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1.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 90(5): 567-575, 2022 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1931986

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: This study of people with HIV (PWH) and those without HIV conducted during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United States in 2020 examines the impact of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) on COVID-19 burden, defined as pandemic-related disruptions. METHODS: Data consisted of survey responses on PTSD among participants (N = 2434) enrolled in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study (MACS) and the Women's Interagency HIV (WIHS) cohorts. Unadjusted and adjusted regression models were used to examine the association of PTSD with COVID-19 burden (overall and domain-specific burdens). Quasi-Poisson regression models were used to assess associations with the COVID-19 burden score and 2 domain-specific burdens: (1) changes in resources and (2) interruptions in health care. Analyses was adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, HIV serostatus, current smoking status, number of comorbidities, education, and study regions. RESULTS: Study participants were a median age of 58 (interquartile range, 52-65) years. In both bivariate and multivariable models, PTSD severity was associated with greater overall COVID-19 burden. PTSD severity was associated with the number of resource changes and number of interruptions in medical care. These findings were also consistent across cohorts (MACS/WIHS) and across HIV serostatus, suggesting a greater risk for COVID-19 burden with greater PTSD severity, which remained significant after controlling for covariates. CONCLUSIONS: This study builds on emerging literature demonstrating the impact of mental health on the burden and disruption associated with the COVID-19 pandemic, providing context specific to PWH. The ongoing pandemic requires structural and social interventions to decrease disruption to resources and health resource needs among these vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic , Aged , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Female , HIV Infections/complications , HIV Infections/epidemiology , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/complications , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/epidemiology , Stress Disorders, Post-Traumatic/psychology , United States/epidemiology
2.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(2): 869-874, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865027

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated COVID-19 risk and burden among people with HIV (PWH) in a US city with high rates of HIV and SARS-CoV-2 transmissions and examined the interrelationship between psychosocial factors and COVID-19 risk and burden. SETTING: Participants were drawn from an existing consent to contact database of PWH. Database candidates were PWH, adults older than 18 years, people who had received HIV care at the University of Miami HIV clinics, people who spoke English or Spanish, and people who had agreed to be contacted for future research. METHODS: An adapted version of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study/Women's Interagency HIV Study Combined Cohort Study COVID-19 survey was telephonically administered, requiring 15-30 minutes. RESULTS: Psychological stress was a predictor of COVID-19 burden (financial and social burden) and COVID-19 risk (health factors associated with an increased risk of severe health outcomes due to infection with COVID-19). Having a history of traumatic events was associated with increased COVID-19 risk, and stress was associated with increased COVID-19 burden and COVID-19 risk. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, results suggest that the intersection of the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics may be most profound among those who have experienced traumatic events; and traumatic events may be associated with heightened vigilance regarding illness and infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Cost of Illness , Depression/complications , Female , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk , Stress, Psychological/complications
3.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 85(4): 475-482, 2020 12 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861000

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has necessitated widespread lockdown to mitigate the pandemic. This study examines the influence of resilience on the impact of COVID-related stress and enforced lockdown on mental health, drug use, and treatment adherence among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Argentina. SETTING: PLWH residing predominantly in Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area and urban regions of Argentina were identified from a private clinic electronic database. METHODS: Participants completed an anonymous online survey to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on economic disruption, resilience, mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety, stress, and loneliness), adherence to HIV treatment, and substance use. We performed ordinary least squares and logistic regressions to test whether resilient coping buffered the impact of economic disruption on mental health and drug use during quarantine. RESULTS: A total of 1336 PLWH aged 18-82 were enrolled. The impact of economic disruption on mental health ΔF(1,1321) = 8.86, P = 0.003 and loneliness ΔF(1,1326) = 5.77, P = 0.016 was buffered by resilience. A 3-way interaction between resilient buffering, stress, and sex was significant ΔF(1,1325) = 4.76, P = 0.029. Participants reported less than excellent adherence to medication (33%), disruption to mental health services (11%), and disruption to substance abuse treatment (1.3%) during lockdown. DISCUSSION: The impact of COVID-stress and lockdown on emotional distress seemed mitigated by resilience coping strategies, and the buffering impact of resilience on perceived stress was greater among women. Results highlight PLWH's capacity to adhere to treatment in challenging circumstances and the importance of developing resilience skills for better coping with stress and adversity.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/psychology , HIV Infections/psychology , Mental Health/trends , Pneumonia, Viral/psychology , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/psychology , Adaptation, Psychological , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Argentina , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Coronavirus Infections/economics , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , HIV Infections/complications , Humans , Intimate Partner Violence/trends , Least-Squares Analysis , Logistic Models , Loneliness , Male , Mental Health Services/standards , Middle Aged , Pandemics/economics , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/economics , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Resilience, Psychological , SARS-CoV-2 , Sex Factors , Social Isolation/psychology , Social Support , Stress Disorders, Traumatic, Acute/etiology , Substance-Related Disorders/etiology , Substance-Related Disorders/therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires , Treatment Adherence and Compliance , Young Adult
4.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1755475

ABSTRACT

Background The concentration and duration of antibodies (Ab) to SARS-CoV-2 infection predicts the severity of the disease and the clinical outcomes. Older people and those with HIV have impaired immune responses, worse outcomes after SARS-CoV-2 infection, and lower antibody responses after viral infection and vaccination. This study evaluated an Ab response to SARS-CoV-2 in people with HIV (PWH) and without HIV (HIV-) and its association with age. Methods A total of 23 COVID+PWH and 21 COVID+HIV- participants were followed longitudinally for 6 months post-mild COVID-19. Immunoglobin G (IgG) and immunoglobin M (IgM) Ab responses were measured by an in-house developed ELISA. Time points and HIV status interaction were analyzed using Poisson generalized estimating equations, and correlations were analyzed using non-parametric tests. Results Median age in PWH was 55 years with 28.6% women, while in the HIV- group was 36 years with 60.9% women. The mean time from COVID-19 diagnosis to study enrollment was 16 days for PWH and 11 days for HIV-. The mean CD4+ T-cell count/μl for PWH was 772.10 (±365.21). SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG were detected at all time points and Ab response levels did not differ by HIV status (p > 0.05). At entry, age showed a weak direct association with IgG responses (ρ = 0.44, p < 0.05) in HIV- but did not show any association in PWH. Similar associations between age, IgG, and HIV status emerged at day 14 (T1;ρ = 0.50, p < 0.05), 3 months (T3;ρ = 0.50, p < 0.05), and 6 months visit (T4;ρ = 0.78, p < 0.05) in the HIV- group. Conclusion The Ab responses in the 6-month post-SARS-CoV-2 infection did not differ by HIV status, though a positive association was found between age and Ab response in older PWH. Results suggest that immune protection and vaccine responses are similar for PWH than for those without HIV infection.

5.
Open Forum Infect Dis ; 8(6): ofab154, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462453

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) disproportionally affect underrepresented ethnoracial groups in the United States. Medical mistrust and vaccine hesitancy will likely impact acceptability of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines. This study examined SARS-CoV-2 vaccine hesitancy among underrepresented ethnoracial groups with HIV and identified factors that may reduce vaccine uptake. METHODS: We conducted a cross-sectional study of adults ≥18 years of age with HIV residing in Miami, Florida. Participants were invited to participate in the ACTION (A Comprehensive Translational Initiative on Novel Coronavirus) cohort study. A baseline survey was administered from April to August 2020 and followed by a coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine hesitancy survey from August to November 2020. The COVID-19 vaccine hesitancy survey was adapted from the Strategic Advisory Group of Experts survey. Comparisons by race and ethnicity were performed using the Freedman-Haltmann extension of the Fisher exact test. RESULTS: A total of 94 participants were enrolled; mean age was 54.4 years, 52% were female, 60% were Black non-Latinx, and 40% were non-Black Latinx. Black non-Latinx participants were less likely to agree that vaccinations are important for health when compared to non-Black Latinx (67.8% vs 92.1%, P = .009), less likely to agree that vaccines are effective in preventing disease (67.8% vs 84.2%, P = .029), less likely to believe that vaccine information is reliable and trustworthy (35.7% vs 71.1%, P = .002), and less likely to believe vaccines were unnecessary because COVID-19 would disappear soon (11% vs 21%, P = .049). CONCLUSIONS: Medical mistrust, vaccine hesitancy, and negative sentiments about SARS-CoV-2 vaccines are prevalent among underrepresented ethnoracial groups with HIV, particularly Black non-Latinx. Targeted strategies to increase vaccine uptake in this population are warranted.

6.
AIDS Behav ; 26(1): 96-101, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274860

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the psychometric properties of a modified version of the Vaccine Hesitancy Scale (VHS) among people with HIV (PWH) for COVID-19 vaccination in a cross-sectional study in the US. Self-report data from an online questionnaire were collected from a sample of N = 175 PWH. Participants were surveyed in English or Spanish regarding attitudes towards COVID-19 vaccination using the adapted VHS. Participants were on average 51.55 years of age (SD = 13.90) 55% were women. The reliability of the scale was acceptable (α = 0.72). An exploratory factor analysis showed that "Lack of confidence" and "Risks" explained 45.55% and 12.31% of the variance. Related items showed expected associations with these factors, supporting construct validity. Results illustrate that the modified VHS for COVID-19 vaccination has adequate psychometric properties. We replicated the original factor structure of the VHS and demonstrated adequate internal consistency and construct validity. Validated tools are essential to guide vaccination policy and campaigns towards populations at risk.


RESUMEN: En este estudio transversal, evaluamos las propiedades psicométricas de la Escala de Reticencia a la Vacunación (VHS, por sus siglas en inglés) para la vacuna contra el COVID-19 en personas con VIH (PCV) en los EE. UU. Los participantes (N = 175) respondieron a una encuesta en línea en inglés o en español, sobre las actitudes hacia la vacuna contra el COVID-19 utilizando una version adaptada de la VHS. La edad promedio de los participantes fue de 51,55 años (DE = 13,90;) y 55% eran mujeres. La fiabilidad de la escala fue aceptable (α = 0,72). Un análisis factorial exploratorio mostró que la "falta de confianza" y los "riesgos" explicaron el 45,55% y el 12,31% de la varianza. Los elementos relacionados mostraron asociaciones esperadas con dichos factores, apoyando la validez de la VHS adaptada para esta población. Los resultados ilustran que la VHS modificada para la vacuna contra el COVID-19 tiene propiedades psicométricas adecuadas. Replicamos la estructura factorial original de la VHS y demostramos una adecuada validez y consistencia interna. La validación de instrumentos de recolección de datos es esencial para orientar las políticas y campañas de vacunación para poblaciones en riesgo, tal como PCV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , COVID-19 Vaccines , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/prevention & control , Humans , Psychometrics , Reproducibility of Results , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
7.
J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr ; 87(2): 869-874, 2021 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1231054

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: This study evaluated COVID-19 risk and burden among people with HIV (PWH) in a US city with high rates of HIV and SARS-CoV-2 transmissions and examined the interrelationship between psychosocial factors and COVID-19 risk and burden. SETTING: Participants were drawn from an existing consent to contact database of PWH. Database candidates were PWH, adults older than 18 years, people who had received HIV care at the University of Miami HIV clinics, people who spoke English or Spanish, and people who had agreed to be contacted for future research. METHODS: An adapted version of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study/Women's Interagency HIV Study Combined Cohort Study COVID-19 survey was telephonically administered, requiring 15-30 minutes. RESULTS: Psychological stress was a predictor of COVID-19 burden (financial and social burden) and COVID-19 risk (health factors associated with an increased risk of severe health outcomes due to infection with COVID-19). Having a history of traumatic events was associated with increased COVID-19 risk, and stress was associated with increased COVID-19 burden and COVID-19 risk. CONCLUSIONS: Overall, results suggest that the intersection of the HIV and COVID-19 pandemics may be most profound among those who have experienced traumatic events; and traumatic events may be associated with heightened vigilance regarding illness and infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/etiology , HIV Infections/complications , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Cost of Illness , Depression/complications , Female , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Risk , Stress, Psychological/complications
9.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 37(4): 314-321, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1207219

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the psychological implications of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on people with HIV. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 among men and women with HIV in Miami, Florida. We hypothesized that the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic will be higher for women, and psychological factors will increase COVID-19 burden among them. People with (n = 231) and without HIV (n = 42) residing in Miami, Florida completed a survey assessing psychological outcomes such as loneliness, depression, and stress, as well as the burden of COVID-19, on their daily lives. t-Tests and chi-square analyses were used to assess sex differences in study variables. Logistic regression was used to compare the interaction effects predicting stress and loneliness by COVID-19 burden and sex. A total of 273 completed the survey; the outcomes of the study, loneliness, and stress did not differ by HIV status (p = .458 and p = .922). Overall, men and women reported similar prevalence of COVID-19 burden. However, a greater proportion of women reported losing childcare than men (18% vs. 9%, p = .029, respectively), as well as losing mental health care (15% vs. 7%, p = .049, respectively). There was a significant interaction between COVID-19 burden and sex for loneliness and stress such that the association between COVID-19 burden and loneliness was greater for women (p < .001) than for men (p = .353) and the association between COVID-19 burden and stress was greater for women (p = .013) than men (p = .628). Both men and women with HIV are impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, but women may experience higher levels of stress and loneliness than men. Sex differences may require tailored interventions to more effectively mitigate the impact of the pandemic on mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Loneliness , Sex Factors , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology
10.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 37(4): 314-321, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189422

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the psychological implications of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on people with HIV. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 among men and women with HIV in Miami, Florida. We hypothesized that the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic will be higher for women, and psychological factors will increase COVID-19 burden among them. People with (n = 231) and without HIV (n = 42) residing in Miami, Florida completed a survey assessing psychological outcomes such as loneliness, depression, and stress, as well as the burden of COVID-19, on their daily lives. t-Tests and chi-square analyses were used to assess sex differences in study variables. Logistic regression was used to compare the interaction effects predicting stress and loneliness by COVID-19 burden and sex. A total of 273 completed the survey; the outcomes of the study, loneliness, and stress did not differ by HIV status (p = .458 and p = .922). Overall, men and women reported similar prevalence of COVID-19 burden. However, a greater proportion of women reported losing childcare than men (18% vs. 9%, p = .029, respectively), as well as losing mental health care (15% vs. 7%, p = .049, respectively). There was a significant interaction between COVID-19 burden and sex for loneliness and stress such that the association between COVID-19 burden and loneliness was greater for women (p < .001) than for men (p = .353) and the association between COVID-19 burden and stress was greater for women (p = .013) than men (p = .628). Both men and women with HIV are impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, but women may experience higher levels of stress and loneliness than men. Sex differences may require tailored interventions to more effectively mitigate the impact of the pandemic on mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Loneliness , Sex Factors , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology
11.
AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses ; 37(4): 314-321, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101804

ABSTRACT

Little is known about the psychological implications of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic on people with HIV. The purpose of this study was to assess the impact of COVID-19 among men and women with HIV in Miami, Florida. We hypothesized that the burden of the COVID-19 pandemic will be higher for women, and psychological factors will increase COVID-19 burden among them. People with (n = 231) and without HIV (n = 42) residing in Miami, Florida completed a survey assessing psychological outcomes such as loneliness, depression, and stress, as well as the burden of COVID-19, on their daily lives. t-Tests and chi-square analyses were used to assess sex differences in study variables. Logistic regression was used to compare the interaction effects predicting stress and loneliness by COVID-19 burden and sex. A total of 273 completed the survey; the outcomes of the study, loneliness, and stress did not differ by HIV status (p = .458 and p = .922). Overall, men and women reported similar prevalence of COVID-19 burden. However, a greater proportion of women reported losing childcare than men (18% vs. 9%, p = .029, respectively), as well as losing mental health care (15% vs. 7%, p = .049, respectively). There was a significant interaction between COVID-19 burden and sex for loneliness and stress such that the association between COVID-19 burden and loneliness was greater for women (p < .001) than for men (p = .353) and the association between COVID-19 burden and stress was greater for women (p = .013) than men (p = .628). Both men and women with HIV are impacted by the COVID-19 pandemic, but women may experience higher levels of stress and loneliness than men. Sex differences may require tailored interventions to more effectively mitigate the impact of the pandemic on mental health.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , HIV Infections/complications , Loneliness , Sex Factors , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/psychology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , HIV Infections/psychology , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , United States/epidemiology
12.
AIDS Behav ; 25(8): 2391-2399, 2021 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1100974

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic poses a risk to mental health and may disproportionately affect people living with HIV (PLWH). This study examined the interaction of social support and resilient coping in predicting depressive symptoms among PLWH. PLWH residing in Buenos Aires, Argentina and in Miami, Florida (US) were asked to complete an anonymous survey on the impact of COVID-19. Statistical analysis included ordinary least squares regression. A total of 1,554 participants were included. Mean age was 47.30 years; 63.70% were men. A test of three-way interaction of social support × resilient coping × study site indicated differences by site (b = -0.63, p = 0.04, 95%CI [-1.24, -0.02]). In Argentina, higher levels of social support and resilient coping were associated with lower depressive symptoms. Lower levels of social support and resilient coping were associated with higher depressive symptoms. The impact of COVID-19 on mental health illustrates the need for developing innovative strategies to support resilience and to enhance coping with stress and adversity among PLWH.


RESUMEN: La pandemia de COVID-19 presenta riesgos importantes para la salud mental y puede afectar desproporcionadamente a personas con VIH. Este estudio examinó el efecto entre el apoyo social y la resiliencia para afrontar situaciones difíciles en predecir síntomas depresivos en personas con VIH. Personas con VIH residentes de Buenos Aires (Argentina) y Miami, Florida (EE.UU) completaron una encuesta anónima sobre el impacto del COVID-19. El análisis estadístico incluyó un modelo clásico de regresión lineal con mínimos cuadrados ordinarios. Se incluyeron 1554 participantes. La edad promedio fue 47.30 años y 63.7% eran hombres. La prueba de interacción de apoyo social × resiliencia para hacer frente a situaciones difíciles × país indicó diferencias entre países (b = −0.63, p = 0.043, IC 95% [1.24, −0.02]). En Argentina, los participantes con mayor apoyo social y resiliencia para hacer frente a situaciones difíciles mostraron síntomas depresivos más bajos; y aquellos con menor apoyo social y resiliencia para hacer frente a situaciones difíciles, mostraron síntomas depresivos más altos. Este efecto no se observó en los participantes de Miami. El impacto de COVID-19 en la salud mental en personas con VIH ilustra la necesidad de desarrollar estrategias innovadoras para apoyar la resiliencia y mejorar el enfrentamiento del estrés y la adversidad.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , HIV Infections , Adaptation, Psychological , Argentina/epidemiology , Florida/epidemiology , HIV Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Male , Mental Health , Middle Aged , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Support
13.
JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes ; 85(4):475-482, 2020.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1017333

ABSTRACT

Background: The spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, causative agent of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), has necessitated widespread lockdown to mitigate the pandemic. This study examines the influence of resilience on the impact of COVID-related stress and enforced lockdown on mental health, drug use, and treatment adherence among people living with HIV (PLWH) in Argentina. Setting: PLWH residing predominantly in Buenos Aires Metropolitan Area and urban regions of Argentina were identified from a private clinic electronic database. Methods: Participants completed an anonymous online survey to evaluate the impact of COVID-19 on economic disruption, resilience, mental health outcomes (depression, anxiety, stress, and loneliness), adherence to HIV treatment, and substance use. We performed ordinary least squares and logistic regressions to test whether resilient coping buffered the impact of economic disruption on mental health and drug use during quarantine. Results: A total of 1336 PLWH aged 18-82 were enrolled. The impact of economic disruption on mental health DF(1,1321) = 8.86, P = 0.003 and loneliness DF(1,1326) = 5.77, P = 0.016 was buffered by resilience. A 3-way interaction between resilient buffering, stress, and sex was significant DF(1,1325) = 4.76, P = 0.029. Participants reported less than excellent adherence to medication (33%), disruption to mental health services (11%), and disruption to substance abuse treatment (1.3%) during lockdown. Discussion: The impact of COVID-stress and lockdown on emotional distress seemed mitigated by resilience coping strategies, and the buffering impact of resilience on perceived stress was greater among women. Results highlight PLWH's capacity to adhere to treatment in challenging circumstances and the importance of developing resilience skills for better coping with stress and adversity. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of JAIDS: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes is the property of Lippincott Williams & Wilkins and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

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