Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 20 de 28
Filter
1.
The British journal of surgery ; 109(Suppl 6), 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2011991

ABSTRACT

Aim The COVID-19 pandemic has affected doctors worldwide, with 1.5 million surgeries being postponed or cancelled in England and Wales during 2020. Surgeons in competitive specialties requiring active research portfolios may have used this time to strengthen their academic work. This cross-sectional study provides insight into the academic output of Welsh plastic surgery trainees during the COVID-19 pandemic, which could be used to highlight contributing factors to benefit future training. Method A cross-sectional study was distributed to all Welsh burns and plastic surgery trainees from specialty trainee levels 3–8. Data was obtained comparing publications achieved, s submitted, and projects undertaken pre-pandemic, March 1st to 31st August 2019 and mid-pandemic, March 1st to 31st August 2020. Results Of the 12 Welsh plastic surgery trainees, 75% participated in this survey, with representation from all years of training. Mid-pandemic, an average of 3 publications were achieved per trainee when compared with 1.4 pre-pandemic. 78% submitted s during both periods, increasing from 1.5 to 2.44 mid-pandemic. Although the average number of projects undertaken pre- and mid-pandemic was 3.2 and 3.1 respectively, the number of trainees undertaking projects increased by 22% to 100%. Most commonly, this was attributed to an increase in capacity. Conclusions Our study demonstrated that overall, academic output increased significantly during the COVID-19 pandemic. Unsurprisingly, this sudden decrease in surgical activity led to trainees in this highly competitive specialty employing their time towards research. Further studies investigating the factors enabling trainees to increase their academic productivity would be beneficial as routine surgical activity resumes.

2.
Psychological Trauma:Theory, Pesearch, Practice and Policy ; 04:04, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1972551

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: During the protracted collective trauma of the COVID-19 pandemic, lay of distorted perceptions of time (e.g., time slowing, days blurring together, uncertainty about the future) have been widespread. Known as "temporal disintegration" in psychiatric literature, these distortions are associated with negative mental health consequences. However, the prevalence and predictors of temporal disintegration are poorly understood. We examined perceptions of time passing and their associations with lifetime stress and trauma and pandemic-related secondary stress as COVID-19 spread across the United States. METHOD: A probability-based national sample (N = 5,661) from the NORC AmeriSpeak online panel, which had completed a mental and physical health survey prior to the pandemic, completed two surveys online during March 18-April 18, 2020, and September 26-October 16, 2020. Distorted time perceptions and other pandemic-related experiences were assessed. RESULTS: Present focus, blurring weekdays and weekdays together, and uncertainty about the future were common experiences reported by over 65% of the sample 6 months into the pandemic. Half of the sample reported time speeding up or slowing down. Predictors of temporal disintegration include prepandemic mental health diagnoses, daily pandemic-related media exposure and secondary stress (e.g., school closures, lockdown), financial stress, and lifetime stress and trauma exposure. CONCLUSION: During the first 6 months of the COVID-19 pandemic, distortions in time perception were very common and associated with prepandemic mental health, lifetime stress and trauma exposure, and pandemic-related media exposure and stressors. Given that temporal disintegration is a risk factor for mental health challenges, these findings have potential implications for public mental health. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

3.
44th AMOP Technical Seminar on Environmental Contamination and Response 2022 ; : 148-157, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1958484

ABSTRACT

Environment and Climate Change Canada’s (ECCC’s) Emergencies Science and Technology Section (ESTS) is tasked with providing scientific and technical advice to its federal partners during environmental emergencies including oil spill incidents. In addition, ESTS maintains a wide array of field instrumentation and equipment, which is available to support different areas of a spill response such as detection and monitoring, health and safety, and sampling. During a response, ESTS needs to quickly, and effectively, convey to ECCC Environmental Emergencies Officers what tools and equipment could be available for the response, and how they can help meet ECCCs objectives for the response. This can often be a challenge, especially when ESTS personnel cannot deploy on-site alongside the instrumentation and equipment, as the information must be provided in an easily understandable format, yet thorough enough to ensure proper usage of the particular tool or piece of equipment. To address these challenges, ESTS has begun the development of a suite of job aids or “Tactical Sheets”. Each Tactical Sheet contains necessary, condensed, information on a field method or equipment maintained by ESTS for use at an environmental emergency. The goal of these Tactical Sheets is to highlight what the specific objectives for ECCC are, and how a given piece of equipment or method can help meet that objective at a response. These Tactical Sheets come with a number of features including a standardized format, a visually appealing design layout, a required equipment list, a simplified procedure, and a summary of the typical use for the particular tool or piece of equipment. ESTS has begun trialing these Tactical Sheets at certain incidents throughout the Covid-19 pandemic to increase ESTS’ capability of providing remote support when on-site presence is not an option. These Tactical Sheets are meant to bolster ESTS’ portfolio of support options available to our partners during environmental emergency responses. This paper will present information on the program to update field methods used during an environmental emergency by ECCC. © 2022 44th AMOP Technical Seminar on Environmental Contamination and Response. All rights reserved.

4.
J Med Eng Technol ; 46(6): 536-546, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1900824

ABSTRACT

Telehealth has long been highlighted as a way to solve issues of efficiency and effectiveness in healthcare and to improve patients' care and has become fundamental to address patients' needs during the COVID-19 pandemic; however previous studies have shown mixed results in the user acceptance of such technologies. Whilst many previous studies have focussed on clinical application of telehealth, we focus on the adoption of telehealth for virtual assessments visits aimed to evaluate the suitability of a property where a patient is discharged, and eventual adaptations needed. We present a study of stakeholders' attitudes towards such virtual assessment visits. The study has been carried out with healthcare professionals and patients and allowed us to identify user attitudes, barriers and facilitators for the success of virtual assessment visits from the point of view of healthcare professionals and patients. Finally, we discuss implications for designers of telehealth services and guidelines that can be derived from our study.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Telemedicine , Attitude , Humans , Pandemics
6.
Geodrilling International ; - (July-August):11, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1824048
7.
Brain Injury ; 36(SUPPL 1):106-107, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1815748

ABSTRACT

Background: Communicative rehabilitation can be complex and challenging for children with an acquired brain injury (ABI) who use augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) systems. The development of communicative competence (CC) in children with use AAC systems is in itself complex and multifaceted (Light, 1989, Light and McNaughton, 2014) and it can be challenging for clinicians to target multiple competencies effectively through direct intervention. The Brick-by-Brick™ programme (previously known as LEGObased therapyR) has an evidence base routed in research with verbal young people with Autism Spectrum Condition. The programme is a collaborative play therapy originally designed as a social intervention to target the development of social communication and interaction skills (LeGoff, 2004). Introduction: The presentation aims to explore a use of the Brick-by-Brick™ programme with children with ABI who use AAC to support or replace their verbal communication, as well as the areas of potential clinical need for adaptations to its delivery to increase access for this client group. It will also discuss the theory behind adaptations and the need for evidence to support decision making clinically around this topic. The aims and methods of the presenter's current research will be discussed using Janice Light's framework of communicative competence (Light, 1989;Light and McNaughton, 2012) to discuss areas of competence during the presentation. Methods: The research agenda of an embedded quasiexperimental mixed methods design will be shared, along with considerations for the commencement of data collection in a country still significantly affected by the health, social, and educational repercussions of the Covid-19 pandemic. Clinical adaptations to the programme made by the presenter in her role as highly specialist speech and language therapist will be discussed and linked to her current research. Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations: Adapting the delivery of the Brick-by-Brick™ programme for use with AAC users with ABI is not without difficulties, but these are not insurmountable. Practical and theoretical recommendations for the adaptation of the programme in both educational and healthcare rehabilitation settings will be shared. Future thoughts on the development of the current research base will also be discussed.

8.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-330704

ABSTRACT

Secondary bacterial infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), lead to worse clinical outcomes and increased mortality following viral respiratory infections including in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Using a combination of tracheal aspirate bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) we assessed lower respiratory tract immune responses and microbiome dynamics in 28 COVID-19 patients, 15 of whom developed VAP, and eight critically ill uninfected controls. Two days before VAP onset we observed a transcriptional signature of bacterial infection. Two weeks prior to VAP onset, following intubation, we observed a striking impairment in immune signaling in COVID-19 patients who developed VAP. Longitudinal metatranscriptomic analysis revealed disruption of lung microbiome community composition in patients with VAP, providing a connection between dysregulated immune signaling and outgrowth of opportunistic pathogens. These findings suggest that COVID-19 patients who develop VAP have impaired antibacterial immune defense detectable weeks before secondary infection onset.

9.
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems ; 5, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1742283

ABSTRACT

Australia has managed well through the COVID-19 pandemic, compared to many other developed nations. Through its first and second waves it was relatively successful in terms of control of outbreaks. Nevertheless, like everywhere, the shock to national systems has been profound, and adjustment remains complex and volatile. Food is a critical human need, and the food industry is recognised as a vital economic sector. We present an examination of some of the adaptive responses of Australia's food systems during the early stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, from January 2020 to October 2020, with a focus on three case studies (seafood exports, consumer behaviour and food sector employment). These case studies provide observations of specific stresses experienced, as well as insights into the adaptation strategies carried out by various actors within the nation's food systems. The shock was experienced differently in different parts of given food systems, and the opportunities for adaptation varied. Some supply chains lost business, others had to adapt to rapidly increased demands, and surges. Our analysis reveals features of Australia's food systems, and their relationships to other systems, that have facilitated resilience, and features that have impeded it. We found that international supply chains are highly vulnerable to global shocks, that insecure employment conditions throughout the food system reduce the resilience of the system overall, and that consumers are not fully confident in supply chains. We observed the importance of agency and adaptive behaviour throughout the food systems as actors worked to build their own resilience, with consequences for other parts of the system. Our findings suggest that food system resilience can be enhanced by ensuring that the goals and priorities of those most vulnerable in society are recognised and addressed within decision making processes throughout the system. Copyright © 2022 Jones, Bellamy, Bellotti, Ross, van Bommel and Liu.

10.
Internal Medicine Journal ; 51(5):821-823, 2021.
Article in English | GIM | ID: covidwho-1716969

ABSTRACT

This was a single-centre, observational cohort study of inpatients admitted to Austin Health from March to October 2020, investigating demographic, clinical,laboratory and treatment parameters associated with readmission to hospital within 6 months following initial inpatient management of COVID-19. Of 169 patients admitted with COVID-19 between March and October 2020 who survived to discharge, 24 (14.2%) were readmitted to hospital within 6 months(median, 36 days;interquartile range, 15-67 days). Ten(5.9%) patients re-presented with respiratory or COVID-19-specific symptoms,five (3.0%) patients represented with COVID-19 complications, and nine (5.3%) patients represented with unrelated problems.In whole cohort analysis, increased length of stay during index admission was significantly associated with readmission (5 days vs 7 days,P=0.04).Anon-significant increase in readmission was noted inpatients with pre-existing chronic respiratory disease,patients requiring supplemental oxygen, and patients admitted to the intensive care unit (ICU).

11.
Sustainability (Switzerland) ; 14(4), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1707295

ABSTRACT

Sustainable development is an effort to balance social progress with environmental equilibrium and economic growth. Young people affected by forced displacement are particularly vulnerable to the economic, environmental and social challenges of their surroundings. Using a framework that centres sustainable development on these three interconnected pillars, this article explores how the economic and environmental contexts in Lebanon impact adolescents’ and youth social development, drawing on qualitative data from adolescents in refugee and host community settings. The article highlights that adolescents face economic challenges because of the national economic crisis, exacerbated by COVID-19 lockdowns and service closures, poor labour market opportunities for youth—and for refugees in particular—and rising living costs. The environmental challenges facing adolescents include inadequate shelter (especially in collective shelters and informal tented shelters) and inadequate water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) facilities. These economic and environmental conditions in turn influence adolescents’ social capabilities such as their physical and mental health, and voice and agency. The article concludes by highlighting the need for a more integrated approach to sustainable development that will allow both present and future generations in Lebanon to meet their own needs and live empowered lives. It outlines measures that could help achieve this approach, including: creating policies and programmes that promote investment in technical and soft skills-building to equip young people with the skills they need to take up jobs within the green economy;investing in adolescent-friendly social protection with linkages to environmental projects;and improved shelter, health and WASH facilities, particularly in response to the ongoing and future impacts of climate change. © 2022 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

12.
McCrone, J. T.; Hill, V.; Bajaj, S.; Pena, R. E.; Lambert, B. C.; Inward, R.; Bhatt, S.; Volz, E.; Ruis, C.; Dellicour, S.; Baele, G.; Zarebski, A. E.; Sadilek, A.; Wu, N.; Schneider, A.; Ji, X.; Raghwani, J.; Jackson, B.; Colquhoun, R.; O'Toole, Á, Peacock, T. P.; Twohig, K.; Thelwall, S.; Dabrera, G.; Myers, R.; Faria, N. R.; Huber, C.; Bogoch, I. I.; Khan, K.; du Plessis, L.; Barrett, J. C.; Aanensen, D. M.; Barclay, W. S.; Chand, M.; Connor, T.; Loman, N. J.; Suchard, M. A.; Pybus, O. G.; Rambaut, A.; Kraemer, M. U. G.; Robson, S. C.; Connor, T. R.; Loman, N. J.; Golubchik, T.; Martinez Nunez, R. T.; Bonsall, D.; Rambaut, A.; Snell, L. B.; Livett, R.; Ludden, C.; Corden, S.; Nastouli, E.; Nebbia, G.; Johnston, I.; Lythgoe, K.; Estee Torok, M.; Goodfellow, I. G.; Prieto, J. A.; Saeed, K.; Jackson, D. K.; Houlihan, C.; Frampton, D.; Hamilton, W. L.; Witney, A. A.; Bucca, G.; Pope, C. F.; Moore, C.; Thomson, E. C.; Harrison, E. M.; Smith, C. P.; Rogan, F.; Beckwith, S. M.; Murray, A.; Singleton, D.; Eastick, K.; Sheridan, L. A.; Randell, P.; Jackson, L. M.; Ariani, C. V.; Gonçalves, S.; Fairley, D. J.; Loose, M. W.; Watkins, J.; Moses, S.; Nicholls, S.; Bull, M.; Amato, R.; Smith, D. L.; Aanensen, D. M.; Barrett, J. C.; Aggarwal, D.; Shepherd, J. G.; Curran, M. D.; Parmar, S.; Parker, M. D.; Williams, C.; Glaysher, S.; Underwood, A. P.; Bashton, M.; Pacchiarini, N.; Loveson, K. F.; Byott, M.; Carabelli, A. M.; Templeton, K. E.; de Silva, T. I.; Wang, D.; Langford, C. F.; Sillitoe, J.; Gunson, R. N.; Cottrell, S.; O'Grady, J.; Kwiatkowski, D.; Lillie, P. J.; Cortes, N.; Moore, N.; Thomas, C.; Burns, P. J.; Mahungu, T. W.; Liggett, S.; Beckett, A. H.; Holden, M. T. G.; Levett, L. J.; Osman, H.; Hassan-Ibrahim, M. O.; Simpson, D. A.; Chand, M.; Gupta, R. K.; Darby, A. C.; Paterson, S.; Pybus, O. G.; Volz, E. M.; de Angelis, D.; Robertson, D. L.; Page, A. J.; Martincorena, I.; Aigrain, L.; Bassett, A. R.; Wong, N.; Taha, Y.; Erkiert, M. J.; Spencer Chapman, M. H.; Dewar, R.; McHugh, M. P.; Mookerjee, S.; Aplin, S.; Harvey, M.; Sass, T.; Umpleby, H.; Wheeler, H.; McKenna, J. P.; Warne, B.; Taylor, J. F.; Chaudhry, Y.; Izuagbe, R.; Jahun, A. S.; Young, G. R.; McMurray, C.; McCann, C. M.; Nelson, A.; Elliott, S.; Lowe, H.; Price, A.; Crown, M. R.; Rey, S.; Roy, S.; Temperton, B.; Shaaban, S.; Hesketh, A. R.; Laing, K. G.; Monahan, I. M.; Heaney, J.; Pelosi, E.; Silviera, S.; Wilson-Davies, E.; Fryer, H.; Adams, H.; du Plessis, L.; Johnson, R.; Harvey, W. T.; Hughes, J.; Orton, R. J.; Spurgin, L. G.; Bourgeois, Y.; Ruis, C.; O'Toole, Á, Gourtovaia, M.; Sanderson, T.; Fraser, C.; Edgeworth, J.; Breuer, J.; Michell, S. L.; Todd, J. A.; John, M.; Buck, D.; Gajee, K.; Kay, G. L.; Peacock, S. J.; Heyburn, D.; Kitchman, K.; McNally, A.; Pritchard, D. T.; Dervisevic, S.; Muir, P.; Robinson, E.; Vipond, B. B.; Ramadan, N. A.; Jeanes, C.; Weldon, D.; Catalan, J.; Jones, N.; da Silva Filipe, A.; Williams, C.; Fuchs, M.; Miskelly, J.; Jeffries, A. R.; Oliver, K.; Park, N. R.; Ash, A.; Koshy, C.; Barrow, M.; Buchan, S. L.; Mantzouratou, A.; Clark, G.; Holmes, C. W.; Campbell, S.; Davis, T.; Tan, N. K.; Brown, J. R.; Harris, K. A.; Kidd, S. P.; Grant, P. R.; Xu-McCrae, L.; Cox, A.; Madona, P.; Pond, M.; Randell, P. A.; Withell, K. T.; Williams, C.; Graham, C.; Denton-Smith, R.; Swindells, E.; Turnbull, R.; Sloan, T. J.; Bosworth, A.; Hutchings, S.; Pymont, H. M.; Casey, A.; Ratcliffe, L.; Jones, C. R.; Knight, B. A.; Haque, T.; Hart, J.; Irish-Tavares, D.; Witele, E.; Mower, C.; Watson, L. K.; Collins, J.; Eltringham, G.; Crudgington, D.; Macklin, B.; Iturriza-Gomara, M.; Lucaci, A. O.; McClure, P. C.; Carlile, M.; Holmes, N.; Moore, C.; Storey, N.; Rooke, S.; Yebra, G.; Craine, N.; Perry, M.; Alikhan, N. F.; Bridgett, S.; Cook, K. F.; Fearn, C.; Goudarzi, S.; Lyons, R. A.; Williams, T.; Haldenby, S. T.; Durham, J.; Leonard, S.; Davies, R. M.; Batra, R.; Blane, B.; Spyer, M. J.; Smith, P.; Yavus, M.; Williams, R. J.; Mahanama, A. I. K.; Samaraweera, B.; Girgis, S. T.; Hansford, S. E.; Green, A.; Beaver, C.; Bellis, K. L.; Dorman, M. J.; Kay, S.; Prestwood, L.; Rajatileka, S.; Quick, J.; Poplawski, R.; Reynolds, N.; Mack, A.; Morriss, A.; Whalley, T.; Patel, B.; Georgana, I.; Hosmillo, M.; Pinckert, M. L.; Stockton, J.; Henderson, J. H.; Hollis, A.; Stanley, W.; Yew, W. C.; Myers, R.; Thornton, A.; Adams, A.; Annett, T.; Asad, H.; Birchley, A.; Coombes, J.; Evans, J. M.; Fina, L.; Gatica-Wilcox, B.; Gilbert, L.; Graham, L.; Hey, J.; Hilvers, E.; Jones, S.; Jones, H.; Kumziene-Summerhayes, S.; McKerr, C.; Powell, J.; Pugh, G.; Taylor, S.; Trotter, A. J.; Williams, C. A.; Kermack, L. M.; Foulkes, B. H.; Gallis, M.; Hornsby, H. R.; Louka, S. F.; Pohare, M.; Wolverson, P.; Zhang, P.; MacIntyre-Cockett, G.; Trebes, A.; Moll, R. J.; Ferguson, L.; Goldstein, E. J.; Maclean, A.; Tomb, R.; Starinskij, I.; Thomson, L.; Southgate, J.; Kraemer, M. U. G.; Raghwani, J.; Zarebski, A. E.; Boyd, O.; Geidelberg, L.; Illingworth, C. J.; Jackson, C.; Pascall, D.; Vattipally, S.; Freeman, T. M.; Hsu, S. N.; Lindsey, B. B.; James, K.; Lewis, K.; Tonkin-Hill, G.; Tovar-Corona, J. M.; Cox, M.; Abudahab, K.; Menegazzo, M.; Taylor, B. E. W.; Yeats, C. A.; Mukaddas, A.; Wright, D. W.; de Oliveira Martins, L.; Colquhoun, R.; Hill, V.; Jackson, B.; McCrone, J. T.; Medd, N.; Scher, E.; Keatley, J. P.; Curran, T.; Morgan, S.; Maxwell, P.; Smith, K.; Eldirdiri, S.; Kenyon, A.; Holmes, A. H.; Price, J. R.; Wyatt, T.; Mather, A. E.; Skvortsov, T.; Hartley, J. A.; Guest, M.; Kitchen, C.; Merrick, I.; Munn, R.; Bertolusso, B.; Lynch, J.; Vernet, G.; Kirk, S.; Wastnedge, E.; Stanley, R.; Idle, G.; Bradley, D. T.; Poyner, J.; Mori, M.; Jones, O.; Wright, V.; Brooks, E.; Churcher, C. M.; Fragakis, M.; Galai, K.; Jermy, A.; Judges, S.; McManus, G. M.; Smith, K. S.; Westwick, E.; Attwood, S. W.; Bolt, F.; Davies, A.; De Lacy, E.; Downing, F.; Edwards, S.; Meadows, L.; Jeremiah, S.; Smith, N.; Foulser, L.; Charalampous, T.; Patel, A.; Berry, L.; Boswell, T.; Fleming, V. M.; Howson-Wells, H. C.; Joseph, A.; Khakh, M.; Lister, M. M.; Bird, P. W.; Fallon, K.; Helmer, T.; McMurray, C. L.; Odedra, M.; Shaw, J.; Tang, J. W.; Willford, N. J.; Blakey, V.; Raviprakash, V.; Sheriff, N.; Williams, L. A.; Feltwell, T.; Bedford, L.; Cargill, J. S.; Hughes, W.; Moore, J.; Stonehouse, S.; Atkinson, L.; Lee, J. C. D.; Shah, D.; Alcolea-Medina, A.; Ohemeng-Kumi, N.; Ramble, J.; Sehmi, J.; Williams, R.; Chatterton, W.; Pusok, M.; Everson, W.; Castigador, A.; Macnaughton, E.; El Bouzidi, K.; Lampejo, T.; Sudhanva, M.; Breen, C.; Sluga, G.; Ahmad, S. S. Y.; George, R. P.; Machin, N. W.; Binns, D.; James, V.; Blacow, R.; Coupland, L.; Smith, L.; Barton, E.; Padgett, D.; Scott, G.; Cross, A.; Mirfenderesky, M.; Greenaway, J.; Cole, K.; Clarke, P.; Duckworth, N.; Walsh, S.; Bicknell, K.; Impey, R.; Wyllie, S.; Hopes, R.; Bishop, C.; Chalker, V.; et al..
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326827

ABSTRACT

The Delta variant of concern of SARS-CoV-2 has spread globally causing large outbreaks and resurgences of COVID-19 cases1-3. The emergence of Delta in the UK occurred on the background of a heterogeneous landscape of immunity and relaxation of non-pharmaceutical interventions4,5. Here we analyse 52,992 Delta genomes from England in combination with 93,649 global genomes to reconstruct the emergence of Delta, and quantify its introduction to and regional dissemination across England, in the context of changing travel and social restrictions. Through analysis of human movement, contact tracing, and virus genomic data, we find that the focus of geographic expansion of Delta shifted from India to a more global pattern in early May 2021. In England, Delta lineages were introduced >1,000 times and spread nationally as non-pharmaceutical interventions were relaxed. We find that hotel quarantine for travellers from India reduced onward transmission from importations;however the transmission chains that later dominated the Delta wave in England had been already seeded before restrictions were introduced. In England, increasing inter-regional travel drove Delta's nationwide dissemination, with some cities receiving >2,000 observable lineage introductions from other regions. Subsequently, increased levels of local population mixing, not the number of importations, was associated with faster relative growth of Delta. Among US states, we find that regions that previously experienced large waves also had faster Delta growth rates, and a model including interactions between immunity and human behaviour could accurately predict the rise of Delta there. Delta's invasion dynamics depended on fine scale spatial heterogeneity in immunity and contact patterns and our findings will inform optimal spatial interventions to reduce transmission of current and future VOCs such as Omicron.

13.
Robson, S. C.; Connor, T. R.; Loman, N. J.; Golubchik, T.; Nunez, R. T. M.; Bonsall, D.; Rambaut, A.; Snell, L. B.; Livett, R.; Ludden, C.; Corden, S.; Nastouli, E.; Nebbia, G.; Johnston, I.; Lythgoe, K.; Torok, M. E.; Goodfellow, I. G.; Prieto, J. A.; Saeed, K.; Jackson, D. K.; Houlihan, C.; Frampton, D.; Hamilton, W. L.; Witney, A. A.; Bucca, G.; Pope, C. F.; Moore, C.; Thomson, E. C.; Harrison, E. M.; Smith, C. P.; Rogan, F.; Beckwith, S. M.; Murray, A.; Singleton, D.; Eastick, K.; Sheridan, L. A.; Randell, P.; Jackson, L. M.; Ariani, C. V.; Gonçalves, S.; Fairley, D. J.; Loose, M. W.; Watkins, J.; Moses, S.; Nicholls, S.; Bull, M.; Amato, R.; Smith, D. L.; Aanensen, D. M.; Barrett, J. C.; Aggarwal, D.; Shepherd, J. G.; Curran, M. D.; Parmar, S.; Parker, M. D.; Williams, C.; Glaysher, S.; Underwood, A. P.; Bashton, M.; Loveson, K. F.; Byott, M.; Pacchiarini, N.; Carabelli, A. M.; Templeton, K. E.; de Silva, T. I.; Wang, D.; Langford, C. F.; Sillitoe, J.; Gunson, R. N.; Cottrell, S.; O'Grady, J.; Kwiatkowski, D.; Lillie, P. J.; Cortes, N.; Moore, N.; Thomas, C.; Burns, P. J.; Mahungu, T. W.; Liggett, S.; Beckett, A. H.; Holden, M. T. G.; Levett, L. J.; Osman, H.; Hassan-Ibrahim, M. O.; Simpson, D. A.; Chand, M.; Gupta, R. K.; Darby, A. C.; Paterson, S.; Pybus, O. G.; Volz, E. M.; de Angelis, D.; Robertson, D. L.; Page, A. J.; Martincorena, I.; Aigrain, L.; Bassett, A. R.; Wong, N.; Taha, Y.; Erkiert, M. J.; Chapman, M. H. S.; Dewar, R.; McHugh, M. P.; Mookerjee, S.; Aplin, S.; Harvey, M.; Sass, T.; Umpleby, H.; Wheeler, H.; McKenna, J. P.; Warne, B.; Taylor, J. F.; Chaudhry, Y.; Izuagbe, R.; Jahun, A. S.; Young, G. R.; McMurray, C.; McCann, C. M.; Nelson, A.; Elliott, S.; Lowe, H.; Price, A.; Crown, M. R.; Rey, S.; Roy, S.; Temperton, B.; Shaaban, S.; Hesketh, A. R.; Laing, K. G.; Monahan, I. M.; Heaney, J.; Pelosi, E.; Silviera, S.; Wilson-Davies, E.; Adams, H.; du Plessis, L.; Johnson, R.; Harvey, W. T.; Hughes, J.; Orton, R. J.; Spurgin, L. G.; Bourgeois, Y.; Ruis, C.; O'Toole, Á, Gourtovaia, M.; Sanderson, T.; Fraser, C.; Edgeworth, J.; Breuer, J.; Michell, S. L.; Todd, J. A.; John, M.; Buck, D.; Gajee, K.; Kay, G. L.; Peacock, S. J.; Heyburn, D.; Kitchman, K.; McNally, A.; Pritchard, D. T.; Dervisevic, S.; Muir, P.; Robinson, E.; Vipond, B. B.; Ramadan, N. A.; Jeanes, C.; Weldon, D.; Catalan, J.; Jones, N.; da Silva Filipe, A.; Williams, C.; Fuchs, M.; Miskelly, J.; Jeffries, A. R.; Oliver, K.; Park, N. R.; Ash, A.; Koshy, C.; Barrow, M.; Buchan, S. L.; Mantzouratou, A.; Clark, G.; Holmes, C. W.; Campbell, S.; Davis, T.; Tan, N. K.; Brown, J. R.; Harris, K. A.; Kidd, S. P.; Grant, P. R.; Xu-McCrae, L.; Cox, A.; Madona, P.; Pond, M.; Randell, P. A.; Withell, K. T.; Williams, C.; Graham, C.; Denton-Smith, R.; Swindells, E.; Turnbull, R.; Sloan, T. J.; Bosworth, A.; Hutchings, S.; Pymont, H. M.; Casey, A.; Ratcliffe, L.; Jones, C. R.; Knight, B. A.; Haque, T.; Hart, J.; Irish-Tavares, D.; Witele, E.; Mower, C.; Watson, L. K.; Collins, J.; Eltringham, G.; Crudgington, D.; Macklin, B.; Iturriza-Gomara, M.; Lucaci, A. O.; McClure, P. C.; Carlile, M.; Holmes, N.; Moore, C.; Storey, N.; Rooke, S.; Yebra, G.; Craine, N.; Perry, M.; Fearn, N. C.; Goudarzi, S.; Lyons, R. A.; Williams, T.; Haldenby, S. T.; Durham, J.; Leonard, S.; Davies, R. M.; Batra, R.; Blane, B.; Spyer, M. J.; Smith, P.; Yavus, M.; Williams, R. J.; Mahanama, A. I. K.; Samaraweera, B.; Girgis, S. T.; Hansford, S. E.; Green, A.; Beaver, C.; Bellis, K. L.; Dorman, M. J.; Kay, S.; Prestwood, L.; Rajatileka, S.; Quick, J.; Poplawski, R.; Reynolds, N.; Mack, A.; Morriss, A.; Whalley, T.; Patel, B.; Georgana, I.; Hosmillo, M.; Pinckert, M. L.; Stockton, J.; Henderson, J. H.; Hollis, A.; Stanley, W.; Yew, W. C.; Myers, R.; Thornton, A.; Adams, A.; Annett, T.; Asad, H.; Birchley, A.; Coombes, J.; Evans, J. M.; Fina, L.; Gatica-Wilcox, B.; Gilbert, L.; Graham, L.; Hey, J.; Hilvers, E.; Jones, S.; Jones, H.; Kumziene-Summerhayes, S.; McKerr, C.; Powell, J.; Pugh, G.; Taylor, S.; Trotter, A. J.; Williams, C. A.; Kermack, L. M.; Foulkes, B. H.; Gallis, M.; Hornsby, H. R.; Louka, S. F.; Pohare, M.; Wolverson, P.; Zhang, P.; MacIntyre-Cockett, G.; Trebes, A.; Moll, R. J.; Ferguson, L.; Goldstein, E. J.; Maclean, A.; Tomb, R.; Starinskij, I.; Thomson, L.; Southgate, J.; Kraemer, M. U. G.; Raghwani, J.; Zarebski, A. E.; Boyd, O.; Geidelberg, L.; Illingworth, C. J.; Jackson, C.; Pascall, D.; Vattipally, S.; Freeman, T. M.; Hsu, S. N.; Lindsey, B. B.; James, K.; Lewis, K.; Tonkin-Hill, G.; Tovar-Corona, J. M.; Cox, M.; Abudahab, K.; Menegazzo, M.; Taylor, B. E. W.; Yeats, C. A.; Mukaddas, A.; Wright, D. W.; de Oliveira Martins, L.; Colquhoun, R.; Hill, V.; Jackson, B.; McCrone, J. T.; Medd, N.; Scher, E.; Keatley, J. P.; Curran, T.; Morgan, S.; Maxwell, P.; Smith, K.; Eldirdiri, S.; Kenyon, A.; Holmes, A. H.; Price, J. R.; Wyatt, T.; Mather, A. E.; Skvortsov, T.; Hartley, J. A.; Guest, M.; Kitchen, C.; Merrick, I.; Munn, R.; Bertolusso, B.; Lynch, J.; Vernet, G.; Kirk, S.; Wastnedge, E.; Stanley, R.; Idle, G.; Bradley, D. T.; Poyner, J.; Mori, M.; Jones, O.; Wright, V.; Brooks, E.; Churcher, C. M.; Fragakis, M.; Galai, K.; Jermy, A.; Judges, S.; McManus, G. M.; Smith, K. S.; Westwick, E.; Attwood, S. W.; Bolt, F.; Davies, A.; De Lacy, E.; Downing, F.; Edwards, S.; Meadows, L.; Jeremiah, S.; Smith, N.; Foulser, L.; Charalampous, T.; Patel, A.; Berry, L.; Boswell, T.; Fleming, V. M.; Howson-Wells, H. C.; Joseph, A.; Khakh, M.; Lister, M. M.; Bird, P. W.; Fallon, K.; Helmer, T.; McMurray, C. L.; Odedra, M.; Shaw, J.; Tang, J. W.; Willford, N. J.; Blakey, V.; Raviprakash, V.; Sheriff, N.; Williams, L. A.; Feltwell, T.; Bedford, L.; Cargill, J. S.; Hughes, W.; Moore, J.; Stonehouse, S.; Atkinson, L.; Lee, J. C. D.; Shah, D.; Alcolea-Medina, A.; Ohemeng-Kumi, N.; Ramble, J.; Sehmi, J.; Williams, R.; Chatterton, W.; Pusok, M.; Everson, W.; Castigador, A.; Macnaughton, E.; Bouzidi, K. El, Lampejo, T.; Sudhanva, M.; Breen, C.; Sluga, G.; Ahmad, S. S. Y.; George, R. P.; Machin, N. W.; Binns, D.; James, V.; Blacow, R.; Coupland, L.; Smith, L.; Barton, E.; Padgett, D.; Scott, G.; Cross, A.; Mirfenderesky, M.; Greenaway, J.; Cole, K.; Clarke, P.; Duckworth, N.; Walsh, S.; Bicknell, K.; Impey, R.; Wyllie, S.; Hopes, R.; Bishop, C.; Chalker, V.; Harrison, I.; Gifford, L.; Molnar, Z.; Auckland, C.; Evans, C.; Johnson, K.; Partridge, D. G.; Raza, M.; Baker, P.; Bonner, S.; Essex, S.; Murray, L. J.; Lawton, A. I.; Burton-Fanning, S.; Payne, B. A. I.; Waugh, S.; Gomes, A. N.; Kimuli, M.; Murray, D. R.; Ashfield, P.; Dobie, D.; Ashford, F.; Best, A.; Crawford, L.; Cumley, N.; Mayhew, M.; Megram, O.; Mirza, J.; Moles-Garcia, E.; Percival, B.; Driscoll, M.; Ensell, L.; Lowe, H. L.; Maftei, L.; Mondani, M.; Chaloner, N. J.; Cogger, B. J.; Easton, L. J.; Huckson, H.; Lewis, J.; Lowdon, S.; Malone, C. S.; Munemo, F.; Mutingwende, M.; et al..
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326811

ABSTRACT

The scale of data produced during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic has been unprecedented, with more than 5 million sequences shared publicly at the time of writing. This wealth of sequence data provides important context for interpreting local outbreaks. However, placing sequences of interest into national and international context is difficult given the size of the global dataset. Often outbreak investigations and genomic surveillance efforts require running similar analyses again and again on the latest dataset and producing reports. We developed civet (cluster investigation and virus epidemiology tool) to aid these routine analyses and facilitate virus outbreak investigation and surveillance. Civet can place sequences of interest in the local context of background diversity, resolving the query into different 'catchments' and presenting the phylogenetic results alongside metadata in an interactive, distributable report. Civet can be used on a fine scale for clinical outbreak investigation, for local surveillance and cluster discovery, and to routinely summarise the virus diversity circulating on a national level. Civet reports have helped researchers and public health bodies feedback genomic information in the appropriate context within a timeframe that is useful for public health.

14.
Social Sciences-Basel ; 10(12):16, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1627893

ABSTRACT

Our article explores how intersecting crises, sociocultural norms around gender, age, household and community and broader political and economic shifts are affecting youth transitions. We draw on qualitative virtual research with 138 young people in Ethiopia and Jordan undertaken between April and August 2020. COVID-19 is exacerbating ongoing crises and gender inequalities in Ethiopia and Jordan and foreclosing opportunities for youth transitions. In Ethiopia, the pandemic has compounded the precarity of young people who have migrated from rural to urban areas, often to locations where they are socially marginalised. In Jordan, the confinement of young people affected by forced displacement to their households with extended family during pandemic-related service closures augments existing perceptions of an extended 'waithood'-both psychosocially and economically. In both contexts, conservative gender norms further entrench the restrictions on adolescent girls' mobility with consequences for their opportunities and wellbeing. This article makes an important contribution to the literature on gender, migrant youth and the ongoing effects of the COVID-19 pandemic by showing how multiple crises have sharpened the social and political (im)mobilities that already shaped young men and women's lives in Ethiopia and Jordan and the consequences for their trajectories to adulthood.

15.
Aera Open ; 8:14, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1622197

ABSTRACT

Several large-scale survey efforts have attempted to understand teachers' experiences in the early months of the pandemic. Our study complements this literature by providing direct evidence of teachers' work prior to and after the onset of COVID-19. We leverage unique longitudinal time use and affect data on 131 teachers from one district across the 2019-2020 school year. Specifically, we provide a full accounting of teachers' instructional activities, their reports of their positive affect and negative affect while engaged in these activities, and the extent to which teachers' work experiences changed post-COVID. Our results suggest a large reduction in teachers' daily instructional minutes, which were replaced with increased planning, paperwork, and interactions with colleagues and parents. Teachers' overall positive and negative affect did not change post-COVID. But teachers' affective responses to specific work activities did. Post-COVID, we saw increases in teachers' positive affect when with students.

16.
PubMed; 2021.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-297038

ABSTRACT

Secondary bacterial infections, including ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), lead to worse clinical outcomes and increased mortality following viral respiratory infections. Critically ill patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) face an elevated risk of VAP, although susceptibility varies widely. Because mechanisms underlying VAP predisposition remained unknown, we assessed lower respiratory tract host immune responses and microbiome dynamics in 36 patients, including 28 COVID-19 patients, 15 of whom developed VAP, and eight critically ill controls. We employed a combination of tracheal aspirate bulk and single cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq). Two days before VAP onset, a lower respiratory transcriptional signature of bacterial infection was observed, characterized by increased expression of neutrophil degranulation, toll-like receptor and cytokine signaling pathways. When assessed at an earlier time point following endotracheal intubation, more than two weeks prior to VAP onset, we observed a striking early impairment in antibacterial innate and adaptive immune signaling that markedly differed from COVID-19 patients who did not develop VAP. scRNA-seq further demonstrated suppressed immune signaling across monocytes/macrophages, neutrophils and T cells. While viral load did not differ at an early post-intubation timepoint, impaired SARS-CoV-2 clearance and persistent interferon signaling characterized the patients who later developed VAP. Longitudinal metatranscriptomic analysis revealed disruption of lung microbiome community composition in patients who developed VAP, providing a connection between dysregulated immune signaling and outgrowth of opportunistic pathogens. Together, these findings demonstrate that COVID-19 patients who develop VAP have impaired antibacterial immune defense weeks before secondary infection onset. One sentence summary: COVID-19 patients with secondary bacterial pneumonia have impaired immune signaling and lung microbiome changes weeks before onset.

17.
Pediatric Diabetes ; 22(SUPPL 30):36, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1571014

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic has had far-reaching consequences for individuals with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and has laid bare inequities in health care. Objectives: We sought to examine the United States (US) trends in diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) across the lifespan during the COVID-19 pandemic and factors associated with these trends, compared to DKA rates the year prior to the pandemic. Methods: The T1D Exchange Quality Improvement Collaborative (T1DX-QI) collected aggregate data on the incidence of DKA among children and adults with established and new-onset T1D from 7 large medical centers in the US (total T1D population >15,000). We compared DKA rates during COVID-19 Wave 1 (March-May 2020) and COVID-19 Wave 2 (August-October 2020) to the same periods in 2019. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data. Chi-square tests were used to compare differences in patient characteristics. Results: DKA rates were higher in patients with established T1D during COVID-19 Wave 1 compared to the same period in 2019 (6.15% vs 4.71%, p=<0.001). DKA rates were also higher in patients with established T1D during COVID-19 Wave 2 compared to 2019 (5.55% vs 4.90%, p=0.02). There were no differences in rates of DKA by age or DKA severity. DKA rates were lower among individuals on insulin pumps during both COVID-19 waves compared to 2019 (Wave 1: 6.43% vs 10.25%, p=0.008;Wave 2: 8.14% vs 11.21%, p=0.03). Consistent with known T1D inequities, DKA rates were exacerbated for NH Black patients in 2020, with 18% of NH Blacks with T1D experiencing DKA compared to 6% of NH Whites. Conclusions: DKA rates rose among patients with T1D during US COVID-19 Waves 1 and 2, with the highest rates among NH Blacks. These findings highlight the urgent need for improved strategies to decrease the risk of DKA in individuals with T1D under pandemic conditions, especially among populations most affected by health inequities.

18.
Nature ; 598(7881):395-395, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1485923
19.
Transactions of the Institute of British Geographers ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1483961

ABSTRACT

As part of the tribute for this Themed Intervention, this collage reflects on the loss of loved ones during the COVID-19 pandemic and on the impact of on-going environmental crises. We also reflect on ancestors, practices, and places that have fortified us during this time. In this collaborative visual archive, we document what was happening in the near past as we crafted our contributions for this collection. At the same time, this collage underscores the Black intimate geographies we have lived and the intimacy we practised in the course of its making. The information, practices and views in this article are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the opinion of the Royal Geographical Society (with IBG). © 2021 Royal Geographical Society (with the Institute of British Geographers).

20.
Psychosomatic Medicine ; 83(7):A16-A16, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1405736
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL