Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 17 de 17
Filter
1.
Open forum infectious diseases ; 9(7), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1957966

ABSTRACT

Background Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is transmissible through lung transplantation, and outcomes among infected organ recipients may be severe. Transmission risk to extrapulmonary organ recipients and recent (within 30 days of transplantation) SARS-CoV-2–infected recipient outcomes are unclear. Methods During March 2020–March 2021, potential SARS-CoV-2 transmissions through solid organ transplantation were investigated. Assessments included SARS-CoV-2 testing, medical record review, determination of likely transmission route, and recent recipient outcomes. Results During March 2020–March 2021, approximately 42 740 organs were transplanted in the United States. Forty donors, who donated 140 organs to 125 recipients, were investigated. Nine (23%) donors and 25 (20%) recipients were SARS-CoV-2 positive by nucleic acid amplification test (NAAT). Most (22/25 [88%]) SARS-CoV-2–infected recipients had healthcare or community exposures. Nine SARS-CoV-2–infected donors donated 21 organs to 19 recipients. Of these, 3 lung recipients acquired SARS-CoV-2 infections from donors with negative SARS-CoV-2 testing of pretransplant upper respiratory tract specimens but from whom posttransplant lower respiratory tract (LRT) specimens were SARS-CoV-2 positive. Sixteen recipients of extrapulmonary organs from SARS-CoV-2–infected donors had no evidence of posttransplant COVID-19. All-cause mortality within 45 days after transplantation was 6-fold higher among SARS-CoV-2–infected recipients (9/25 [36%]) than those without (6/100 [6%]). Conclusions Transplant-transmission of SARS-CoV-2 is uncommon. Pretransplant NAAT of lung donor LRT specimens may prevent transmission of SARS-CoV-2 through transplantation. Extrapulmonary organs from SARS-CoV-2–infected donors may be safely usable, although further study is needed. Reducing recent recipient exposures to SARS-CoV-2 should remain a focus of prevention.

2.
Microbiol Spectr ; : e0124722, 2022 Jul 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1950018

ABSTRACT

Previous COVID-19 vaccine efficacy (VE) studies have estimated neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations that correlate with protection from symptomatic infection; how these estimates compare to those generated in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is unclear. Here, we assessed quantitative neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations using standardized SARS-CoV-2 assays on 3,067 serum specimens collected during 27 July 2020 to 27 August 2020 from COVID-19-unvaccinated persons with detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations were severalfold lower in the unvaccinated study population compared to published concentrations at 28 days postvaccination. In this convenience sample, ~88% of neutralizing and ~63 to 86% of binding antibody concentrations met or exceeded concentrations associated with 70% COVID-19 VE against symptomatic infection; ~30% of neutralizing and 1 to 14% of binding antibody concentrations met or exceeded concentrations associated with 90% COVID-19 VE. Our study not only supports observations of infection-induced immunity and current recommendations for vaccination postinfection to maximize protection against COVID-19, but also provides a large data set of pre-COVID-19 vaccination anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibody concentrations that will serve as an important comparator in the current setting of vaccine-induced and hybrid immunity. As new SARS-CoV-2 variants emerge and displace circulating virus strains, we recommend that standardized binding antibody assays that include spike protein-based antigens be utilized to estimate antibody concentrations correlated with protection from COVID-19. These estimates will be helpful in informing public health guidance, such as the need for additional COVID-19 vaccine booster doses to prevent symptomatic infection. IMPORTANCE Although COVID-19 vaccine efficacy (VE) studies have estimated antibody concentrations that correlate with protection from COVID-19, how these estimates compare to those generated in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection is unclear. We assessed quantitative neutralizing and binding antibody concentrations using standardized assays on serum specimens collected from COVID-19-unvaccinated persons with detectable antibodies. We found that most unvaccinated persons with qualitative antibody evidence of prior infection had quantitative antibody concentrations that met or exceeded concentrations associated with 70% VE against COVID-19. However, only a small proportion had antibody concentrations that met or exceeded concentrations associated with 90% VE, suggesting that persons with prior COVID-19 would benefit from vaccination to maximize protective antibody concentrations against COVID-19.

3.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(26): 859-868, 2022 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1912316

ABSTRACT

On June 17, 2022, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) issued Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) amendments for the mRNA-1273 (Moderna) COVID-19 vaccine for use in children aged 6 months-5 years, administered as 2 doses (25 µg [0.25 mL] each), 4 weeks apart, and BNT162b2 (Pfizer-BioNTech) COVID-19 vaccine for use in children aged 6 months-4 years, administered as 3 doses (3 µg [0.2 mL] each), at intervals of 3 weeks between doses 1 and 2 and ≥8 weeks between doses 2 and 3. On June 18, 2022, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued separate interim recommendations for use of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine in children aged 6 months-5 years and the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in children aged 6 months-4 years for the prevention of COVID-19.* Both the Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines met the criteria for immunobridging, which is the comparison of neutralizing antibody levels postvaccination in young children with those in young adults in whom efficacy had been demonstrated. Descriptive efficacy analyses were also conducted for both Moderna and Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccines during the period when the Omicron variant of SARS-CoV-2 (the virus that causes COVID-19) predominated. No specific safety concerns were identified among recipients of either vaccine. ACIP recommendations for the use of the Moderna COVID-19 vaccine and the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in children aged 6 months-5 years and 6 months-4 years, respectively, are interim and will be updated as additional information becomes available. Vaccination is important for protecting children aged 6 months-5 years against COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , 2019-nCoV Vaccine mRNA-1273 , Advisory Committees , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Child , Child, Preschool , Humans , Immunization , SARS-CoV-2 , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination , Young Adult
4.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890908

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Previous SARS-CoV-2 infection and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccination, independently and combined ("hybrid immunity"), result in partial protection from subsequent infection and strong protection from severe disease. Proportions of the U.S. population that have been infected, vaccinated, or with hybrid immunity remain unclear, posing a challenge for assessing effective pandemic mitigation strategies. METHODS: In this serial cross-sectional study, nationwide blood donor specimens collected during January-December 2021 were tested for spike and nucleocapsid antibodies, and donor COVID-19 vaccination history of ≥1 dose was collected. Monthly seroprevalence induced from SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19 vaccination, or both, were estimated. Estimates were weighted to account for demographic differences from the general population, and were compared temporally and by demographic factors. RESULTS: Overall, 1,123,855 blood samples were assayed. From January to December 2021, the weighted percentage of donations with seropositivity due to: vaccination without previous infection increased from 3.5% (95% CI, 3.4%-3.7%) to 64.0%, (95% CI, 63.5%-64.5%); previous infection without vaccination decreased from 15.6% (95% CI, 15.2%-16.0%) to 11.7% (95% CI, 11.4%-12.0%); hybrid immunity increased from 0.7% (95% CI, 0.6%-0.7%) to 18.9% (95% CI, 18.5%-19.3%); and from infection, vaccination, or both increased from 19.8% (95% CI (19.3-20.2) to 94.5% (95% CI, 93.5%-94.0% 0.1%). Infection- and vaccination-induced antibody responses varied significantly by age, race-ethnicity, and region, but not by gender. CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate substantial increases in population humoral immunity from SARS-CoV-2 infection, COVID-19 vaccination, and hybrid immunity during 2021. These findings are important to consider in future COVID-19 studies and long-term pandemic mitigation efforts.

5.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Jun 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1890907

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To assess if state-issued nonpharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) are associated with reduced rates of SARS-CoV-2 infection as measured through anti-nucleocapsid (anti-N) seroprevalence, a proxy for cumulative prior infection that distinguishes seropositivity from vaccination). METHODS: Monthly anti-N seroprevalence during August 1, 2020 - March 30, 2021 was estimated using a nationwide blood donor serosurvey. Using multivariable logistic regression models, we measured the association of seropositivity and state-issued, county-specific NPIs for mask mandates, gathering bans, and bar closures. RESULTS: Compared with individuals living in a county with all three NPIs in place, the odds of having anti-N antibodies were 2.2 (95% CI: 2.0-2.3) times higher for people living in a county that did not have any of the three NPIs, 1.6 (95% CI: 1.5-1.7) times higher for people living in a county that only had a mask mandate and gathering ban policy, and 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3-1.5) times higher for people living in a county that had only a mask mandate. CONCLUSIONS: Consistent with studies assessing NPIs relative to COVID-19 incidence and mortality, the presence of NPIs were associated with lower SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence indicating lower rates of cumulative infections. Multiple NPIs are likely more effective than single NPIs.

7.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Feb 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868253

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Most studies on health disparities during COVID-19 pandemic focused on reported cases and deaths, which are influenced by testing availability and access to care. This study aimed to examine SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalence in the U.S. and its associations with race/ethnicity, rurality, and social vulnerability over time. METHODS: This repeated cross-sectional study used data from blood donations in 50 states and Washington, D.C. from July 2020 through June 2021. Donor ZIP codes were matched to counties and linked with Social Vulnerability Index (SVI) and urban-rural classification. SARS-CoV-2 antibody seroprevalences induced by infection and infection-vaccination combined were estimated. Association of infection-induced seropositivity with demographics, rurality, SVI, and its four themes were quantified using multivariate regression models. FINDINGS: Weighted seroprevalence differed significantly by race/ethnicity and rurality, and increased with increasing social vulnerability. During the study period, infection-induced seroprevalence increased from 1.6% to 27.2% and 3.7% to 20.0% in rural and urban counties, respectively, while rural counties had lower combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence (80.0% vs. 88.1%) in June 2021. Infection-induced seropositivity was associated with being Hispanic, non-Hispanic Black, and living in rural or higher socially vulnerable counties, after adjusting for demographic and geographic covariates. CONCLUSION: The findings demonstrated increasing SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence in the U.S. across all geographic, demographic, and social sectors. The study illustrated disparities by race-ethnicity, rurality, and social vulnerability. The findings identified areas for targeted vaccination strategies and can inform efforts to reduce inequities and prepare for future outbreaks.

8.
Transfusion ; 62(7): 1321-1333, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1861558

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A national serosurvey of U.S. blood donors conducted in partnership with the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) was initiated to estimate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infections and vaccinations. METHODS: Beginning in July 2020, the Nationwide Blood Donor Seroprevalence Study collaborated with multiple blood collection organizations, testing labs, and leadership from government partners to capture, test, and analyze approximately 150,000 blood donation specimens per month in a repeated, cross-sectional seroprevalence survey. RESULTS: A CDC website (https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#nationwide-blood-donor-seroprevalence) provided stratified, population-level results to public health professionals and the general public. DISCUSSION: The study adapted operations as the pandemic evolved, changing specimen flow and testing algorithms, and collecting additional data elements in response to changing policies on universal blood donation screening and administration of SARS-CoV-2 spike-based vaccines. The national serosurvey demonstrated the utility of serosurveillance testing of residual blood donations and highlighted the role of the blood collection industry in public-private partnerships during a public health emergency.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Pandemics , Seroepidemiologic Studies
9.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 71(17): 606-608, 2022 Apr 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1818832

ABSTRACT

In December 2021, the B.1.1.529 (Omicron) variant of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19, became predominant in the United States. Subsequently, national COVID-19 case rates peaked at their highest recorded levels.* Traditional methods of disease surveillance do not capture all COVID-19 cases because some are asymptomatic, not diagnosed, or not reported; therefore, the proportion of the population with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies (i.e., seroprevalence) can improve understanding of population-level incidence of COVID-19. This report uses data from CDC's national commercial laboratory seroprevalence study and the 2018 American Community Survey to examine U.S. trends in infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence during September 2021-February 2022, by age group.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology
10.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 871-881, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700735

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-IV-Pediatric (REDS-IV-P) Epidemiology, Surveillance and Preparedness of the Novel SARS-CoV-2 Epidemic (RESPONSE) seroprevalence study conducted monthly cross-sectional testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in blood donors in 6 US metropolitan regions to estimate the extent of SARS-CoV-2 infections over time. METHODS: During March-August 2020, approximately ≥1000 serum specimens were collected monthly from each region and tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using a well-validated algorithm. Regional seroprevalence estimates were weighted based on demographic differences compared with the general population. Seroprevalence was compared with reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case rates over time. RESULTS: For all regions, seroprevalence was <1.0% in March 2020. New York, New York, experienced the biggest increase (peak seroprevalence, 15.8% in May). All other regions experienced modest increases in seroprevalence (1%-2% in May-June to 2%-4% in July-August). Seroprevalence was higher in younger, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic donors. Temporal increases in donor seroprevalence correlated with reported case rates in each region. In August, 1.3-5.6 estimated cumulative infections (based on seroprevalence data) per COVID-19 case were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in seroprevalence were found in all regions, with the largest increase in New York. Seroprevalence was higher in non-Hispanic black and Hispanic than in non-Hispanic white blood donors. SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing of blood donor samples can be used to estimate the seroprevalence in the general population by region and demographic group. The methods derived from the RESPONSE seroprevalence study served as the basis for expanding SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence surveillance to all 50 states and Puerto Rico.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
11.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 28(3): 672-683, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1700734

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) serosurveys can estimate cumulative incidence for monitoring epidemics, requiring assessment of serologic assays to inform testing algorithm development and interpretation of results. We conducted a multilaboratory evaluation of 21 commercial high-throughput SARS-CoV-2 serologic assays using blinded panels of 1,000 highly characterized specimens. Assays demonstrated a range of sensitivities (96%-63%), specificities (99%-96%), and precision (intraclass correlation coefficient 0.55-0.99). Durability of antibody detection was dependent on antigen and immunoglobulin targets; antispike and total Ig assays demonstrated more stable longitudinal reactivity than antinucleocapsid and IgG assays. Assays with high sensitivity, specificity, and durable antibody detection are ideal for serosurveillance, but assays demonstrating waning reactivity are appropriate for other applications, including correlation with neutralizing activity and detection of anamnestic boosting by reinfections. Assay performance must be evaluated in context of intended use, particularly in the context of widespread vaccination and circulation of SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Sensitivity and Specificity , Serologic Tests/methods
12.
MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep ; 70(45): 1579-1583, 2021 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1513271

ABSTRACT

The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 (BNT162b2) vaccine is a lipid nanoparticle-formulated, nucleoside-modified mRNA vaccine encoding the prefusion spike glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes COVID-19. On August 23, 2021, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved a Biologics License Application (BLA) for use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine, marketed as Comirnaty (Pfizer, Inc.), in persons aged ≥16 years (1). The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine is also recommended for adolescents aged 12-15 years under an Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) (1). All persons aged ≥12 years are recommended to receive 2 doses (30 µg, 0.3 mL each), administered 3 weeks apart (2,3). As of November 2, 2021, approximately 248 million doses of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine had been administered to persons aged ≥12 years in the United States.* On October 29, 2021, FDA issued an EUA amendment for a new formulation of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine for use in children aged 5-11 years, administered as 2 doses (10 µg, 0.2 mL each), 3 weeks apart (Table) (1). On November 2, 2021, the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices (ACIP) issued an interim recommendation† for use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in children aged 5-11 years for the prevention of COVID-19. To guide its deliberations regarding recommendations for the vaccine, ACIP used the Evidence to Recommendation (EtR) Framework§ and incorporated a Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluation (GRADE) approach.¶ The ACIP recommendation for the use of the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine in children aged 5-11 years under an EUA is interim and will be updated as additional information becomes available. The Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 vaccine has high efficacy (>90%) against COVID-19 in children aged 5-11 years, and ACIP determined benefits outweigh risks for vaccination. Vaccination is important to protect children against COVID-19 and reduce community transmission of SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Advisory Committees , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, U.S. , Child , Drug Approval , Humans , Immunization/standards , Immunization Schedule , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration
13.
JAMA ; 326(14): 1400-1409, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1490612

ABSTRACT

Importance: People who have been infected with or vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 have reduced risk of subsequent infection, but the proportion of people in the US with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from infection or vaccination is uncertain. Objective: To estimate trends in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence related to infection and vaccination in the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a repeated cross-sectional study conducted each month during July 2020 through May 2021, 17 blood collection organizations with blood donations from all 50 US states; Washington, DC; and Puerto Rico were organized into 66 study-specific regions, representing a catchment of 74% of the US population. For each study region, specimens from a median of approximately 2000 blood donors were selected and tested each month; a total of 1 594 363 specimens were initially selected and tested. The final date of blood donation collection was May 31, 2021. Exposure: Calendar time. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of persons with detectable SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Seroprevalence was weighted for demographic differences between the blood donor sample and general population. Infection-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with both spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with spike antibodies. The seroprevalence estimates were compared with cumulative COVID-19 case report incidence rates. Results: Among 1 443 519 specimens included, 733 052 (50.8%) were from women, 174 842 (12.1%) were from persons aged 16 to 29 years, 292 258 (20.2%) were from persons aged 65 years and older, 36 654 (2.5%) were from non-Hispanic Black persons, and 88 773 (6.1%) were from Hispanic persons. The overall infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence estimate increased from 3.5% (95% CI, 3.2%-3.8%) in July 2020 to 20.2% (95% CI, 19.9%-20.6%) in May 2021; the combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence estimate in May 2021 was 83.3% (95% CI, 82.9%-83.7%). By May 2021, 2.1 SARS-CoV-2 infections (95% CI, 2.0-2.1) per reported COVID-19 case were estimated to have occurred. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on a sample of blood donations in the US from July 2020 through May 2021, vaccine- and infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence increased over time and varied by age, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. Despite weighting to adjust for demographic differences, these findings from a national sample of blood donors may not be representative of the entire US population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
14.
Transfusion ; 61(10): 2814-2824, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1402980

ABSTRACT

In March 2020, there were no treatment options for COVID-19. Passive immune therapy including anti-SARS-CoV-2 hyperimmune globulin (hIVIG) was a logical candidate for COVID-19 therapeutic trials, given past success treating emerging pathogens with endogenous neutralizing antibodies. We established a plasma collection protocol for persons recovered from COVID-19. To speed recruitment in the first U.S. hotspot, Seattle, Washington, federal and state public health agencies collaborated with Bloodworks Northwest to collect convalescent plasma (CP) for manufacturing hIVIG. During March-December 2020, we identified and recruited prospective CP donors via letters to persons recovered from COVID-19 with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection. Prospective donors were pre-screened and administered a medical history survey. Anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibody (NAb) titers were classified as qualifying (≥1:80) or non-qualifying (<1:80) for enrollment based on a live virus neutralization assay. Generalized estimating equations were used to identify characteristics of donors associated with qualifying versus nonqualifying NAb titers. Overall, 21,359 letters resulted in 3207 inquiries, 2159 prescreenings with laboratory-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection, and 573 donors (27% of all pre-screenings with confirmed infection) who provided a screening plasma donation. Of 573 donors screened, 254 (44%) provided plasma with qualifying NAb titers, resulting in 1284 units for hIVIG manufacture. In a multivariable model, after adjusting for other factors, time (60 days) from COVID-19 symptom onset to screening was associated with lower odds of qualifying NAb (adjusted odds ratio = 0.67, 95% CI: 0.48-0.94). The collaboration facilitated a rapid response to develop and provide hIVIG for clinical trials and CP for transfusion. Only 1 in 12 donor inquiries resulted in a qualifying plasma donation. Challenges included recruitment and the relatively low percentage of persons with high NAb titers and limited screening capacity. This resource-intensive collaboration may not be scalable but informs preparedness and response strategies for plasma collection in future epidemics. Operational readiness plans with templates for screening, consent, and data collection forms are recommended.


Subject(s)
Blood Specimen Collection , COVID-19/therapy , Public Health , Public-Private Sector Partnerships , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Emergencies , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Young Adult
15.
JAMA ; 326(14): 1400-1409, 2021 10 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1391515

ABSTRACT

Importance: People who have been infected with or vaccinated against SARS-CoV-2 have reduced risk of subsequent infection, but the proportion of people in the US with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies from infection or vaccination is uncertain. Objective: To estimate trends in SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence related to infection and vaccination in the US population. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a repeated cross-sectional study conducted each month during July 2020 through May 2021, 17 blood collection organizations with blood donations from all 50 US states; Washington, DC; and Puerto Rico were organized into 66 study-specific regions, representing a catchment of 74% of the US population. For each study region, specimens from a median of approximately 2000 blood donors were selected and tested each month; a total of 1 594 363 specimens were initially selected and tested. The final date of blood donation collection was May 31, 2021. Exposure: Calendar time. Main Outcomes and Measures: Proportion of persons with detectable SARS-CoV-2 spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Seroprevalence was weighted for demographic differences between the blood donor sample and general population. Infection-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with both spike and nucleocapsid antibodies. Combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence was defined as the prevalence of the population with spike antibodies. The seroprevalence estimates were compared with cumulative COVID-19 case report incidence rates. Results: Among 1 443 519 specimens included, 733 052 (50.8%) were from women, 174 842 (12.1%) were from persons aged 16 to 29 years, 292 258 (20.2%) were from persons aged 65 years and older, 36 654 (2.5%) were from non-Hispanic Black persons, and 88 773 (6.1%) were from Hispanic persons. The overall infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence estimate increased from 3.5% (95% CI, 3.2%-3.8%) in July 2020 to 20.2% (95% CI, 19.9%-20.6%) in May 2021; the combined infection- and vaccination-induced seroprevalence estimate in May 2021 was 83.3% (95% CI, 82.9%-83.7%). By May 2021, 2.1 SARS-CoV-2 infections (95% CI, 2.0-2.1) per reported COVID-19 case were estimated to have occurred. Conclusions and Relevance: Based on a sample of blood donations in the US from July 2020 through May 2021, vaccine- and infection-induced SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence increased over time and varied by age, race and ethnicity, and geographic region. Despite weighting to adjust for demographic differences, these findings from a national sample of blood donors may not be representative of the entire US population.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Blood Donors , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prevalence , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
16.
Clin Infect Dis ; 74(5): 871-881, 2022 03 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1263657

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The Recipient Epidemiology and Donor Evaluation Study-IV-Pediatric (REDS-IV-P) Epidemiology, Surveillance and Preparedness of the Novel SARS-CoV-2 Epidemic (RESPONSE) seroprevalence study conducted monthly cross-sectional testing for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) antibodies in blood donors in 6 US metropolitan regions to estimate the extent of SARS-CoV-2 infections over time. METHODS: During March-August 2020, approximately ≥1000 serum specimens were collected monthly from each region and tested for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies using a well-validated algorithm. Regional seroprevalence estimates were weighted based on demographic differences compared with the general population. Seroprevalence was compared with reported coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case rates over time. RESULTS: For all regions, seroprevalence was <1.0% in March 2020. New York, New York, experienced the biggest increase (peak seroprevalence, 15.8% in May). All other regions experienced modest increases in seroprevalence (1%-2% in May-June to 2%-4% in July-August). Seroprevalence was higher in younger, non-Hispanic black, and Hispanic donors. Temporal increases in donor seroprevalence correlated with reported case rates in each region. In August, 1.3-5.6 estimated cumulative infections (based on seroprevalence data) per COVID-19 case were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. CONCLUSIONS: Increases in seroprevalence were found in all regions, with the largest increase in New York. Seroprevalence was higher in non-Hispanic black and Hispanic than in non-Hispanic white blood donors. SARS-CoV-2 antibody testing of blood donor samples can be used to estimate the seroprevalence in the general population by region and demographic group. The methods derived from the RESPONSE seroprevalence study served as the basis for expanding SARS-CoV-2 seroprevalence surveillance to all 50 states and Puerto Rico.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Blood Donors , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Seroepidemiologic Studies
17.
Emerg Infect Dis ; 27(2): 552-555, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-983632

ABSTRACT

We conducted public health investigations of 8 organ transplant recipients who tested positive for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection. Findings suggest the most likely source of transmission was community or healthcare exposure, not the organ donor. Transplant centers should educate transplant candidates and recipients about infection prevention recommendations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Postoperative Complications/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , COVID-19/virology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , United States/epidemiology
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL