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1.
Front Immunol ; 13: 879157, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1933664

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccination is the most important countermeasure. Pharmacovigilance concerns however emerged with very rare, but potentially disastrous thrombotic complications following vaccination with ChAdOx1. Platelet factor-4 antibody mediated vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) was described as an underlying mechanism of these thrombotic events. Recent work moreover suggests that mechanisms of immunothrombosis including neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation might be critical for thrombogenesis during VITT. In this study, we investigated blood and thrombus specimens of a female patient who suffered severe stroke due to VITT after vaccination with ChAdOx1 in comparison to 13 control stroke patients with similar clinical characteristics. We analyzed cerebral thrombi using histological examination, staining of complement factors, NET-markers, DNase and LL-37. In blood samples at the hyper-acute phase of stroke and 7 days later, we determined cell-free DNA, myeloperoxidase-histone complexes, DNase activity, myeloperoxidase activity, LL-37 and inflammatory cytokines. NET markers were identified in thrombi of all patients. Interestingly, the thrombus of the VITT-patient exclusively revealed complement factors and high amounts of DNase and LL-37. High DNase activity was also measured in blood, implying a disturbed NET-regulation. Furthermore, serum of the VITT-patient inhibited reactive oxygen species-dependent NET-release by phorbol-myristate-acetate to a lesser degree compared to controls, indicating either less efficient NET-inhibition or enhanced NET-induction in the blood of the VITT-patient. Additionally, the changes in specific cytokines over time were emphasized in the VITT-patient as well. In conclusion, insufficient resolution of NETs, e.g. by endogenous DNases or protection of NETs against degradation by embedded factors like the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 might thus be an important factor in the pathology of VITT besides increased NET-formation. On the basis of these findings, we discuss the potential implications of the mechanisms of disturbed NETs-degradation for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in VITT-related thrombogenesis, other auto-immune disorders and beyond.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Extracellular Traps , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic , Stroke , Thrombocytopenia , Thrombosis , Vaccines , Deoxyribonuclease I/metabolism , Deoxyribonucleases , Female , Humans , Neutrophils , Pandemics , Peroxidase/metabolism , Platelet Factor 4/metabolism , Purpura, Thrombocytopenic, Idiopathic/metabolism , Stroke/etiology , Stroke/metabolism , Thrombocytopenia/chemically induced , Thrombocytopenia/metabolism , Thrombosis/etiology , Thrombosis/metabolism , Vaccines/metabolism
2.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1863881

ABSTRACT

During the COVID-19 pandemic, vaccination is the most important countermeasure. Pharmacovigilance concerns however emerged with very rare, but potentially disastrous thrombotic complications following vaccination with ChAdOx1. Platelet factor-4 antibody mediated vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) was described as an underlying mechanism of these thrombotic events. Recent work moreover suggests that mechanisms of immunothrombosis including neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation might be critical for thrombogenesis during VITT. In this study, we investigated blood and thrombus specimens of a female patient who suffered severe stroke due to VITT after vaccination with ChAdOx1 in comparison to 13 control stroke patients with similar clinical characteristics. We analyzed cerebral thrombi using histological examination, staining of complement factors, NET-markers, DNase and LL-37. In blood samples at the hyper-acute phase of stroke and 7 days later, we determined cell-free DNA, myeloperoxidase-histone complexes, DNase activity, myeloperoxidase activity, LL-37 and inflammatory cytokines. NET markers were identified in thrombi of all patients. Interestingly, the thrombus of the VITT-patient exclusively revealed complement factors and high amounts of DNase and LL-37. High DNase activity was also measured in blood, implying a disturbed NET-regulation. Furthermore, serum of the VITT-patient inhibited reactive oxygen species-dependent NET-release by phorbol-myristate-acetate to a lesser degree compared to controls, indicating either less efficient NET-inhibition or enhanced NET-induction in the blood of the VITT-patient. Additionally, the changes in specific cytokines over time were emphasized in the VITT-patient as well. In conclusion, insufficient resolution of NETs, e.g. by endogenous DNases or protection of NETs against degradation by embedded factors like the antimicrobial peptide LL-37 might thus be an important factor in the pathology of VITT besides increased NET-formation. On the basis of these findings, we discuss the potential implications of the mechanisms of disturbed NETs-degradation for diagnostic and therapeutic approaches in VITT-related thrombogenesis, other auto-immune disorders and beyond.

3.
PLoS Pathog ; 18(5): e1010471, 2022 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1833668

ABSTRACT

The ability to treat severe viral infections is limited by our understanding of the mechanisms behind virus-induced immunopathology. While the role of type I interferons (IFNs) in early control of viral replication is clear, less is known about how IFNs can regulate the development of immunopathology and affect disease outcomes. Here, we report that absence of type I IFN receptor (IFNAR) is associated with extensive immunopathology following mucosal viral infection. This pathology occurred independent of viral load or type II immunity but required the presence of macrophages and IL-6. The depletion of macrophages and inhibition of IL-6 signaling significantly abrogated immunopathology. Tissue destruction was mediated by macrophage-derived matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), as MMP inhibition by doxycycline and Ro 28-2653 reduced the severity of tissue pathology. Analysis of post-mortem COVID-19 patient lungs also displayed significant upregulation of the expression of MMPs and accumulation of macrophages. Overall, we demonstrate that IFNs inhibit macrophage-mediated MMP production to prevent virus-induced immunopathology and uncover MMPs as a therapeutic target towards viral infections.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Interferon Type I , Orthomyxoviridae Infections , Humans , Interleukin-6/metabolism , Macrophages/metabolism , Proteolysis
4.
Int J Mol Sci ; 23(3)2022 Jan 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1667195

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: In COVID-19 survivors there is an increased prevalence of pulmonary fibrosis of which the underlying molecular mechanisms are poorly understood; (2) Methods: In this multicentric study, n = 12 patients who succumbed to COVID-19 due to progressive respiratory failure were assigned to an early and late group (death within ≤7 and >7 days of hospitalization, respectively) and compared to n = 11 healthy controls; mRNA and protein expression as well as biological pathway analysis were performed to gain insights into the evolution of pulmonary fibrogenesis in COVID-19; (3) Results: Median duration of hospitalization until death was 3 (IQR25-75, 3-3.75) and 14 (12.5-14) days in the early and late group, respectively. Fifty-eight out of 770 analyzed genes showed a significantly altered expression signature in COVID-19 compared to controls in a time-dependent manner. The entire study group showed an increased expression of BST2 and IL1R1, independent of hospitalization time. In the early group there was increased activity of inflammation-related genes and pathways, while fibrosis-related genes (particularly PDGFRB) and pathways dominated in the late group; (4) Conclusions: After the first week of hospitalization, there is a shift from pro-inflammatory to fibrogenic activity in severe COVID-19. IL1R1 and PDGFRB may serve as potential therapeutic targets in future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/metabolism , Pulmonary Fibrosis/pathology , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Hospital Mortality/trends , Hospitalization , Humans , Lung/pathology , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Fibrosis/metabolism , Respiratory Insufficiency/pathology , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
7.
Pathologe ; 42(2): 164-171, 2021 Mar.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1235729

ABSTRACT

Viral respiratory diseases constitute the most common reasons for hospitalization with more than half of all acute illnesses worldwide. Progressive respiratory failure with pronounced diffuse alveolar damage has been identified as the primary cause of death in COVID-19. COVID-19 pneumonia shares common histopathological hallmarks with influenza (H1N1)-related ARDS, like diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) with edema, hemorrhage, and intra-alveolar fibrin deposition. The lungs with COVID-19 pneumonia revealed perivascular inflammation, an endothelial injury, microangiopathy, and an aberrant blood vessel neoformation by intussusceptive angiogenesis. While this pronounced angiocentric inflammation is likely be found - to varying degrees - in numerous other organs, e.g., the heart, COVID-19 is hypothesized to be not just a pulmonary, but rather a systemic "vascular disease."


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Heart , Humans , Lung , SARS-CoV-2
8.
Pathologe ; 42(2): 164-171, 2021 Mar.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1070829

ABSTRACT

Viral respiratory diseases constitute the most common reasons for hospitalization with more than half of all acute illnesses worldwide. Progressive respiratory failure with pronounced diffuse alveolar damage has been identified as the primary cause of death in COVID-19. COVID-19 pneumonia shares common histopathological hallmarks with influenza (H1N1)-related ARDS, like diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) with edema, hemorrhage, and intra-alveolar fibrin deposition. The lungs with COVID-19 pneumonia revealed perivascular inflammation, an endothelial injury, microangiopathy, and an aberrant blood vessel neoformation by intussusceptive angiogenesis. While this pronounced angiocentric inflammation is likely be found - to varying degrees - in numerous other organs, e.g., the heart, COVID-19 is hypothesized to be not just a pulmonary, but rather a systemic "vascular disease."


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza A Virus, H1N1 Subtype , Heart , Humans , Lung , SARS-CoV-2
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