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1.
Neurology International ; 15(1):1-11, 2023.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-2166759

ABSTRACT

This study sought to ascertain the prevalence of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) among a sample of 465 patients with Long COVID. The participants completed three questionnaires: (1) a new questionnaire measuring both the frequency and severity of 38 common symptoms of COVID and Long COVID, (2) a validated short form questionnaire assessing ME/CFS, and (3) a validated questionnaire measuring post-exertional malaise. The population was predominantly white, female, and living in North America. The mean duration since the onset of COVID-19 symptoms was 70.5 weeks. Among the 465 participants, 58% met a ME/CFS case definition. Of respondents who reported that they had ME/CFS only 71% met criteria for ME/CFS and of those who did not report they had ME/CFS, 40% nevertheless did meet criteria for the disease: both over-diagnosis and under-diagnosis were evident on self-report. This study supports prior findings that ME/CFS occurs with high prevalence among those who have persistent COVID-19 symptoms.

2.
Vaccine ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165931

ABSTRACT

Background Despite lower circulation of influenza virus throughout 2020–2022 during the COVID-19 pandemic, seasonal influenza vaccination has remained a primary tool to reduce influenza-associated illness and death. The relationship between the decision to receive a COVID-19 vaccine and/or an influenza vaccine is not well understood. Methods We assessed predictors of receipt of 2021–2022 influenza vaccine in a secondary analysis of data from a case-control study enrolling individuals who received SARS-CoV-2 testing. We used mixed effects logistic regression to estimate factors associated with receipt of seasonal influenza vaccine. We also constructed multinomial adjusted marginal probability models of being vaccinated for COVID-19 only, seasonal influenza only, or both as compared with receipt of neither vaccination. Conclusions Recipients of a COVID-19 vaccine were more likely to receive seasonal influenza vaccine during the 2021–2022 season. Factors associated with individuals' likelihood of receiving COVID-19 and seasonal influenza vaccines will be important to account for in future studies of vaccine effectiveness against both conditions. Participants who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 in our sample were less likely to have received seasonal influenza vaccine, suggesting an opportunity to offer influenza vaccination before or after a COVID-19 diagnosis.

3.
Molecular Therapy - Methods & Clinical Development ; 2023.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2165741

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2, the etiologic agent of COVID-19 pandemic, has been shown to infect a wide range of animal species, especially mammals, and besides human-to-human transmission, also human-to-animal transmission has been observed in some wild animals and pets, especially in cats. It has been demonstrated that cats are permissive to COVID-19 and are susceptible to airborne infections. Given the high transmissibility potential of SARS-CoV-2 to different host species and the close contact between humans and animals, it is crucial to find mechanisms to prevent the transmission chain and reduce the risk of spillover to susceptible species. Here, we show results from a clinical trial conducted in domestic cats to assess safety and immunogenicity of a linear DNA ("linDNA”) vaccine encoding the Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) from SARS-CoV-2 (Lin-Covid-eVax). Lin-Covid-eVax proved to be safe, with no significant adverse events and able to elicit both RBD-specific antibodies and T cells. Also, the linDNA vaccine induced neutralizing antibody titers against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 virus and its variants. These findings demonstrate the safety and immunogenicity of a genetic vaccine against COVID-19 administered to cats and strongly support the development of vaccines for preventing viral spread in susceptible species, especially those in close contact with humans.

5.
J Occup Environ Med ; 2022 Jul 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2152228

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Ineffective meetings have been well-documented as presenting considerable direct (e.g., salary) and indirect costs (e.g., employee burnout). We explore the idea that people need meeting recovery, or time to transition from meetings to their next task. Doing so may reduce employee burnout. METHODS: We used a quantitative survey of working adults' last meeting to determine the relationship between meeting outcomes (satisfaction and effectiveness) and meeting recovery. RESULTS: We found that meeting outcomes are related to meeting recovery and that relationship is moderated by the degree to which the meeting was relevant to the individual. Implications for theory and practice are discussed in order to provide concrete recommendations for researchers, managers, and consultants. CONCLUSIONS: This study explores virtual meeting fatigue with a focus on meeting quality, and explores the need for recovery after workplace meetings.

6.
Applied Cognitive Psychology ; : No Pagination Specified, 2022.
Article in English | APA PsycInfo | ID: covidwho-2157666

ABSTRACT

People are motivated to maintain consistency between importantly held identities, preferences, and judgments. In political contexts, motivated reasoning can help explain a wide range of political phenomena, including extremism, polarization, and misperceptions. However, recent findings in psychology have challenged this account. These perspectives emphasize the role of cognitive sophistication (e.g., analytical reasoning, numerical literacy) in political attitudes, but differ in terms of whether it is expected to attenuate or exacerbate politically motivated reasoning and belief in conspiracy theories. Yet prior investigations have not examined the relative and independent effects of both political and cognitive sophistication. Using data from two samples, including one sampled to approximate representativeness in the U.S., we demonstrate that both types of sophistication have independent and (at times) countervailing effects on belief in COVID-19 conspiracy theories and other political attitudes. Our results are critical for theories of cognitive sophistication, political cognition, and attitudes, and the psychology of conspiracy theories. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved)

7.
Beni-Suef University Journal of Basic and Applied Sciences ; 11(1), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2153744

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe world's survival ability has been threatened by the COVID-19 outbreak. The possibility of the virus reemerging in the future should not be disregarded, even if it has been confined to certain areas of the world after wreaking such havoc. This is because it is impossible to prove that the virus has been totally eliminated. This research attempts to investigate the spread and control of the COVID-19 virus in Nigeria using the Caputo fractional order derivative in a proposed model.ResultsWe proposed a competent nine-compartment model of Corona virus infection. It starts by demonstrating that the model is epidemiologically sound in terms of solution existence and uniqueness. The basic reproduction threshold R0 was determined using the next-generation matrix technique. We applied the Laplace-Adomian decomposition method to the fractional-order Caputo's derivative model of the Corona virus disease to produce the approximate solution of the model analytically. The obtained results, in the form of an infinite series, were simulated using the MAPLE 18 package to investigate the effect of fractional order derivative on the dynamics of COVID-19 transmission in the model and shed light on methods of eradication. The graphical interpretations of the simulation process were shown and discussed accordingly.ConclusionsThe study reveals the effect of the Caputo fractional order derivative in the transmission dynamics of the disease. Individual recovery was found to be greatest at an integer order, which represents the full implementation of other factors such as treatment, vaccination, and disease transmission reduction. Hence, we advised that researchers, government officials, and health care workers make use of the findings of this study to provide ways in which disease transmission will be reduced to a minimum to stop the prevalence of COVID-19 by applying the findings of this study.

9.
Hypertension ; 76(5): 1350-1367, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2153223

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic is associated with significant morbidity and mortality throughout the world, predominantly due to lung and cardiovascular injury. The virus responsible for COVID-19-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2-gains entry into host cells via ACE2 (angiotensin-converting enzyme 2). ACE2 is a primary enzyme within the key counter-regulatory pathway of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which acts to oppose the actions of Ang (angiotensin) II by generating Ang-(1-7) to reduce inflammation and fibrosis and mitigate end organ damage. As COVID-19 spans multiple organ systems linked to the cardiovascular system, it is imperative to understand clearly how severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 may affect the multifaceted RAS. In addition, recognition of the role of ACE2 and the RAS in COVID-19 has renewed interest in its role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease in general. We provide researchers with a framework of best practices in basic and clinical research to interrogate the RAS using appropriate methodology, especially those who are relatively new to the field. This is crucial, as there are many limitations inherent in investigating the RAS in experimental models and in humans. We discuss sound methodological approaches to quantifying enzyme content and activity (ACE, ACE2), peptides (Ang II, Ang-[1-7]), and receptors (types 1 and 2 Ang II receptors, Mas receptor). Our goal is to ensure appropriate research methodology for investigations of the RAS in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 and COVID-19 to ensure optimal rigor and reproducibility and appropriate interpretation of results from these investigations.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Hypertension/epidemiology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Renin-Angiotensin System/physiology , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Blood Pressure Determination/methods , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hypertension/physiopathology , Incidence , Male , Pandemics/statistics & numerical data , Practice Guidelines as Topic , Prognosis , Research Design , Risk Assessment , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/epidemiology
11.
Am J Public Health ; 112(S9): S878-S882, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2141091

ABSTRACT

The REstarting Safe Education and Testing program for children with medical complexity was implemented in May 2021 at the University of Wisconsin to evaluate the feasibility of in-home rapid antigen COVID-19 testing among neurocognitively affected children. Parents or guardians administered BinaxNOW rapid antigen self-tests twice weekly for three months and changed to symptom and exposure testing or continued surveillance. In-home testing was feasible: nearly all (92.5%) expected tests were conducted. Symptomatic testing identified seven of nine COVID-19 cases. School safety perceptions were higher among those opting for symptom testing. Clinical Trials.gov identifier: NCT04895085. (Am J Public Health. 2022;112(S9):S878-S882. https://doi.org/10.2105/AJPH.2022.306971).

12.
Pediatr Crit Care Med ; 2022 Sep 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135786

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Interest in using bedside C-reactive protein (CRP) and ferritin levels to identify patients with hyperinflammatory sepsis who might benefit from anti-inflammatory therapies has piqued with the COVID-19 pandemic experience. Our first objective was to identify patterns in CRP and ferritin trajectory among critically ill pediatric sepsis patients. We then examined the association between these different groups of patients in their inflammatory cytokine responses, systemic inflammation, and mortality risks. DATA SOURCES: A prospective, observational cohort study. STUDY SELECTION: Children with sepsis and organ failure in nine pediatric intensive care units in the United States. DATA EXTRACTION: Two hundred and fifty-five children were enrolled. Five distinct clinical multi-trajectory groups were identified. Plasma CRP (mg/dL), ferritin (ng/mL), and 31 cytokine levels were measured at two timepoints during sepsis (median Day 2 and Day 5). Group-based multi-trajectory models (GBMTM) identified groups of children with distinct patterns of CRP and ferritin. DATA SYNTHESIS: Group 1 had normal CRP and ferritin levels (n = 8; 0% mortality); Group 2 had high CRP levels that became normal, with normal ferritin levels throughout (n = 80; 5% mortality); Group 3 had high ferritin levels alone (n = 16; 6% mortality); Group 4 had very high CRP levels, and high ferritin levels (n = 121; 11% mortality); and Group 5 had very high CRP and very high ferritin levels (n = 30; 40% mortality). Cytokine responses differed across the five groups, with ferritin levels correlated with macrophage inflammatory protein 1α levels and CRP levels reflective of many cytokines. CONCLUSIONS: Bedside CRP and ferritin levels can be used together to distinguish groups of children with sepsis who have different systemic inflammation cytokine responses and mortality risks. These data suggest future potential value in personalized clinical trials with specific targets for anti-inflammatory therapies.

13.
Clin Infect Dis ; 2022 Nov 19.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2135005

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus pneumoniae interacts with numerous viral respiratory pathogens in the upper airway. It is unclear whether similar interactions occur with SARS-CoV-2. METHODS: We collected saliva specimens from working-age adults receiving SARS-CoV-2 molecular testing at outpatient clinics and via mobile community-outreach testing between July and November 2020 in Monterey County, California. Following bacterial culture enrichment, we tested for pneumococci by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) targeting the lytA and piaB genes, and measured associations with SARS-CoV-2 infection via conditional logistic regression. RESULTS: Analyses included 1,278 participants, with 564 enrolled in clinics and 714 enrolled through outreach-based testing. Prevalence of pneumococcal carriage was 9.2% (117/1,278) among all participants (11.2% [63/564] clinic-based testing; 7.6% [54/714] outreach testing). Prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection was 27.4% (32/117) among pneumococcal carriers and 9.6% (112/1,161) among non-carriers (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 2.73; 95% confidence interval: 1.58-4.69). Associations between SARS-CoV-2 infection and pneumococcal carriage were enhanced in the clinic-based sample (aOR = 4.01 [2.08-7.75]) and among symptomatic participants (aOR = 3.38 [1.35-8.40]), when compared to findings within the outreach-based sample and among asymptomatic participants. Adjusted odds of SARS-CoV-2 co-infection increased 1.24 (1.00-1.55)-fold for each 1-unit decrease in piaB qPCR CT value among pneumococcal carriers. Last, pneumococcal carriage modified the association of SARS-CoV-2 infection with recent exposure to a suspected COVID-19 case (aOR = 7.64 [1.91-30.7] and 3.29 [1.94-5.59]) among pneumococcal carriers and non-carriers, respectively). CONCLUSIONS: Associations of pneumococcal carriage detection and density with SARS-CoV-2 suggest a synergistic relationship in the upper airway. Longitudinal studies are needed to determine interaction mechanisms between pneumococci and SARS-CoV-2.

14.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg ; 31(12): 2457-2464, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2116393

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: COVID-19 triggered disruption in the conventional care pathways for many orthopedic procedures. The current study aims to quantify the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on shoulder arthroplasty hospital surgical volume, trends in surgical case distribution, length of hospitalization, posthospital disposition, and 30-day readmission rates. METHODS: This study queried all Medicare (100% sample) fee-for-service beneficiaries who underwent a shoulder arthroplasty procedure (Diagnosis-Related Group code 483, Current Procedural Terminology code 23472) from January 1, 2019, to December 18, 2020. Fracture cases were separated from nonfracture cases, which were further subdivided into anatomic or reverse arthroplasty. Volume per 1000 Medicare beneficiaries was calculated from April to December 2020 and compared to the same months in 2019. Length of stay (LOS), discharged-home rate, and 30-day readmission for the same period were obtained. The yearly difference adjusted for age, sex, race (white vs. nonwhite), Centers for Medicare & Medicaid Services Hierarchical Condition Category risk score, month fixed effects, and Core-Based Statistical Area fixed effects, with standard errors clustered at the provider level, was calculated using a multivariate analysis (P < .05). RESULTS: A total of 49,412 and 41,554 total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) cases were observed April through December for 2019 and 2020, respectively. There was an overall decrease in shoulder arthroplasty volume per 1000 Medicare beneficiaries by 14% (19% reduction in anatomic TSA, 13% reduction in reverse shoulder arthroplasty, and 3% reduction in fracture cases). LOS for all shoulder arthroplasty cases decreased by 16% (-0.27 days, P < .001) when adjusted for confounders. There was a 5% increase in the discharged-home rate (88.0% to 92.7%, P < .001), which was most prominent in fracture cases, with a 20% increase in discharged-home cases (65.0% to 73.4%, P < .001). There was no significant change in 30-day hospital readmission rates overall (P = .20) or when broken down by individual procedures. CONCLUSIONS: There was an overall decrease in shoulder arthroplasty volume per 1000 Medicare beneficiaries by 14% during the COVID-19 pandemic. A decrease in LOS and increase in the discharged-home rates was also observed with no significant change in 30-day hospital readmission, indicating that a shift toward an outpatient surgical model can be performed safely and efficiently and has the potential to provide value.


Subject(s)
Arthroplasty, Replacement, Shoulder , COVID-19 , Aged , Humans , United States/epidemiology , COVID-19/epidemiology , Medicare , Postoperative Care , Pandemics , Patient Readmission , Length of Stay , Retrospective Studies
15.
Allergy Asthma Proc ; 43(6): 509-518, 2022 Nov 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2109628

ABSTRACT

Background: Human monkeypox is a zoonosis caused by the monkeypox virus, an orthopoxvirus and close relative of variola virus, the causative agent of smallpox. The disease was first reported in central Africa in 1970, where it continues to be endemic and has historically affected some of the poorest and most marginalized communities in the world. The condition has recently attracted global attention due to >14,000 cases, including five deaths, reported by the World Health Organization, and a total of 5189 confirmed monkeypox cases in the United States reported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention as of July 29, 2022. On July 23, 2022, the World Health Organization declared the current monkeypox outbreak a Public Health Emergency of International Concern. Objective: The purpose of the present report was to review the epidemiology of monkeypox viral infection; its clinical manifestations; and current recommendations for diagnosis, treatment, and use of vaccines for prevention of the disease, with a focus on those aspects that have particular relevance to the allergist/immunologist. Results: Monkeypox was discovered in the early 1970s and, for years, has been well described by researchers in west and central Africa, where the disease has been present for decades. Although this outbreak thus far has mostly affected men who have sex with men, it is possible that the disease could become endemic and could begin spreading in settings where there is close physical contact, which is how the virus is transmitted. Conclusion: Monkeypox is a different viral infection from the coronavirus. Unlike the coronavirus, which is an extremely contagious respiratory pathogen, monkeypox is primarily transmitted through body fluids and/or prolonged skin-to-skin contact. Although the control of monkeypox will require renewed efforts and resources, we have learned much from the past and have the tools to stop this virus from becoming yet another serious illness with which Americans have to contend. The allergist/immunologist can play a significant role.


Subject(s)
Monkeypox , Sexual and Gender Minorities , Male , Humans , United States , Monkeypox virus , Monkeypox/diagnosis , Monkeypox/epidemiology , Monkeypox/prevention & control , Allergists , Homosexuality, Male
16.
JSES Int ; 2022 Nov 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2105483

ABSTRACT

Introduction: The purpose of this study was to assess racial disparities in total shoulder arthroplasty (TSA) in the US and to determine whether these disparities were affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Methods: Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS) 100% sample was used to examine primary TSA volume from April-December from 2019-2020. Utilization was assessed for White/Black/Hispanic/Asian populations to determine if COVID-19 affected these groups differently. A regression model adjusted for age/sex/CMS-Hierarchical Condition Categories (HCC) score, dual enrollment (proxy for socioeconomic status), time fixed effects, and Core-based Statistical Area (CBSA) fixed effects was used to study difference across groups. Results: In 2019, TSA volume/1000 beneficiaries was 1.51 for White and 0.57 for non-White, a 2.6-fold difference. In 2020, the rate of TSA in White patients (1.30/1000) was 2.9 times higher than non-White (0.45/1000) during the COVID-19 pandemic (P<0.01). There was an overall 14% decrease in TSA volume/1000 Medicare beneficiaries in 2020; non-White patients had a larger percentage decrease in TSA volume than White (21% vs. 14%, estimated difference;8.7%,p = 0.02). Black patients experienced the most pronounced disparity with estimated difference of 10.1%,p = 0.05, compared with White patients. Similar disparities were observed when categorizing procedures into anatomic and reverse TSA, but not proximal humerus fracture. Conclusions: During the COVID-19 pandemic, overall TSA utilization decreased by 14% with White patients experiencing a decrease of 14%, and non-White patients experiencing a decrease of 21%. This trend was observed for elective TSA while disparities were less apparent for proximal humerus fracture.

17.
The International Journal of Diversity in Education ; 23(1):25-34, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2100616

ABSTRACT

Even before the COVID-19 pandemic, careers in medicine were challenging, and the academic journey could be a lonely one. The pandemic presented both challenges and opportunities in mentoring such as utilizing technology to transform formal mentorship programs into those that are beneficial for women and minorities because these programs can offer critical engagement, opportunities to hear and express multiple perspectives, expand our capacity to understand and talk about complex social issues, and meaning-making frameworks. Medical schools can utilize innovative and creative mentoring programs to support medical students as they enter the medical profession.

18.
J Palliat Med ; 25(11): 1639-1645, 2022 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2097262

ABSTRACT

Background: Adults with advanced lung cancer experience reduced health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and psychological symptoms at diagnosis. Objective: This study aimed to evaluate whether the COVID-19 pandemic worsened HRQOL among patients recently diagnosed with cancer. Design: We analyzed baseline data from two randomized controlled trials of early palliative care to compare HRQOL and depression symptoms among those enrolled during the pandemic (January 2020 to January 2021) versus prepandemic (March 2018 to January 2019). Setting/Subjects: This cohort included patients recently diagnosed with advanced lung cancer in two multisite studies. Measurements: We used analysis of covariance to calculate adjusted mean differences between groups with the timeframe as an independent variable and HRQOL (using the Functional Assessment of Cancer Therapy-General) and depression symptoms (using the Patient Health Questionnaire-9) as dependent variables, adjusting for age, gender, relationship status, performance status, symptoms, and time since diagnosis. We tested for an interaction between the COVID-19 timeframe and relationship status. Results: Neither HRQOL (adjusted mean difference -1.78; p = 0.137) nor depression symptoms (0.06; p = 0.889) differed between patients enrolled pre-COVID-19 (n = 665) relative to those enrolled during COVID-19 (n = 191) in adjusted analyses. Relationship status moderated the effect of the COVID-19 timeframe on HRQOL; unmarried patients experienced worse HRQOL during COVID-19 (adjusted mean difference: -5.25; p = 0.011). Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic did not further reduce HRQOL or increase depression symptoms among patients recently diagnosed with lung cancer, but did worsen HRQOL for unmarried patients in moderation analysis. Psychosocial evaluation and supportive care are important for all patients, particularly those with limited social support. Clinical trial registration numbers: NCT03337399 and NCT03375489.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , Adult , Humans , Quality of Life , Pandemics , Depression
20.
JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg ; 2022 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2084957

ABSTRACT

Importance: Despite growing scientific knowledge and research, it is still unknown if office flexible laryngoscopy (FL) is aerosol generating and thereby potentially increases the risk of SARS-CoV-2 transmission. The limited literature that exists is conflicting, precluding formal conclusions. Objective: To determine whether FL is aerosol generating. Design, Setting, and Participants: This prospective cohort study included 134 patients seen in the otolaryngology clinic at a single tertiary care academic institution between February and May 2021. Two optical particle sizer instruments were used, quantifying particles ranging from 0.02 µm to 5 µm. Measurements were taken every 30 seconds, with sample periods of 15 seconds throughout the patient encounter. Instruments were located 12 inches from the patient's nares. Timing of events was recorded, including the start and end of physical examination, topical spray administration, start and end of laryngoscopy, and other potential aerosol-generating events (eg, coughing, sneezing). Data analysis was performed from February to May 2021. Exposures: Office examination and office FL. Main Outcomes and Measures: Bayesian online change point detection (OCPD) algorithm was used to detect significant change points (CPs) in this time-series data. The primary outcome was significant CP after FL compared with baseline physiologic variations, such as breathing and phonation. Results: Data were collected from 134 patients between February and May 2021. Ninety-one encounters involved FL. Of this group, 51 patients (56%) wore no mask over their mouth during FL. There was no statistically significant CP in either visits involving FL or visits where FL was not performed. Use of nasal spray did not result in CP in aerosol levels. Overall, neither the number of people present in the examination room, masks over patients' mouth, the duration of the visit, nor the duration of FL were associated with mean aerosol counts, regardless of the exposure. For larger aerosol sizes (≥1 µm), however, rooms with higher air exchange rates had significantly higher reductions in mean aerosol counts for visits involving FL. Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study support that FL, including topical spray administration, is not a significant aerosol-generating procedure. The Bayesian OCPD model has a promising application for future aerosol studies in otolaryngology.

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