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Cogent Medicine ; 8, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1617066


Background and Objectives: In March 2020, approximately 57 million children were affected by massive school closures in the wake of the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. Many child advocates expressed concerns about the impact of physical school closures and transition to virtual learning on school-aged children's mental health and well-being, particularly those who utilized resources, such as counselling or special education, within the school system. This systematic review was done to identify a) the effect and impact of school closures on the mental health of children in grades K-12, if any, and b) to guide future research on the topic. Methods: A systematic review focused on published articles addressing the effect that COVID-19 related school closures and transition to virtual learning had on school-aged children's and adolescents' mental health. Inclusion criteria included: human studies, scholarly papers, school-aged children, SARS-CoV-2 research, mental health impacts, an article written in English, and research-based in the United States. Exclusion criteria included: not human studies, studies not available in English, individuals over 18 years old, and SARS-CoV or MERS-CoV research. The search was conducted between March 20, 2021, and April 18, 2021. Articles were further screened utilizing the PRISMA flow diagram. Once screened, included articles were reviewed by one member of the research team and a PICO-style analysis was used for each article. After the initial review, a total of 11 articles were included in this systematic review. Learning Points Discussion: We identified several areas of a child's life that school closures limited access to, such as reduced-cost meals, mental health services, and special education. Since the school closures and subsequent transition to online schooling, these resources became unavailable or limited by virtual technology. Children from lower socioeconomic backgrounds and marginalized communities were particularly vulnerable to negative mental health changes due to school closures and decreased access to school-based resources. These individuals belonging to a lower socioeconomic class are more likely to have inadequate computers to utilize in-home learning, have more unstable internet connections, and are less likely to have a caregiver that can stay home to help with their distanced learning. This research will be vital in understanding any adverse effects on children and shaping the future development of school-based programs and their funding.

J Med Virol ; 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1442020


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic spread rapidly and this scenario is concerning in South America, mainly in Brazil that presented more than 21 million coronavirus disease 2019 cases and 590 000 deaths. The recent emergence of novel lineages carrying several mutations in the spike protein has raised additional public health concerns worldwide. The present study describes the temporal spreading and evolution of SARS-CoV2 in the beginning of the second pandemic wave in Brazil, highlighting the fast dissemination of the two major concerning variants (P.1 and P.2). A total of 2507 SARS-CoV-2 whole-genome sequences (WGSs) with available information from the country (Brazil) and sampling date (July 2020-February 2021), were obtained and the frequencies of the lineages were evaluated in the period of the growing second pandemic wave. The results demonstrated the increasing prevalence of P.1 and P.2 lineages in the period evaluated. P.2 lineage was first detected in the middle of 2020, but a high increase occurred only in the last trimester of this same year and the spreading to all Brazilian regions. P.1 lineage emerged even later, first in the North region in December 2020 and really fast dissemination to all other Brazilian regions in January and February 2021. All SARS-CoV-2 WGSs of P.1 and P.2 were further separately evaluated with a Bayesian approach. The rates of nucleotide and amino acid substitutions were statistically higher in P.1 than P.2 (p < 0.01). The phylodynamic analysis demonstrated that P.2 gradually spread in all the country from September 2020 to January 2021, while P.1 disseminated even faster from December 2020 to February 2021. Skyline plots of both lineages demonstrated a slight rise in the spreading for P.2 and exponential growth for P.1. In conclusion, these data demonstrated that the P.1 (recently renamed as Gamma) and P.2 lineages have predominated in the second pandemic wave due to the very high spreading across all geographic regions in Brazil at the end of 2020 and beginning of 2021.

Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(7): 1821-1830, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278363


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019, and the outbreak rapidly evolved into the current coronavirus disease pandemic. SARS-CoV-2 is a respiratory virus that causes symptoms similar to those caused by influenza A and B viruses. On July 2, 2020, the US Food and Drug Administration granted emergency use authorization for in vitro diagnostic use of the Influenza SARS-CoV-2 Multiplex Assay. This assay detects influenza A virus at 102.0, influenza B virus at 102.2, and SARS-CoV-2 at 100.3 50% tissue culture or egg infectious dose, or as few as 5 RNA copies/reaction. The simultaneous detection and differentiation of these 3 major pathogens increases overall testing capacity, conserves resources, identifies co-infections, and enables efficient surveillance of influenza viruses and SARS-CoV-2.

COVID-19 , Influenza A virus , Humans , Influenza A virus/genetics , Influenza B virus/genetics , Multiplex Polymerase Chain Reaction , Reverse Transcription , SARS-CoV-2