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1.
Healthcare ; 10(8):1594, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2023403

ABSTRACT

Significant progress has been achieved in human health in the European Union in recent years. New medicines, vaccines, and treatments have been developed to tackle some of the leading causes of disease and life-threatening illnesses. It is clear that investment in research and development (R&D) for innovative medicines and treatments is essential for making progress in preventing and treating diseases. Ahead of the legislative process, which should begin by the end of 2022, discussions focus on how Europe can best promote the huge potential benefits of new science and technology within the regulatory framework. The challenges in European healthcare were spelled out by the panellists at the roundtable organised by European Alliance for Personalised Medicine (EAPM). Outcomes from panellists’ discussions have been summarized and re-arranged in this paper under five headings: innovation, unmet medical need, access, security of supply, adapting to progress, and efficiency. Some of the conclusions that emerged from the panel are a call for a better overall holistic vision of the future of pharmaceuticals and health in Europe and a collaborative effort among all stakeholders, seeing the delivery of medicines as part of a broader picture of healthcare.

2.
PLoS One ; 17(7): e0270668, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2021849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A recent prospective meta-analysis demonstrated that interleukin-6 antagonists are associated with lower all-cause mortality in hospitalised patients with COVID-19, compared with usual care or placebo. However, emerging evidence suggests that clinicians are favouring the use of tocilizumab over sarilumab. A new randomised comparison of these agents from the REMAP-CAP trial shows similar effects on in-hospital mortality. Therefore, we initiated a network meta-analysis, to estimate pairwise associations between tocilizumab, sarilumab and usual care or placebo with 28-day mortality, in COVID-19 patients receiving concomitant corticosteroids and ventilation, based on all available direct and indirect evidence. METHODS: Eligible trials randomised hospitalised patients with COVID-19 that compared tocilizumab or sarilumab with usual care or placebo in the prospective meta-analysis or that directly compared tocilizumab with sarilumab. Data were restricted to patients receiving corticosteroids and either non-invasive or invasive ventilation at randomisation. Pairwise associations between tocilizumab, sarilumab and usual care or placebo for all-cause mortality 28 days after randomisation were estimated using a frequentist contrast-based network meta-analysis of odds ratios (ORs), implementing multivariate fixed-effects models that assume consistency between the direct and indirect evidence. FINDINGS: One trial (REMAP-CAP) was identified that directly compared tocilizumab with sarilumab and supplied results on all-cause mortality at 28-days. This network meta-analysis was based on 898 eligible patients (278 deaths) from REMAP-CAP and 3710 eligible patients from 18 trials (1278 deaths) from the prospective meta-analysis. Summary ORs were similar for tocilizumab [0·82 [0·71-0·95, p = 0·008]] and sarilumab [0·80 [0·61-1·04, p = 0·09]] compared with usual care or placebo. The summary OR for 28-day mortality comparing tocilizumab with sarilumab was 1·03 [95%CI 0·81-1·32, p = 0·80]. The p-value for the global test of inconsistency was 0·28. CONCLUSIONS: Administration of either tocilizumab or sarilumab was associated with lower 28-day all-cause mortality compared with usual care or placebo. The association is not dependent on the choice of interleukin-6 receptor antagonist.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adrenal Cortex Hormones/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Monoclonal, Humanized , COVID-19/drug therapy , Humans , Network Meta-Analysis , Prospective Studies , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic
3.
Healthcare ; 10(8):1578, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1997563

ABSTRACT

As Europe and the world continue to battle against COVID, the customary complacency of society over future threats is clearly on display. Just 30 months ago, such a massive disruption to global lives, livelihoods and quality of life seemed unimaginable. Some remedial European Union action is now emerging, and more is proposed, including in relation to tackling 'unmet medical need';(UMN). This initiative-directing attention to the future of treating disease and contemplating incentives to stimulate research and development-is welcome in principle. But the current approach being considered by EU officials merits further discussion, because it may prove counter-productive, impeding rather than promoting innovation. This paper aims to feed into these ongoing policy discussions, and rather than presenting research in the classical sense, it discusses the key elements from a multistakeholder perspective. Its central concern is over the risk that the envisaged support will fail to generate valuable new treatments if the legislation is phrased in a rigidly linear manner that does not reflect the serpentine realities of the innovation process, or if the definition placed on unmet medical need is too restrictive. It cautions that such an approach presumes that 'unmet need';can be precisely and comprehensively defined in advance on the basis of the past. It cautions that such an approach can reinforce the comfortable delusion that the future is totally predictable-the delusion that left the world as easy prey to COVID. Instead, the paper urges reflection on how the legislation that will shortly enter the pipeline can be phrased so as to allow for the flourishing of a culture capable of rapid adaptation to the unexpected.

4.
Blood Adv ; 2022 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1993317

ABSTRACT

Clinical manifestations of severe COVID-19 include coagulopathies that are exacerbated by the formation of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs). Here, we report that pulmonary lymphatic vessels, which traffic neutrophils and other immune cells to the lung-draining lymph node (LDLN), can also be blocked by fibrin clots in severe COVID-19. Immunostained tissue sections from COVID-19 decedents revealed widespread lymphatic clotting not only in the lung, but notably in the LDLN, where the extent of clotting correlated with the presence of abnormal, regressed, or missing germinal centers. it strongly correlated with the presence of intralymphatic NETs. In mice, TNFα induced intralymphatic fibrin clots, and this could be inhibited by DNAse 1, which degrades NETs. In vitro, TNF induced lymphatic endothelial cell upregulation of ICAM-1 and CXCL8 among other neutrophil-recruiting factors as well as thrombomodulin downregulation. Furthermore, in decedents, lymphatic clotting in LDLNs. In a separate cohort of hospitalized patients, serum levels of MPO-DNA (a NET marker) inversely correlated with antiviral antibody titers, but D-dimer levels, indicative of blood thrombosis, did not correlate with either. In fact, patients with high MPO-DNA but low D-dimer levels generated poor anti-viral antibody titers. This study introduces lymphatic coagulation in lungs and LDLNs as a clinical manifestation of severe COVID-19 and suggests the involvement of NETosis of lymphatic-trafficking neutrophils. It further suggests that lymphatic clotting may correlate with impaired formation or maintenance of germinal centers necessary for robust antiviral antibody responses, although further studies are needed to determine whether and how lymphatic coagulation impacts adaptive immune responses.

5.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 11(16): e025369, 2022 Aug 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1986530

ABSTRACT

Background Initial protocols for return to play cardiac testing in young competitive athletes following SARS-CoV-2 infection recommended cardiac troponin (cTn) to screen for cardiac involvement. This study aimed to define the diagnostic yield of cTn in athletes undergoing cardiovascular testing following SARS-CoV-2 infection. Methods and Results This prospective, observational cohort study from ORCCA (Outcomes Registry for Cardiac Conditions in Athletes) included collegiate athletes who underwent cTn testing as a component of return to play protocols following SARS-CoV-2 infection. The cTn values were stratified as undetectable, detectable but within normal limits, and abnormal (>99% percentile). The presence of probable or definite SARS-CoV-2 myocardial involvement was compared between those with normal versus abnormal cTn levels. A total of 3184/3685 (86%) athletes in the ORCCA database met the inclusion criteria for this study (age 20±1 years, 32% female athletes, 28% Black race). The median time from SARS-CoV-2 diagnosis to cTn testing was 13 days (interquartile range, 11, 18 days). The cTn levels were undetectable in 2942 athletes (92%), detectable but within normal limits in 210 athletes (7%), and abnormal in 32 athletes (1%). Of the 32 athletes with abnormal cTn testing, 19/32 (59%) underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging, 30/32 (94%) underwent transthoracic echocardiography, and 1/32 (3%) did not have cardiac imaging. One athlete with abnormal troponin met the criteria for definite or probable SARS-CoV-2 myocardial involvement. In the total cohort, 21/3184 (0.7%) had SARS-CoV-2 myocardial involvement, among whom 20/21 (95%) had normal troponin testing. Conclusions Abnormal cTn during routine return to play cardiac screening among competitive athletes following SARS-CoV-2 infection appears to have limited diagnostic utility.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Heart Diseases , Adult , Athletes , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Heart Diseases/diagnosis , Heart Diseases/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Prospective Studies , Return to Sport , SARS-CoV-2 , Troponin , Young Adult
6.
Nat Biotechnol ; 40(7): 1035-1041, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1978002

ABSTRACT

Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) can identify variants that cause genetic disease, but the time required for sequencing and analysis has been a barrier to its use in acutely ill patients. In the present study, we develop an approach for ultra-rapid nanopore WGS that combines an optimized sample preparation protocol, distributing sequencing over 48 flow cells, near real-time base calling and alignment, accelerated variant calling and fast variant filtration for efficient manual review. Application to two example clinical cases identified a candidate variant in <8 h from sample preparation to variant identification. We show that this framework provides accurate variant calls and efficient prioritization, and accelerates diagnostic clinical genome sequencing twofold compared with previous approaches.


Subject(s)
Nanopore Sequencing , Nanopores , Chromosome Mapping , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , Whole Genome Sequencing/methods
7.
One Health ; 15: 100422, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1966971

ABSTRACT

Similar to many zoonotic pathogens which transmit from animals to humans, SARS-CoV-2 (CoV-2), the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic, most likely originated in Rhinolophus bats before spreading among humans globally. Early into the pandemic, reports of CoV-2 diagnoses in animals from various countries emerged. While most CoV-2 positive animals were confirmed to have been in close contact with CoV-2 positive humans, there has been a paucity of published evidence to-date describing risk factors associated with CoV-2 transmission among humans and animals. The COVID-19 Human-Animal Interactions Survey (CHAIS) was developed to provide a standardized instrument describing human-animal interactions during the pandemic and to evaluate behavioral, spatiotemporal, and biological risk factors associated with bi-directional zoonotic transmission of CoV-2 within shared environments, predominantly households with limited information about human-wildlife or human-livestock interactions. CHAIS measures four broad domains of transmission risk: 1) risk and intensity of infection in human hosts, 2) spatial characteristics of shared environments, 3) behaviors and human-animal interactions, and 4) susceptible animal subpopulations. Following the development of CHAIS, with a One Health approach, a multidisciplinary group of experts (n = 20) was invited to review and provide feedback on the survey for content validity. Expert feedback was incorporated into two final survey formats-an extended version and an abridged version for which specific core questions addressing zoonotic and reverse zoonotic transmission were identified. Both versions are modularized, with each section having the capacity to serve as independent instruments, allowing researchers to customize the survey based on context and research-specific needs. Further adaptations for studies seeking to investigate other zoonotic pathogens with similar routes of transmission (i.e. respiratory, direct contact) are also possible. The CHAIS instrument is a standardized human-animal interaction survey developed to provide important data on risk factors that guide transmission of CoV-2, and other similar pathogens, among humans and animals.

8.
BMJ ; 378: e071249, 2022 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950081

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To estimate waning of covid-19 vaccine effectiveness over six months after second dose. DESIGN: Cohort study, approved by NHS England. SETTING: Linked primary care, hospital, and covid-19 records within the OpenSAFELY-TPP database. PARTICIPANTS: Adults without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection were eligible, excluding care home residents and healthcare professionals. EXPOSURES: People who had received two doses of BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 (administered during the national vaccine rollout) were compared with unvaccinated people during six consecutive comparison periods, each of four weeks. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Adjusted hazard ratios for covid-19 related hospital admission, covid-19 related death, positive SARS-CoV-2 test, and non-covid-19 related death comparing vaccinated with unvaccinated people. Waning vaccine effectiveness was quantified as ratios of adjusted hazard ratios per four week period, separately for subgroups aged ≥65 years, 18-64 years and clinically vulnerable, 40-64 years, and 18-39 years. RESULTS: 1 951 866 and 3 219 349 eligible adults received two doses of BNT162b2 and ChAdOx1, respectively, and 2 422 980 remained unvaccinated. Waning of vaccine effectiveness was estimated to be similar across outcomes and vaccine brands. In the ≥65 years subgroup, ratios of adjusted hazard ratios for covid-19 related hospital admission, covid-19 related death, and positive SARS-CoV-2 test ranged from 1.19 (95% confidence interval 1.14 to 1.24)to 1.34 (1.09 to 1.64) per four weeks. Despite waning vaccine effectiveness, rates of covid-19 related hospital admission and death were substantially lower among vaccinated than unvaccinated adults up to 26 weeks after the second dose, with estimated vaccine effectiveness ≥80% for BNT162b2, and ≥75% for ChAdOx1. By weeks 23-26, rates of positive SARS-CoV-2 test in vaccinated people were similar to or higher than in unvaccinated people (adjusted hazard ratios up to 1.72 (1.11 to 2.68) for BNT162b2 and 1.86 (1.79 to 1.93) for ChAdOx1). CONCLUSIONS: The rate at which estimated vaccine effectiveness waned was consistent for covid-19 related hospital admission, covid-19 related death, and positive SARS-CoV-2 test and was similar across subgroups defined by age and clinical vulnerability. If sustained to outcomes of infection with the omicron variant and to booster vaccination, these findings will facilitate scheduling of booster vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , ChAdOx1 nCoV-19 , Cohort Studies , Electronic Health Records , Humans
9.
BMJ ; 378: e068946, 2022 07 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950077

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: To compare the effectiveness of the BNT162b2 mRNA (Pfizer-BioNTech) and the ChAdOx1 (Oxford-AstraZeneca) covid-19 vaccines against infection and covid-19 disease in health and social care workers. DESIGN: Cohort study, emulating a comparative effectiveness trial, on behalf of NHS England. SETTING: Linked primary care, hospital, and covid-19 surveillance records available within the OpenSAFELY-TPP research platform, covering a period when the SARS-CoV-2 Alpha variant was dominant. PARTICIPANTS: 317 341 health and social care workers vaccinated between 4 January and 28 February 2021, registered with a general practice using the TPP SystmOne clinical information system in England, and not clinically extremely vulnerable. INTERVENTIONS: Vaccination with either BNT162b2 or ChAdOx1 administered as part of the national covid-19 vaccine roll-out. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Recorded SARS-CoV-2 positive test, or covid-19 related attendance at an accident and emergency (A&E) department or hospital admission occurring within 20 weeks of receipt of the first vaccine dose. RESULTS: Over the duration of 118 771 person-years of follow-up there were 6962 positive SARS-CoV-2 tests, 282 covid-19 related A&E attendances, and 166 covid-19 related hospital admissions. The cumulative incidence of each outcome was similar for both vaccines during the first 20 weeks after vaccination. The cumulative incidence of recorded SARS-CoV-2 infection 20 weeks after first-dose vaccination with BNT162b2 was 21.7 per 1000 people (95% confidence interval 20.9 to 22.4) and with ChAdOx1 was 23.7 (21.8 to 25.6), representing a difference of 2.04 per 1000 people (0.04 to 4.04). The difference in the cumulative incidence per 1000 people of covid-19 related A&E attendance at 20 weeks was 0.06 per 1000 people (95% CI -0.31 to 0.43). For covid-19 related hospital admission, this difference was 0.11 per 1000 people (-0.22 to 0.44). CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of healthcare workers where we would not anticipate vaccine type to be related to health status, we found no substantial differences in the incidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection or covid-19 disease up to 20 weeks after vaccination. Incidence dropped sharply at 3-4 weeks after vaccination, and there were few covid-19 related hospital attendance and admission events after this period. This is in line with expected onset of vaccine induced immunity and suggests strong protection against Alpha variant covid-19 disease for both vaccines in this relatively young and healthy population of healthcare workers.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cohort Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
10.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22278186

ABSTRACT

IntroductionThe COVID-19 booster vaccination programme in England used both BNT162b2 and mRNA-1273 vaccines. Direct comparisons of the effectiveness against severe COVID-19 of these two vaccines for boosting have not been made in trials or observational data. MethodsOn behalf of NHS England, we used the OpenSAFELY-TPP database to match adult recipients of each vaccine type on date of vaccination, primary vaccine course, age, and other characteristics. Recipients were eligible if boosted between 29 October 2021 and 31 January 2022, and followed up for 12 weeks. Outcomes were positive SARS-CoV-2 test, COVID-19 hospitalisation, and COVID-19 death. We estimated the cumulative incidence of each outcome, and quantified comparative effectiveness using risk differences (RD) and hazard ratios (HRs). Results1,528,431 people were matched in each group, contributing a total 23,150,504 person-weeks of follow-up. The 12-week risks per 1,000 people of positive SARS-CoV-2 test were 103.2 (95%CI 102.4 to 104.0) for BNT162b2 and 96.0 (95.2 to 96.8) for mRNA-1273: the HR comparing mRNA-1273 with BNT162b2 was 0.92 (95%CI 0.91 to 0.92). For COVID-19 hospitalisations the 12-week risks per 1,000 were 0.65 (95%CI 0.56 to 0.75) and 0.44 (0.36 to 0.54): HR 0.67 (95%CI 0.58 to 0.78). COVID-19 deaths were rare: the 12-week risks per 1,000 were 0.03 (95%CI 0.02 to 0.06) and 0.01 (0.01 to 0.02): HR 1.23 (95%CI 0.59 to 2.56). Comparative effectiveness was generally similar within subgroups defined by the primary course vaccine brand, age, prior SARS-CoV-2 infection and clinical vulnerability. ConclusionBooster vaccination with mRNA-1273 COVID-19 vaccine was more effective than BNT162b2 in preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and COVID-19 hospitalisation during the first 12 weeks after vaccination, during a period of Delta followed by Omicron variant dominance.

11.
Texas Public Health Journal ; 74(3):34-39, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1918757

ABSTRACT

Background Asymptomatic and pre-symptomatic infections may play a significant role in the spread of COVID-19 but determining prevalence of these infections in the general population is labor intensive. Purpose This approach describes an innovative surveillance strategy using teams of medical students and emergency medical technicians (EMTs). Medical students represent a highly trained but underutilized workforce in the pandemic response. Methods A household-level sampling frame generated a populationweighted representative sample of households in San Antonio, Texas. Households were included if an English or Spanish-speaking adult (=18yo) answered the door and was willing to participate;excluded if household members had past or present COVID-19 symptoms or close contact with confirmed COVID-19 infection. Interdisciplinary teams of medical or medical/public health dual degree students paired with EMTs conducted a survey and instructed participants on how to self-administer nasal swabs among 502 community members without symptoms of COVID-19 from June 1-6, 2020, weeks prior to a community case surge. Results Of 502 participants, median age was 52 years and average household size was 3.1. Only 40% reported no medical risk factors for COVID-19 complications. Hypertension (23.6%) and diabetes (13.4%) were the most common pre-existing medical conditions;29% of respondents reporting feeling at risk for SARS-CoV-2 during daily outside-of-the-home activities. All 502 SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests were negative, suggesting a prevalence range of 0%-1.2%. Public Health Significance It is unlikely that pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic COVID-19 infections in households without existing COVID-19 infections played a major role in the propagation of the epidemic at this point in time. While community-wide testing of individuals without symptoms of COVID-19 may be low yield in the context of low prevalence of symptomatic cases of COVID-19, medical students provided valuable support for community-based surveillance at a time when public health infrastructure was severely taxed. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Texas Public Health Journal is the property of Texas Public Health Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

12.
Lancet Microbe ; 3(1): e21-e31, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915218

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous infection with SARS-CoV-2 affects the immune response to the first dose of the SARS-CoV-2 vaccine. We aimed to compare SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell and antibody responses in health-care workers with and without previous SARS-CoV-2 infection following a single dose of the BNT162b2 (tozinameran; Pfizer-BioNTech) mRNA vaccine. METHODS: We sampled health-care workers enrolled in the PITCH study across four hospital sites in the UK (Oxford, Liverpool, Newcastle, and Sheffield). All health-care workers aged 18 years or older consenting to participate in this prospective cohort study were included, with no exclusion criteria applied. Blood samples were collected where possible before vaccination and 28 (±7) days following one or two doses (given 3-4 weeks apart) of the BNT162b2 vaccine. Previous infection was determined by a documented SARS-CoV-2-positive RT-PCR result or the presence of positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid antibodies. We measured spike-specific IgG antibodies and quantified T-cell responses by interferon-γ enzyme-linked immunospot assay in all participants where samples were available at the time of analysis, comparing SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals to those with previous infection. FINDINGS: Between Dec 9, 2020, and Feb 9, 2021, 119 SARS-CoV-2-naive and 145 previously infected health-care workers received one dose, and 25 SARS-CoV-2-naive health-care workers received two doses, of the BNT162b2 vaccine. In previously infected health-care workers, the median time from previous infection to vaccination was 268 days (IQR 232-285). At 28 days (IQR 27-33) after a single dose, the spike-specific T-cell response measured in fresh peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) was higher in previously infected (n=76) than in infection-naive (n=45) health-care workers (median 284 [IQR 150-461] vs 55 [IQR 24-132] spot-forming units [SFUs] per 106 PBMCs; p<0·0001). With cryopreserved PBMCs, the T-cell response in previously infected individuals (n=52) after one vaccine dose was equivalent to that of infection-naive individuals (n=19) after receiving two vaccine doses (median 152 [IQR 119-275] vs 162 [104-258] SFUs/106 PBMCs; p=1·00). Anti-spike IgG antibody responses following a single dose in 142 previously infected health-care workers (median 270 373 [IQR 203 461-535 188] antibody units [AU] per mL) were higher than in 111 infection-naive health-care workers following one dose (35 001 [17 099-55 341] AU/mL; p<0·0001) and higher than in 25 infection-naive individuals given two doses (180 904 [108 221-242 467] AU/mL; p<0·0001). INTERPRETATION: A single dose of the BNT162b2 vaccine is likely to provide greater protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection in individuals with previous SARS-CoV-2 infection, than in SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals, including against variants of concern. Future studies should determine the additional benefit of a second dose on the magnitude and durability of immune responses in individuals vaccinated following infection, alongside evaluation of the impact of extending the interval between vaccine doses. FUNDING: UK Department of Health and Social Care, and UK Coronavirus Immunology Consortium.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Leukocytes, Mononuclear , Prospective Studies , T-Lymphocytes , United Kingdom/epidemiology , Vaccines, Synthetic
13.
EBioMedicine ; 82: 104138, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914312

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Vaccines against COVID-19 are needed to overcome challenges associated with mitigating the global pandemic. We report the safety and immunogenicity of V590, a live recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus-based COVID-19 vaccine candidate. METHODS: In this placebo-controlled, double-blind, three-part phase 1 study, healthy adults were randomised to receive a single intramuscular dose of vaccine or placebo. In Part 1, younger (18-54 years) and, in Part 2, older (≥55 years) adults seronegative for SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid received one of four V590 dose levels (5.00 × 105; 2.40 × 106; 1.15 × 107; or 5.55 × 107 plaque-forming units [pfu]) or placebo. In Part 3, a single V590 dose level (5.55 × 107 pfu) or placebo was administered to younger SARS-CoV-2 seropositive adults. Primary endpoints included adverse events (AEs) and for Parts 1 and 2 anti-SARS-CoV-2 serum neutralising antibody responses measured by 50% plaque reduction neutralisation (PRNT50) assay at Day 28. Registration NCT04569786 [P001-02]. FINDINGS: 232 participants were randomised and 219 completed the study. In seronegative participants, anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibody responses to V590 were low and comparable to placebo across the lower dose levels. At the highest dose level (5.55 × 107 pfu), anti-SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific PRNT50 was 2.3-fold higher than placebo. The most frequently reported AEs were injection-site pain (38.4%), headache (15.1%) and fatigue (13.4%). INTERPRETATION: V590 was generally well-tolerated. However, Day 28 anti-SARS-Cov-2 spike-specific antibody responses in seronegative participants following a single intramuscular administration of V590 were not sufficient to warrant continued development. FUNDING: The study was funded by Merck Sharp & Dohme LLC., a subsidiary of Merck & Co., Inc., Rahway, NJ, USA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Adult , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , Double-Blind Method , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Lancet Respir Med ; 2022 Jun 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1907937

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Immunosuppressive treatments inhibit vaccine-induced immunity against SARS-CoV-2. We evaluated whether a 2-week interruption of methotrexate treatment immediately after the COVID-19 vaccine booster improved antibody responses against the S1 receptor-binding domain (S1-RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein compared with uninterrupted treatment in patients with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. METHODS: We did an open-label, prospective, two-arm, parallel-group, multicentre, randomised, controlled, superiority trial in 26 hospitals in the UK. We recruited adults from rheumatology and dermatology clinics who had been diagnosed with an immune-mediated inflammatory disease (eg, rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis with or without arthritis, axial spondyloarthritis, atopic dermatitis, polymyalgia rheumatica, and systemic lupus erythematosus) and who were taking low-dose weekly methotrexate (≤25 mg per week) for at least 3 months. Participants also had to have received two primary vaccine doses from the UK COVID-19 vaccination programme. We randomly assigned the participants (1:1), using a centralised validated computer randomisation program, to suspend methotrexate treatment for 2 weeks immediately after their COVID-19 booster (suspend methotrexate group) or to continue treatment as usual (continue methotrexate group). Participants, investigators, clinical research staff, and data analysts were unmasked, while researchers doing the laboratory analyses were masked to group assignment. The primary outcome was S1-RBD antibody titres 4 weeks after receiving the COVID-19 booster vaccine dose, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. This trial is registered with ISRCT, ISRCTN11442263; following the pre-planned interim analysis, recruitment was stopped early. FINDINGS: Between Sept 30, 2021 and March 3, 2022, we recruited 340 participants, of whom 254 were included in the interim analysis and had been randomly assigned to one of the two groups: 127 in the continue methotrexate group and 127 in the suspend methotrexate group. Their mean age was 59·1 years, 155 (61%) were female, 130 (51%) had rheumatoid arthritis, and 86 (34%) had psoriasis with or without arthritis. After 4 weeks, the geometric mean S1-RBD antibody titre was 22 750 U/mL (95% CI 19 314-26 796) in the suspend methotrexate group and 10 798 U/mL (8970-12 997) in the continue methotrexate group, with a geometric mean ratio (GMR) of 2·19 (95% CI 1·57-3·04; p<0·0001; mixed-effects model). The increased antibody response in the suspend methotrexate group was consistent across methotrexate dose, administration route, type of immune-mediated inflammatory disease, age, primary vaccination platform, and history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. There were no intervention-related serious adverse events. INTERPRETATION: A 2-week interruption of methotrexate treatment for people with immune-mediated inflammatory diseases resulted in enhanced boosting of antibody responses after COVID-19 vaccination. This intervention is simple, low-cost, and easy to implement, and could potentially translate to increased vaccine efficacy and duration of protection for susceptible groups. FUNDING: National Institute for Health and Care Research.

15.
Counselling Psychology Quarterly ; : 1-24, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1908504
16.
Biopreserv Biobank ; 2022 Jun 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1908708

ABSTRACT

Biobanking during the COVID-19 pandemic presented unique challenges regarding patient enrollment, sample collection, and experimental analysis. This report details the ways in which we rapidly overcame those challenges to create a robust database of clinical information and patient samples while maintaining clinician and researcher safety. We developed a pipeline using REDCap (Research Electronic Data Capture) to coordinate electronic informed consent, sample collection, immunological assay execution, and data analysis for biobanking samples from patients with COVID-19. We then integrated immunological assay data with clinical data extracted from the electronic health record to link study parameters with clinical readouts. Of the 193 inpatients who participated in this study, 138 consented electronically and 56 provided paper consent. We collected and banked blood samples to measure circulating cytokines and chemokines, peripheral immune cell composition and activation status, anti-COVID-19 antibodies, and germline gene polymorphisms. In addition, we collected DNA and RNA from nasopharyngeal swabs to assess viral titer and microbiome composition by 16S sequencing. The rapid spread and contagious nature of COVID-19 required special considerations and innovative solutions to biobank samples quickly while protecting researchers and clinicians. Overall, this workflow and computational pipeline allowed for comprehensive immune profiling of 193 inpatients infected with COVID-19, as well as 89 outpatients, 157 patients receiving curbside COVID-19 testing, and 86 healthy controls. We describe a novel electronic framework for biobanking and analyzing patient samples during COVID-19, and present insights and strategies that can be applied more broadly to other biobank studies.

17.
Metab Syndr Relat Disord ; 2022 Jun 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1901044

ABSTRACT

Background: Patients with metabolic syndrome components were frequently noted to have increased nasal and parotid activity on clinically referred scintigraphic whole-body blood pool scans. This increase in activity was not observed in patients without metabolic syndrome. Increased nasal blood pool activity in patients with elevated body mass indices (BMIs) has implications for (1) sleep apnea, (2) risk of nasal infection, and (3) possible impaired nasal lymphatic drainage of brain waste proteins. Methods: To follow-up this clinical observation, a retrospective study was performed on 200 patients having whole-body blood pool scans referred over a 3-year period. The whole-body blood pool scans were evaluated for an association between nose and parotid region of interest (ROI) to heart ROI maximum (max) pixel ratios as correlated with clinical conditions, including obesity, diabetes, hypertension, and sleep apnea. Continuous variables of BMI, hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c), blood glucose, and blood lipids were also correlated with these ratios. Results: A direct association of nose to heart max ratio (NHMR) with diabetes, sleep apnea, and hypertension was found with an increase in the ratio of +0.10 (P = 0.002), +0.13 (P = 0.0002), +0.08 (P = 0.0123), respectively. Correlation of NHMR with continuous variables had moderate correlation with BMI (r = 0.36, P < 0.0001), glucose (r = 0.27, P = 0.0001), HbA1c (r = 0.25, P = 0.0008) and less association with the number of diabetes medications (r = 0.22, P = 0.0021). Similar associations were found for parotid to heart max ratios but were weaker than the NHMR. Conclusions: Patients with metabolic syndrome components have significantly increased nasal and parotid activity on blood pool scans. These associations have implications for the treatment of sleep apnea, for nasal infections involving such agents as Covid-19, and for the risk of dementias related to decreased clearance of brain waste proteins through nasal turbinate lymphatics in patients with metabolic syndrome. If further studies support these findings, the nasal turbinates and the increased parasympathetic activity controlling their dilation could become a new therapeutic target.

18.
International Journal of Agricultural Science, Research and Technology in Extension and Education Systems ; 11(3):173-179, 2021.
Article in English | CAB Abstracts | ID: covidwho-1887534

ABSTRACT

In the face of the unprecedented threat the world is faced with, caused by covid-19 pandemic which has affected health and disrupted the functioning of food system resulting in inadequate nutrition of many people around the world. The study examined the movement in the price of staple food commodities as a result of Covid-19 and its impact on food security of households in Kwara State, Nigeria. Primary data was used for the study and a convenient sampling technique was adopted in the selection of the respondents. A structured questionnaire was used for the purpose of extracting needed information from households selected for the study. The data were analyzed using with Descriptive Statistics, Household Food Insecurity Access Scale (HFIAS) and Correlation Analysis. The result showed that there was increase in price in all the major staple foods consumed during covid-19. Only 23% of the households were found to be food secure while 51% and 26% of all the households surveyed were found to be moderately and severely food insecure respectively. The effect of the increase in the price of staple commodity food on households food security was statistically significant (r = -0.375, p < 0.000) showing that movement in the prices of staple food has negative effect on food security of people. It is therefore recommended that there should be regulation of commodity food prices as this will enable medium and low income households to buy.

19.
Peabody Journal of Education ; : 1-17, 2022.
Article in English | Taylor & Francis | ID: covidwho-1882846
20.
Lancet Digit Health ; 4(7): e542-e557, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1882680

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Updatable estimates of COVID-19 onset, progression, and trajectories underpin pandemic mitigation efforts. To identify and characterise disease trajectories, we aimed to define and validate ten COVID-19 phenotypes from nationwide linked electronic health records (EHR) using an extensible framework. METHODS: In this cohort study, we used eight linked National Health Service (NHS) datasets for people in England alive on Jan 23, 2020. Data on COVID-19 testing, vaccination, primary and secondary care records, and death registrations were collected until Nov 30, 2021. We defined ten COVID-19 phenotypes reflecting clinically relevant stages of disease severity and encompassing five categories: positive SARS-CoV-2 test, primary care diagnosis, hospital admission, ventilation modality (four phenotypes), and death (three phenotypes). We constructed patient trajectories illustrating transition frequency and duration between phenotypes. Analyses were stratified by pandemic waves and vaccination status. FINDINGS: Among 57 032 174 individuals included in the cohort, 13 990 423 COVID-19 events were identified in 7 244 925 individuals, equating to an infection rate of 12·7% during the study period. Of 7 244 925 individuals, 460 737 (6·4%) were admitted to hospital and 158 020 (2·2%) died. Of 460 737 individuals who were admitted to hospital, 48 847 (10·6%) were admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU), 69 090 (15·0%) received non-invasive ventilation, and 25 928 (5·6%) received invasive ventilation. Among 384 135 patients who were admitted to hospital but did not require ventilation, mortality was higher in wave 1 (23 485 [30·4%] of 77 202 patients) than wave 2 (44 220 [23·1%] of 191 528 patients), but remained unchanged for patients admitted to the ICU. Mortality was highest among patients who received ventilatory support outside of the ICU in wave 1 (2569 [50·7%] of 5063 patients). 15 486 (9·8%) of 158 020 COVID-19-related deaths occurred within 28 days of the first COVID-19 event without a COVID-19 diagnoses on the death certificate. 10 884 (6·9%) of 158 020 deaths were identified exclusively from mortality data with no previous COVID-19 phenotype recorded. We observed longer patient trajectories in wave 2 than wave 1. INTERPRETATION: Our analyses illustrate the wide spectrum of disease trajectories as shown by differences in incidence, survival, and clinical pathways. We have provided a modular analytical framework that can be used to monitor the impact of the pandemic and generate evidence of clinical and policy relevance using multiple EHR sources. FUNDING: British Heart Foundation Data Science Centre, led by Health Data Research UK.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Electronic Health Records , England/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , State Medicine
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