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1.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 79(9):932-936, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2125213

ABSTRACT

Presents a study which aims to examine methadone-involved overdose deaths before and after federal policy in US. US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention National Vital Statistics System multiple cause of death 2019- 2020 final and 2021 provisional data were used. Drug overdose deaths were those assigned an underlying cause of death. Monthly drug overdose deaths without involving methadone and methadone-involved and percentages of overdose deaths involving methadone during January 2019 to August 2021 were calculated. Interrupted time series analyses (ITSA) assessed changes in outcomes before/after the March 2020 methadone take-home policy. This study was exempt from institution review board review by regulation. ITSA-estimated monthly overdose deaths without involving methadone increased by 78.12 deaths per month before March 2020, by 1078.27 deaths in March 2020, and by 69.07 deaths per month after March 2020. Trend slopes were similar before and after March 2020. ITSA-estimated percentages of overdose deaths involving methadone declined 0.06% per month before March 2020, increased by 0.69% mintmark 2020, and declined 0.05% per month after March 2020. Trend slopes were similar before and after March 2020. Findings provide insights about methadone involved overdose deaths during COVID-19. This study has limitations. Approximately 5% of death certificates did not list specific drugs involved in the overdose. Coupled with research demonstrating improved patient satisfaction, treatment access, and engagement from these policies, these findings can inform decisions about permanently expanding take-home methadone. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

3.
JAMA Psychiatry ; 79(10): 981-992, 2022 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2013277

ABSTRACT

Importance: Federal emergency authorities were invoked during the COVID-19 pandemic to expand use of telehealth for new and continued care, including provision of medications for opioid use disorder (MOUD). Objective: To examine receipt of telehealth services, MOUD (methadone, buprenorphine, and extended-release [ER] naltrexone) receipt and retention, and medically treated overdose before and during the COVID-19 pandemic. Design, Setting, and Participants: This exploratory longitudinal cohort study used data from the US Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services from September 2018 to February 2021. Two cohorts (before COVID-19 pandemic from September 2018 to February 2020 and during COVID-19 pandemic from September 2019 to February 2021) of Medicare fee-for-service beneficiaries 18 years and older with an International Statistical Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision, Clinical Modification OUD diagnosis. Exposures: Pre-COVID-19 pandemic vs COVID-19 pandemic cohort demographic characteristics, medical and substance use, and psychiatric comorbidities. Main Outcomes and Measures: Receipt and retention of MOUD, receipt of OUD and behavioral health-related telehealth services, and experiencing medically treated overdose. Results: The pre-COVID-19 pandemic cohort comprised 105 240 beneficiaries; of these, 61 152 (58.1%) were female, 71 152 (67.6%) were aged 45 to 74 years, and 82 822 (79.5%) non-Hispanic White. The COVID-19 pandemic cohort comprised 70 538 beneficiaries; of these, 40 257 (57.1%) were female, 46 793 (66.3%) were aged 45 to 74 years, and 55 510 (79.7%) were non-Hispanic White. During the study period, a larger percentage of beneficiaries in the pandemic cohort compared with the prepandemic cohort received OUD-related telehealth services (13 829 [19.6%] vs 593 [0.6%]; P < .001), behavioral health-related telehealth services (28 902 [41.0%] vs 1967 [1.9%]; P < .001), and MOUD (8854 [12.6%] vs 11 360 [10.8%]; P < .001). The percentage experiencing a medically treated overdose during the study period was similar (18.5% [19 491 of 105 240] in the prepandemic cohort vs 18.4% [13 004 of 70 538] in the pandemic cohort; P = .65). Receipt of OUD-related telehealth services in the pandemic cohort was associated with increased odds of MOUD retention (adjusted odds ratio [aOR], 1.27; 95% CI, 1.14-1.41) and lower odds of medically treated overdose (aOR, 0.67; 95% CI, 0.63-0.71). Among beneficiaries in the pandemic cohort, those receiving MOUD from opioid treatment programs only (aOR, 0.54; 95% CI, 0.47-0.63) and those receiving buprenorphine from pharmacies only (aOR, 0.91; 95% CI, 0.84-0.98) had lower odds of medically treated overdose compared with beneficiaries who did not receive MOUD. Conclusions and Relevance: Emergency authorities to expand use of telehealth and provide flexibilities for MOUD provision during the pandemic were used by Medicare beneficiaries initiating an episode of OUD-related care and were associated with improved retention in care and reduced odds of medically treated overdose. Strategies to expand provision of MOUD and increase retention in care are urgently needed.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine , COVID-19 , Drug Overdose , Opioid-Related Disorders , Telemedicine , Aged , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Overdose/epidemiology , Drug Overdose/therapy , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Medicare , Methadone/therapeutic use , Naltrexone/therapeutic use , Opiate Substitution Treatment , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , United States/epidemiology
6.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(19): 656-663, 2022 May 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1847855

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The majority of homicides (79%) and suicides (53%) in the United States involved a firearm in 2020. High firearm homicide and suicide rates and corresponding inequities by race and ethnicity and poverty level represent important public health concerns. This study examined changes in firearm homicide and firearm suicide rates coinciding with the emergence of the COVID-19 pandemic in 2020. METHODS: National vital statistics and population data were integrated with urbanization and poverty measures at the county level. Population-based firearm homicide and suicide rates were examined by age, sex, race and ethnicity, geographic area, level of urbanization, and level of poverty. RESULTS: From 2019 to 2020, the overall firearm homicide rate increased 34.6%, from 4.6 to 6.1 per 100,000 persons. The largest increases occurred among non-Hispanic Black or African American males aged 10-44 years and non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native (AI/AN) males aged 25-44 years. Rates of firearm homicide were lowest and increased least at the lowest poverty level and were higher and showed larger increases at higher poverty levels. The overall firearm suicide rate remained relatively unchanged from 2019 to 2020 (7.9 to 8.1); however, in some populations, including AI/AN males aged 10-44 years, rates did increase. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR PUBLIC HEALTH PRACTICE: During the COVID-19 pandemic, the firearm homicide rate in the United States reached its highest level since 1994, with substantial increases among several population subgroups. These increases have widened disparities in rates by race and ethnicity and poverty level. Several increases in firearm suicide rates were also observed. Implementation of comprehensive strategies employing proven approaches that address underlying economic, physical, and social conditions contributing to the risks for violence and suicide is urgently needed to reduce these rates and disparities.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Firearms , Suicide , Cause of Death , Homicide , Humans , Male , Pandemics , Population Surveillance , United States/epidemiology , Vital Signs
7.
MMWR Suppl ; 71(3): 8-15, 2022 Apr 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1771893

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has been associated with established risk factors for adolescent substance use, including social isolation, boredom, grief, trauma, and stress. However, little is known about adolescent substance use patterns during the pandemic. CDC analyzed data from the Adolescent Behaviors and Experiences Survey, an online survey of a probability-based, nationally representative sample of public- and private-school students in grades 9-12 (N = 7,705), to examine the prevalence of current use of tobacco products, alcohol, and other substances among U.S. high school students. Prevalence was examined by demographic characteristics and instructional models of the students' schools (in-person, virtual, or hybrid). During January-June 2021, 31.6% of high school students reported current use of any tobacco product, alcohol, or marijuana or current misuse of prescription opioids. Current alcohol use (19.5%), electronic vapor product (EVP) use (15.4%), and marijuana use (12.8%) were more prevalent than prescription opioid misuse (4.3%), current cigarette smoking (3.3%), cigar smoking (2.3%), and smokeless tobacco use (1.9%). Approximately one third of students who used EVPs did so daily, and 22.4% of students who drank alcohol did so ≥6 times per month. Approximately one in three students who ever used alcohol or other drugs reported using these substances more during the pandemic. The prevalence of substance use was typically higher among non-Hispanic American Indian or Alaska Native students, older students, and gay, lesbian, or bisexual students than among students of other racial or ethnic groups, younger students, and heterosexual students. The prevalence of alcohol use also was higher among non-Hispanic White students than those of other racial or ethnic groups. Students only attending school virtually had a lower prevalence of using most of the substances examined than did students attending schools with in-person or hybrid models. These findings characterizing youth substance use during the pandemic can help inform public health interventions and messaging to address these health risks during and after the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
Adolescent Behavior , COVID-19 , Tobacco Products , Adolescent , COVID-19/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Pandemics , Students , United States/epidemiology
8.
Subst Abuse Treat Prev Policy ; 17(1): 16, 2022 03 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1724512

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Timely data from official sources regarding the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on people who use prescription and illegal opioids is lacking. We conducted a large-scale, natural language processing (NLP) analysis of conversations on opioid-related drug forums to better understand concerns among people who use opioids. METHODS: In this retrospective observational study, we analyzed posts from 14 opioid-related forums on the social network Reddit. We applied NLP to identify frequently mentioned substances and phrases, and grouped the phrases manually based on their contents into three broad key themes: (i) prescription and/or illegal opioid use; (ii) substance use disorder treatment access and care; and (iii) withdrawal. Phrases that were unmappable to any particular theme were discarded. We computed the frequencies of substance and theme mentions, and quantified their volumes over time. We compared changes in post volumes by key themes and substances between pre-COVID-19 (1/1/2019-2/29/2020) and COVID-19 (3/1/2020-11/30/2020) periods. RESULTS: Seventy-seven thousand six hundred fifty-two and 119,168 posts were collected for the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods, respectively. By theme, posts about treatment and access to care increased by 300%, from 0.631 to 2.526 per 1000 posts between the pre-COVID-19 and COVID-19 periods. Conversations about withdrawal increased by 812% between the same periods (0.026 to 0.235 per 1,000 posts). Posts about drug use did not increase (0.219 to 0.218 per 1,000 posts). By substance, among medications for opioid use disorder, methadone had the largest increase in conversations (20.751 to 56.313 per 1,000 posts; 171.4% increase). Among other medications, posts about diphenhydramine exhibited the largest increase (0.341 to 0.927 per 1,000 posts; 171.8% increase). CONCLUSIONS: Conversations on opioid-related forums among people who use opioids revealed increased concerns about treatment and access to care along with withdrawal following the emergence of COVID-19. Greater attention to social media data may help inform timely responses to the needs of people who use opioids during COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Opioid-Related Disorders , Social Media , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Natural Language Processing , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(8): 306-312, 2022 Feb 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1707039

ABSTRACT

Suicide was among the 10 leading causes of death in the United States in 2020 among persons aged 10-64 years, and the second leading cause of death among children and adolescents aged 10-14 and adults aged 25-34 years (1). During 1999-2020, nearly 840,000 lives were lost to suicide in the United States. During that period, the overall suicide rate peaked in 2018 and declined in 2019 and 2020 (1). Despite the recent decline in the suicide rate, factors such as social isolation, economic decline, family stressors, new or worsening mental health symptoms, and disruptions to work and school associated with the COVID-19 pandemic have raised concerns about suicide risk in the United States. During 2020, a total of 12.2 million U.S. adults reported serious thoughts of suicide and 1.2 million attempted suicide (2). To understand how changes in suicide death rates might have varied among subpopulations, CDC analyzed counts and age-adjusted suicide rates during 2019 and 2020 by demographic characteristics, mechanism of injury, county urbanization level, and state. From 2019 to 2020, the suicide rate declined by 3% overall, including 8% among females and 2% among males. Significant declines occurred in seven states but remained stable in the other states and the District of Columbia. Despite two consecutive years of declines, the overall suicide rate remains 30% higher compared with that in 2000 (1). A comprehensive approach to suicide prevention that uses data driven decision-making and implements prevention strategies with the best available evidence, especially among disproportionately affected populations (3), is critical to realizing further declines in suicide and reaching the national goal of reducing the suicide rate by 20% by 2025 (4).


Subject(s)
Suicide/statistics & numerical data , Suicide/trends , Adolescent , Adult , Age Distribution , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Child , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Population Surveillance , Sex Distribution , United States/epidemiology , Urbanization , Young Adult
10.
J Med Internet Res ; 23(12): e30753, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1593102

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Expanding access to and use of medication for opioid use disorder (MOUD) is a key component of overdose prevention. An important barrier to the uptake of MOUD is exposure to inaccurate and potentially harmful health misinformation on social media or web-based forums where individuals commonly seek information. There is a significant need to devise computational techniques to describe the prevalence of web-based health misinformation related to MOUD to facilitate mitigation efforts. OBJECTIVE: By adopting a multidisciplinary, mixed methods strategy, this paper aims to present machine learning and natural language analysis approaches to identify the characteristics and prevalence of web-based misinformation related to MOUD to inform future prevention, treatment, and response efforts. METHODS: The team harnessed public social media posts and comments in the English language from Twitter (6,365,245 posts), YouTube (99,386 posts), Reddit (13,483,419 posts), and Drugs-Forum (5549 posts). Leveraging public health expert annotations on a sample of 2400 of these social media posts that were found to be semantically most similar to a variety of prevailing opioid use disorder-related myths based on representational learning, the team developed a supervised machine learning classifier. This classifier identified whether a post's language promoted one of the leading myths challenging addiction treatment: that the use of agonist therapy for MOUD is simply replacing one drug with another. Platform-level prevalence was calculated thereafter by machine labeling all unannotated posts with the classifier and noting the proportion of myth-indicative posts over all posts. RESULTS: Our results demonstrate promise in identifying social media postings that center on treatment myths about opioid use disorder with an accuracy of 91% and an area under the curve of 0.9, including how these discussions vary across platforms in terms of prevalence and linguistic characteristics, with the lowest prevalence on web-based health communities such as Reddit and Drugs-Forum and the highest on Twitter. Specifically, the prevalence of the stated MOUD myth ranged from 0.4% on web-based health communities to 0.9% on Twitter. CONCLUSIONS: This work provides one of the first large-scale assessments of a key MOUD-related myth across multiple social media platforms and highlights the feasibility and importance of ongoing assessment of health misinformation related to addiction treatment.


Subject(s)
Opioid-Related Disorders , Social Media , Communication , Humans , Machine Learning , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/epidemiology , Prevalence
11.
Am J Prev Med ; 61(5 Suppl 1): S118-S129, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1499600

ABSTRACT

Diagnoses of HIV among people who inject drugs have increased in the U.S. during 2014-2018 for the first time in 2 decades, and multiple HIV outbreaks have been detected among people who inject drugs since 2015. These epidemiologic trends pose a significant concern for achieving goals of the federal initiative for Ending the HIV Epidemic in the U.S. Syringe services programs are cost effective, safe, and highly effective in reducing HIV transmission and are an essential component of a comprehensive, integrated approach to addressing these concerns. Yet, geographic coverage of these programs remains limited in the U.S., and many jurisdictions continue to have laws and policies that limit or disallow syringe services programs. An in-depth literature review was conducted on the role of syringe services programs in the Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative. Empirical and model-based evidence consistently shows that syringe services programs have the highest impact in HIV prevention when combined with access to medications for substance use disorder and antiretroviral therapy. Their effectiveness is further maximized when they provide services without restrictions and include proven and innovative strategies to expand access to harm-reduction and clinical services (e.g., peer outreach, telehealth). Increasing geographic and service coverage of syringe services programs requires strong and sustainable policy, funding, and community support and will need to address new challenges related to the COVID-19 pandemic. Syringe services programs have a key role in all 4 Ending the HIV Epidemic initiative strategies-Prevent, Diagnose, Treat, and Respond-and thus are instrumental to its success in preventing disease and saving lives.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Substance Abuse, Intravenous , HIV Infections/drug therapy , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Harm Reduction , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/complications , Substance Abuse, Intravenous/epidemiology , Syringes
12.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 225: 108783, 2021 08 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1240283

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To determine how clinicians with a DATA waiver to prescribe buprenorphine for opioid use disorder (OUD) adapted during the COVID-19 pandemic to emergency authorities, including use of telehealth to prescribe buprenorphine, the challenges faced by clinicians, and strategies employed by them to manage patients with OUD. METHODS: From June 23, 2020 to August 19, 2020, we conducted an electronic survey of U.S. DATA-waivered clinicians. Descriptive statistics and multivariable logistic regression were used for analysis. RESULTS: Among 10,238 respondents, 68 % were physicians, 25 % nursing-related providers, and 6% physician assistants; 28 % reported never prescribing or not prescribing in the 12 months prior to the survey. Among the 72 % of clinicians who reported past 12-month buprenorphine prescribing (i.e. active practitioners during the pandemic) 30 % reported their practice setting closed to in-person visits during COVID-19; 33 % reported remote prescribing to new patients without an in-person examination. The strongest predictors of remote buprenorphine prescribing to new patients were prescribing buprenorphine to larger numbers of patients in an average month in the past year and closure of the practice setting during the pandemic; previous experience with remote prescribing to established patients prior to COVID-19 also was a significant predictor. Among clinicians prescribing to new patients without an in-person examination, 5.5 % reported difficulties with buprenorphine induction, most commonly withdrawal symptoms. CONCLUSIONS: Telehealth practices and prescribing to new patients without an in-person examination were adopted by DATA-waivered clinicians during the first six months of COVID-19. Permanent adoption of these authorities may enable expanded access to buprenorphine treatment.


Subject(s)
Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Drug Prescriptions/statistics & numerical data , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Pandemics , Practice Patterns, Physicians'/legislation & jurisprudence , Telemedicine , Adult , Aged , Female , Health Care Surveys , Health Services Accessibility , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology
13.
Lancet Oncol ; 22(3): 309-320, 2021 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1164661

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The indirect impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on cancer outcomes is of increasing concern. However, the extent to which key treatment modalities have been affected is unclear. We aimed to assess the impact of the pandemic on radiotherapy activity in England. METHODS: In this population-based study, data relating to all radiotherapy delivered for cancer in the English NHS, between Feb 4, 2019, and June 28, 2020, were extracted from the National Radiotherapy Dataset. Changes in mean weekly radiotherapy courses, attendances (reflecting fractions), and fractionation patterns following the start of the UK lockdown were compared with corresponding months in 2019 overall, for specific diagnoses, and across age groups. The significance of changes in radiotherapy activity during lockdown was examined using interrupted time-series (ITS) analysis. FINDINGS: In 2020, mean weekly radiotherapy courses fell by 19·9% in April, 6·2% in May, and 11·6% in June compared with corresponding months in 2019. A relatively greater fall was observed for attendances (29·1% in April, 31·4% in May, and 31·5% in June). These changes were significant on ITS analysis (p<0·0001). A greater reduction in treatment courses between 2019 and 2020 was seen for patients aged 70 years or older compared with those aged younger than 70 years (34·4% vs 7·3% in April). By diagnosis, the largest reduction from 2019 to 2020 in treatment courses was for prostate cancer (77·0% in April) and non-melanoma skin cancer (72·4% in April). Conversely, radiotherapy courses in April, 2020, compared with April, 2019, increased by 41·2% in oesophageal cancer, 64·2% in bladder cancer, and 36·3% in rectal cancer. Increased use of ultra-hypofractionated (26 Gy in five fractions) breast radiotherapy as a percentage of all courses (0·2% in April, 2019, to 60·6% in April, 2020; ITS p<0·0001) contributed to the substantial reduction in attendances. INTERPRETATION: Radiotherapy activity fell significantly, but use of hypofractionated regimens rapidly increased in the English NHS during the first peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. An increase in treatments for some cancers suggests that radiotherapy compensated for reduced surgical activity. These data will assist health-care providers in understanding the indirect consequences of the pandemic and the role of radiotherapy services in minimising these consequences. FUNDING: None.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Neoplasms/radiotherapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United Kingdom/epidemiology
14.
Surg Innov ; 28(2): 183-188, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1156051

ABSTRACT

Introduction. The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in significant medication, supply and equipment, and provider shortages, limiting the resources available for provision of surgical care. In response to mandates restricting surgery to high-acuity procedures during this period, our institution developed a multidisciplinary Low-Resource Operating Room (LROR) Taskforce in April 2020. This study describes our institutional experience developing an LROR to maintain access to urgent surgical procedures during the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods. A delineation of available resources and resource replacement strategies was conducted, and a final institution-wide plan for operationalizing the LROR was formed. Specialty-specific subgroups then convened to determine best practices and opportunities for LROR utilization. Orthopedic surgery performed in the LROR using wide-awake local anesthesia no tourniquet (WALANT) is presented as a use case. Results. Overall, 19 limited resources were identified, spanning across the domains of physical space, drugs, devices and equipment, and personnel. Based on the assessment, the decision to proceed with creation of an LROR was made. Sixteen urgent orthopedic surgeries were successfully performed using WALANT without conversion to general anesthesia. Conclusion. In response to the COVID-19 pandemic, a LROR was successfully designed and operationalized. The process for development of a LROR and recommended strategies for operating in a resource-constrained environment may serve as a model for other institutions and facilitate rapid implementation of this care model should the need arise in future pandemic or disaster situations.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Local , COVID-19 , Operating Rooms , Orthopedic Procedures , Orthopedics/organization & administration , Anesthesia, Local/instrumentation , Anesthesia, Local/methods , Health Resources , Humans , Orthopedic Procedures/instrumentation , Orthopedic Procedures/methods , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
16.
Drug Alcohol Depend ; 219: 108486, 2021 02 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1009438

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 community mitigation measures (e.g., stay-at-home orders) may worsen mental health and substance use-related harms such as opioid use disorder and overdose and limit access to medications for these conditions. We used nationally-representative data to assess dispensing of select substance use and mental health medications during the pandemic in the U.S. METHODS: IQVIA Total Patient Tracker data were used to calculate U.S. monthly numbers of unique patients dispensed buprenorphine, extended-release (ER) intramuscular naltrexone, naloxone, selective serotonin or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors, benzodiazepines, and for comparison, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitors (statins) and angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs) between January 2019-May 2020. Forecasted estimates of number of unique patients dispensed medications, generated by exponential smoothing statistical forecasting, were compared to actual numbers of patients by month to examine access during mitigation measures (March 2020-May 2020). RESULTS: Between March 2020-May 2020, numbers of unique patients dispensed buprenorphine and numbers dispensed naloxone were within forecasted estimates. Numbers dispensed ER intramuscular naltrexone were significantly below forecasted estimates in March 2020 (-1039; 95 %CI:-1528 to -550), April 2020 (-2139; 95 %CI:-2629 to -1650), and May 2020 (-2498; 95 %CI:-2987 to -2009). Numbers dispensed antidepressants and benzodiazepines were significantly above forecasted estimates in March 2020 (977,063; 95 %CI:351,384 to 1,602,743 and 450,074; 95 % CI:189,999 to 710,149 additional patients, respectively), but were within forecasted estimates in April 2020-May 2020. Dispensing patterns for statins and ARBs were similar to those for antidepressants and benzodiazepines. CONCLUSIONS: Ongoing concerns about the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on substance use and mental health underscore the need for innovative strategies to facilitate continued access to treatment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/psychology , Drug Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Analgesics, Opioid/therapeutic use , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Antidepressive Agents/therapeutic use , Benzodiazepines/therapeutic use , Buprenorphine/therapeutic use , Forecasting , Humans , Hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA Reductase Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Naloxone/therapeutic use , Naltrexone/therapeutic use , Opiate Overdose/drug therapy , Opioid-Related Disorders/drug therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , United States
17.
J Am Acad Orthop Surg Glob Res Rev ; 4(12): e20.00100, 2020 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983932

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Wide-awake local anesthesia no tourniquet (WALANT) presents a nonstandard anesthetic approach initially described for use in hand surgery that has gained interest and utilization across a variety of orthopaedic procedures. In response to operating room resource constraints imposed by the COVID-19 pandemic, our orthopaedic service rapidly adopted and expanded its use of WALANT. METHODS: A retrospective review of 16 consecutive cases performed by 7 surgeons was conducted. Patient demographics, surgical details, and perioperative outcomes were assessed. The primary end point was WALANT failure, defined as intraoperative conversion to general anesthesia. RESULTS: No instances of WALANT failure requiring conversion to general anesthesia occurred. In recovery, one patient (6%) required narcotics for pain control, and the average postoperative pain numeric rating scale was 0.6. The maximum pain score experienced was 4 in the patient requiring postoperative narcotics. The average time in recovery was 42 minutes and ranged from 8 to 118 minutes. CONCLUSION: The WALANT technique was safely and effectively used in 16 cases across multiple orthopaedic subspecialties, including three procedures not previously described in the literature. WALANT techniques hold promise for use in future disaster scenarios and should be evaluated for potential incorporation into routine orthopaedic surgical care.


Subject(s)
Anesthesia, Local/methods , COVID-19 , Operating Rooms/organization & administration , Orthopedic Procedures , Adult , Aged , Anesthetics, Local/administration & dosage , COVID-19/epidemiology , Epinephrine/administration & dosage , Female , Hemostatics/administration & dosage , Humans , Lidocaine/administration & dosage , Male , Middle Aged , Narcotics/therapeutic use , Pain, Postoperative/drug therapy , Pandemics , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vasoconstrictor Agents/administration & dosage , Young Adult
19.
Br J Cancer ; 123(5): 709-713, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-638678

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic epicentre has moved to the USA and Europe, where it is placing unprecedented demands on healthcare resources and staff availability. These service constraints, coupled with concerns relating to an increased incidence and severity of COVID-19 among patients with cancer, should lead to re-consideration of the risk-benefit balance for standard treatment pathways. This is of particular importance to pancreatic cancer, given that standard diagnostic modalities such as endoscopy may be restricted, and that disease biology precludes significant delays in treatment. In light of this, we sought consensus from UK clinicians with an interest in pancreatic cancer for management approaches that would minimise patient risk and accommodate for healthcare service restrictions. The outcomes are described here and include recommendations for treatment prioritisation, strategies to bridge to later surgical resection in resectable disease and factors that modify the risk-benefit balance for treatment in the resectable through to the metastatic settings. Priority is given to strategies that limit hospital visits, including through the use of hypofractionated precision radiotherapy and chemoradiotherapy treatment approaches.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Consensus , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Pancreatic Neoplasms/drug therapy , Pancreatic Neoplasms/radiotherapy , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Practice Guidelines as Topic , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Incidence , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Quarantine/methods , Risk , SARS-CoV-2 , United Kingdom/epidemiology
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