%). CONCLUSIONS: Operating structures of RCs vary, though almost all describe modest capacity and reliance on volunteerism and discretionary institutional support. ICU- and COVID-RCs in the United States employ varied funding sources and endorse different assessment measures during visits to guide care coordination. Common features include integration of ICU clinicians, interdisciplinary approach, and focus on severe critical illness. The heterogeneity in RC structures and processes contributes to future research on the optimal structure and process to achieve the best postintensive care syndrome and postacute sequelae of COVID outcomes.

11.
Trauma Surg Acute Care Open ; 6(1): e000591, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1063078

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Since the outset of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, published tracheostomy guidelines have generally recommended deferral of the procedure beyond the initial weeks of intubation given high mortality as well as concerns about transmission of the infection to providers. It is unclear whether tracheostomy in patients with COVID-19 infection facilitates ventilator weaning, and long-term outcomes are not yet reported in the literature. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of tracheostomy outcomes in patients with COVID-19 infection at a single-center academic tertiary referral intensive care unit. Patients underwent percutaneous tracheostomy at the bedside; the procedure was performed with limited staffing to reduce risk of disease transmission. RESULTS: Between March 1 and June 30, 2020, a total of 206 patients with COVID-19 infection required mechanical ventilation and 26 underwent tracheostomy at a mean of 25±5 days after initial intubation. Overall, 81% of tracheostomy patients were liberated from the ventilator at a mean of 9±6 days postprocedure, and 54% were decannulated prior to hospital discharge at a mean of 21±10 days postprocedure. Sedation and pain medication requirements decreased significantly in the week after the procedure. In-hospital mortality was 15%. Among tracheostomy survivors, 68% were discharged to a facility. DISCUSSION: The management of patients with COVID-19 related respiratory failure can be challenging due to prolonged ventilator dependency. In our initial experience, outcomes post-tracheostomy in this population are encouraging, with short time to liberation from the ventilator, a high rate of decannulation prior to hospital discharge, and similar mortality to tracheostomy performed for other indications. Barriers to weaning ventilation in this cohort may be high sedation needs and ventilator dyssynchrony. LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: Level V-Therapeutic/care management.

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