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1.
International Journal of Business and Society ; 23(2):1127-1146, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2026617

ABSTRACT

Although tourist homestay experience has been commonly recognized as an important criterion for community-based and eco-friendly destination loyalty, not much is known about the measurement of its service experience. A scientific inquiry into the tourist experience will be an essential differentiation tool for sustainable competitive advantage in this alternative hospitality sector. Our research aims to develop a measure of homestay service experience and to use this measure to investigate the influence of homestay service experience on tourists’ satisfaction and behavioral intentions. Specifically, the HomeServE inventory is established through qualitative and quantitative processes. Focus group interviews and questionnaire survey techniques were employed. A total of 866 usable questionnaires were obtained from the nationwide survey. Reliability and validity analyses were done on the measurement items. Measurement and relationship analyses were done using the confirmatory factor analysis and structural equation modelling. Eight dimensions (32 items) of homestay service experience were identified (i.e., Culture, Guiding Service, Food and Beverage, Environment, Cleanliness, Accommodation, Services, and Accessibility). The measurement and model fit indices were found to be satisfactory. This newly found multi-dimensional construct of tourist service experience is in line with tourist-oriented service management. It was found that service experience has a direct positive effect on tourists’ satisfaction. Managerial and research implications of the measurement were discussed for more effective tourist experience management. © 2022, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak. All rights reserved.

2.
Innovation in Aging ; 6(5), 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2017925

ABSTRACT

Background and Objectives This study aimed to examine the associations between multimorbidity at the COVID-19 pandemic onset and subsequent longitudinal trajectories of depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and loneliness in middle-aged and older adults over a 12-month follow-up. Research Design and Methods Data were from monthly online questionnaires in the COVID-19 Coping Study of U.S. adults aged >= 55 from April/May 2020 through April/May 2021 (N = 4,024). Multimorbidity was defined as having >= 2 versus <2 chronic conditions at baseline. Mental health outcomes were assessed monthly as depressive symptoms (8-item Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression scale), anxiety symptoms (5-item Beck Anxiety Inventory), and loneliness (3-item UCLA Loneliness Scale). We used multivariable-adjusted population- and attrition-weighted mixed-effects linear models to examine the longitudinal associations between multimorbidity and mental health symptoms. Results Multimorbidity at the pandemic onset was associated with elevated depressive (b = 0.37;95% CI: 0.16-0.59) and anxiety (b = 0.39;95% CI: 0.15-0.62) symptoms at baseline. Changes in symptoms for all three mental health outcomes were nonlinear over time, with worsening symptoms over the first 6 months of the pandemic (April/May to September/October 2020), followed by improvement in symptoms over the subsequent 6 months (September/October 2020 to April/May 2021). Middle-aged and older adults with multimorbidity experienced faster rates of change in anxiety symptoms and loneliness than those without multimorbidity, with persistently elevated mental health symptomatology throughout the follow-up. Discussion and Implications Results highlight the unique and persistent mental health risks experienced by middle-aged and older adults with multimorbidity during the COVID-19 pandemic. The observed improvements in symptoms underscore the mental resilience of these individuals, indicating their adaptation to the ongoing pandemic.

4.
Innovation in Aging ; 5:39-39, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2011676
5.
JTCVS Open ; 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-2008183

ABSTRACT

Objective The COVID -19 pandemic presents a high mortality rate amongst patients who develop severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). The purpose of this study was to evaluate the outcomes of venovenous ECMO in COVID-19-related ARDS and identify the patients that benefit the most from this procedure. Methods Adult COVID-19 patients with severe ARDS requiring VV-ECMO support at four academic insititutions between March and October 2020 were included. Data were collected through retrospective chart reviews. Bivariate and multivariable analysis were performed with the primary outcome of in-hospital mortality. Results Fifty-one consecutive patients underwent VV-ECMO with a mean age of 50.4 years;64.7% were male. Survival to hospital discharge was 62.8%. Median ICU and hospitalization duration were 27.4 (IQR:17-37) and 34.5 days (IQR:23-43), respectively. Survivors and non-survivors had a median ECMO cannulation time of 11 days (IQR 8-18) and 17 days (IQR: 12-25). The average post decannulation length of stay was 17.5 days (IQR: 12.4-25) for survivors and 0 days for non-survivors (IQR 0-6 days). Only one non-survivor was able to be decannulated. Clinical characteristics associated with mortality between non-surviors and survivors included increasing age (p=0.0048), hemorrhagic stroke (p=0.0014), and post operative dialysis (p=0.0013)were associated with mortality in a bivariate model and retained statistical significance in a multivariable model. Conclusion This multicenter study confirms the effectiveness of VV-ECMO in selected critically ill patients with COVID-19-related severe ARDS. The survival of these patients is comparable to non-COVID-19-related ARDS.

6.
International Journal of General Medicine ; 15:6645-6651, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1997371

ABSTRACT

Persistent COVID-19 symptoms may be related to residual inflammation, but no preventive treatment has been evaluated. This study aimed to analyze, in a prospective cohort, whether corticosteroid use in the acute phase of COVID-19 in hospitalized patients may reduce the risk of persistent COVID-19 symptoms. A total of 306 discharged patients, including 112 (36.6%) from the ICU, completed a structured face-to-face assessment 4 months after admission. Of these, 193 patients (63.1%) had at least one persistent symptom, mostly dyspnea (38.9%) and asthenia (37.6%). One-hundred and four patients have received corticosteroids. In multivariable adjusted regression analysis, corticosteroid use was not associated with the presence of at least one symptom (OR=1.00, 95% CI: 0.58–1.71, p=0.99) or with the number of persistent symptoms (p=0.74). Corticosteroid use remained ineffective when analyzing the ICU subpopulation separately. Our study suggests that corticosteroid use had no impact on persistent symptoms after COVID-19 in discharged patients.

7.
Applied Sciences ; 12(15):7500, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1993920

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: Essential oil from Vitex negundo is known to have repellent and insecticidal properties toward the Anopheles gambiae and this is linked to its monoterpene and sesquiterpene content. In this work, an effort is made to delineate the constitution of V. negundo essential oil (VNEO) and their interaction with odorant-binding proteins (OBPs) of A. gambiae and hence access its repellent efficiency as cost-effective and safer malaria vector control alternatives. (2) Methods: Anopheles species authentication was performed by genomic DNA analysis and was subjected to behavioral analysis. GC-MS profiling was used to identify individual components of VNEO. Anopheles OBPs were obtained from the RCSB protein data bank and used for docking studies. Determination of ligand efficiency metrics and QSAR studies were performed using Hyper Chem Professional 8.0.3, and molecular dynamics simulations were performed using the Desmond module. (3) Results: GC-MS analysis of VNEO showed 28 compounds (monoterpenes, 80.16%;sesquiterpenes, 7.63%;and unknown constituents, 10.88%). The ligand efficiency metrics of all four ligands against the OBP 7 were within acceptable ranges. β-selinene (−12.2 kcal/mol), β-caryophellene (−9.5 kcal/mol), sulcatone (−10.9 kcal/mol), and α-ylangene (−9.3 kcal/mol) showed the strongest binding affinities for the target proteins. The most stable hydrophobic interactions were observed between β-selinene (Phe111 and Phe120), Sulcatone (Phe54 and Phe120), and α-ylangene (Phe111), while only sulcatone (Tyr49) presented H-bond interactions in the simulated environment. (4) Conclusions: Sulcatone and β-caryophyllene presented the best log p values, 6.45 and 5.20, respectively. These lead phytocompounds can be used in their purest as repellent supplement or as a natural anti-mosquito agent in product formulations.

8.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-22279264

ABSTRACT

BackgroundAlthough there is extensive literature on the clinical benefits of COVID-19 vaccination, data on humanistic effects are limited. This study evaluated the impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection on symptoms, Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and Work Productivity and Impairment (WPAI) prior to and one month following infection, and compared results between individuals vaccinated with BNT162b2 and those unvaccinated. MethodsSubjects with [≥]1 self-reported symptom and positive RT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 at CVS Health US test sites were recruited between 01/31/2022-04/30/2022. Socio-demographics, clinical characteristics and vaccination status were evaluated. Self-reported symptoms, HRQoL, and WPAI outcomes were assessed using questionnaires and validated instruments (EQ-5D-5L, WPAI-GH) across acute COVID time points from pre-COVID to Week 4, and between vaccination groups. Mixed models for repeated measures were conducted for multivariable analyses, adjusting for several covariates. Effect size (ES) of Cohens d was calculated to quantify the magnitude of outcome changes within and between vaccination groups. ResultsThe study population included 430 subjects: 197 unvaccinated and 233 vaccinated with BNT162b2. Mean (SD) age was 42.4 years (14.3), 76.0% were female, 38.8% reported prior infection and 24.2% at least one comorbidity. Statistically significant differences in outcomes were observed compared with baseline and between groups. The EQ-Visual analogue scale scores and Utility Index dropped in both cohorts at Day 3 and increased by Week 4, but did not return to pre-COVID levels. The mean changes were statistically lower in the BNT162b2 cohort at Day 3 and Week 4. The BNT162b2 cohort reported lower prevalence and fewer symptoms at index date and Week 4. At Week 1, COVID-19 had a large impact on all WPAI-GH domains: the work productivity time loss among unvaccinated and vaccinated was 65.0% and 53.8%, and the mean activity impairment was 50.2% and 43.9%, respectively. With the exception of absenteeism at Week 4, the BNT162b2 cohort was associated with statistically significant less worsening in all WPAI-GH scores at both Week 1 and 4. ConclusionsCOVID-19 negatively impacted HRQoL and work productivity among mildly symptomatic outpatients. Compared with unvaccinated, those vaccinated with BNT162b2 were less impacted by COVID-19 infection and recovered faster.

9.
Tropical Medicine and Infectious Disease ; 7(8):183, 2022.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1987971

ABSTRACT

Background: following the importation of the first Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) case into Africa on 14 February 2020 in Egypt, the World Health Organisation (WHO) regional office for Africa (AFRO) activated a three-level incident management support team (IMST), with technical pillars, to coordinate planning, implementing, supervision, and monitoring of the situation and progress of implementation as well as response to the pandemic in the region. At WHO AFRO, one of the pillars was the health operations and technical expertise (HOTE) pillar with five sub-pillars: case management, infection prevention and control, risk communication and community engagement, laboratory, and emergency medical team (EMT). This paper documents the learnings (both positive and negative for consideration of change) from the activities of the HOTE pillar and recommends future actions for improving its coordination for future emergencies, especially for multi-country outbreaks or pandemic emergency responses. Method: we conducted a document review of the HOTE pillar coordination meetings' minutes, reports, policy and strategy documents of the activities, and outcomes and feedback on updates on the HOTE pillar given at regular intervals to the Regional IMST. In addition, key informant interviews were conducted with 14 members of the HOTE sub pillar. Key Learnings: the pandemic response revealed that shared decision making, collaborative coordination, and planning have been significant in the COVID-19 response in Africa. The HOTE pillar's response structure contributed to attaining the IMST objectives in the African region and translated to timely support for the WHO AFRO and the member states. However, while the coordination mechanism appeared robust, some challenges included duplication of coordination efforts, communication, documentation, and information management. Recommendations: we recommend streamlining the flow of information to better understand the challenges that countries face. There is a need to define the role and responsibilities of sub-pillar team members and provide new team members with information briefs to guide them on where and how to access internal information and work under the pillar. A unified documentation system is important and could help to strengthen intra-pillar collaboration and communication. Various indicators should be developed to constantly monitor the HOTE team's deliverables, performance and its members.

10.
Pharmaceuticals (Basel) ; 15(6)2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1974874

ABSTRACT

Since December 2019, the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), has infected ~435 million people and caused ~6 million related deaths as of March 2022. To combat COVID-19, there have been many attempts to repurpose FDA-approved drugs or revive old drugs. However, many of the current treatment options have been known to cause adverse drug reactions. We employed a population-based drug screening platform using 13 human leukocyte antigen (HLA) homozygous human induced pluripotent cell (iPSC) lines to assess the cardiotoxicity and neurotoxicity of the first line of anti-COVID-19 drugs. We also infected iPSC-derived cells to understand the viral infection of cardiomyocytes and neurons. We found that iPSC-derived cardiomyocytes express the ACE2 receptor which correlated with a higher infection of the SARS-CoV-2 virus (r = 0.86). However, we were unable to detect ACE2 expression in neurons which correlated with a low infection rate. We then assessed the toxicity of anti-COVID-19 drugs and identified two cardiotoxic compounds (remdesivir and arbidol) and four neurotoxic compounds (arbidol, remdesivir, hydroxychloroquine, and chloroquine). These data show that this platform can quickly and easily be employed to further our understanding of cell-specific infection and identify drug toxicity of potential treatment options helping clinicians better decide on treatment options.

11.
European Journal of Training and Development ; 46(7/8):709-726, 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1973385

ABSTRACT

Purpose>The critical incident technique (CIT) is widely used in many disciplines;however, scholars have acknowledged challenges associated with analyzing qualitative data when using this technique. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to address the data analysis issues that have been raised by introducing some different contemporary ways of analyzing qualitative critical incident data drawn from recent dissertations conducted in the human resource development (HRD) field.Design/methodology/approach>This article describes and illustrates different contemporary qualitative re-storying and cross-incident analysis approaches with examples drawn from previously and recently conducted qualitative HRD dissertations that have used the CIT.Findings>Qualitative CIT analysis comprises two processes: re-storying and cross-incident analysis. The narrative inquiry–based re-storying approaches the authors illustrate include poetic narrative and dramatic emplotting. The analytical approaches we illustrate for cross-incident analysis include thematic assertion, grounded theory, and post-structural analysis/assemblages. The use of the aforementioned approaches offers researchers contemporary tools that can deepen meaning and understanding of qualitative CIT data, which address challenges that have been acknowledged regarding the difficulty of analyzing CIT data.Research limitations/implications>The different contemporary qualitative approaches that we have introduced and illustrated in this study provide researchers using the CIT with additional tools to address the challenges of analyzing qualitative CIT data, specifically with regard to data reduction of lengthy narrative transcripts through re-storying as well as cross-incident analyses that can substantially deepen meaning, as well as build new theory and problematize the data through existing theory.Practical implications>A strength of the CIT is its focus on actual events that have occurred from which reasoning, behaviors, and decision-making can be examined to develop more informed practices.Originality/value>The CIT is a very popular and flexible method for collecting data that is widely used in many disciplines. However, data analysis can be especially difficult given the volume of narrative qualitative data that can result from data collection. This paper describes and illustrates different contemporary approaches analyzing qualitative CIT data, specifically the processes of re-storying and cross-incident analysis, to address these concerns in the literature as well as to enhance and further evolve the use of the CIT method.

12.
Vaccine ; 2022 Jul 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1956364

ABSTRACT

While African countries have improved access to immunization since the start of the millennium, progress has stagnated in the last few years. One in five African children is not vaccinated with life-saving vaccines, and recent outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases (VPDs) including yellow fever, measles, and meningitis, among others point to gaps in immunization coverage as well as disease surveillance. In 2017, African Heads of State endorsed the Addis Declaration on Immunization (ADI) at the 28th African Union Summit and committed to ensuring universal access to immunization across the continent. Since then, countries have taken several steps to translate the ADI commitments into tangible progress. However, the continent continues to face challenges in delivering immunization services, including limited vaccine-related funding, inequitable access to immunization services and weak surveillance systems. In the absence of concerted political will, COVID-19 threatens to reverse progress made so far. This paper reflects on the effects of political will in shaping the immunization agenda on the continent and the continued need for political commitment to deliver on the ADI commitments in a post-COVID world. Data were gathered from the regular national immunization reports, WHO/UNICEF estimates of immunization coverage as well as case studies of country implementation on ADI.

13.
Pilot Feasibility Stud ; 8(1): 114, 2022 May 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1928207

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients are an understudied population whose treatment often includes surgery, causing a wide range of side effects. Exercise prehabilitation is a promising tool to optimize patient outcomes and may confer additional benefits as a prehabilitation tool. The primary objective of this study was to assess the feasibility of measuring patient-reported outcomes (PROs), physical function, and in-hospital mobilization across the HNC surgical timeline in advance of a future prehabilitation trial. The secondary objective was to examine potential changes in these outcomes across the surgical timeline. METHODS: HNC patients scheduled to undergo oncologic resection with free-flap reconstruction completed assessments of PROs and physical function at three timepoints across the surgical timeline (baseline, in-hospital, and postsurgical/outpatient). Mobilization was measured during the in-hospital period. The feasibility of recruitment and measurement completion was tracked, as were changes in both PROs and physical function. RESULTS: Of 48 eligible patients, 16 enrolled (recruitment rate of 33%). The baseline and in-hospital PROs were completed by 88% of participants, while the outpatient assessments were completed by 81% of participants. The baseline and in-hospital assessment of physical function were completed by 56% of participants, and 38% completed the outpatient assessment. Measuring in-hospital mobilization was completed for 63% of participants. CONCLUSION: Measuring PROs and in-hospital mobilization is feasible across the surgical timeline in HNC; however, the in-person assessment of physical function prior to surgery was not feasible. A multidisciplinary collaboration between exercise specialists and clinicians supported the development of new clinical workflows in HNC surgical care that will aid in the implementation of a future prehabilitation trial for this patient population.

14.
Immunol Rev ; 309(1): 64-74, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1922935

ABSTRACT

In this review, we discuss how IgG antibodies can modulate inflammatory signaling during viral infections with a focus on CD16a-mediated functions. We describe the structural heterogeneity of IgG antibody ligands, including subclass and glycosylation that impact binding by and downstream activity of CD16a, as well as the heterogeneity of CD16a itself, including allele and expression density. While inflammation is a mechanism required for immune homeostasis and resolution of acute infections, we focus here on two infectious diseases that are driven by pathogenic inflammatory responses during infection. Specifically, we review and discuss the evolving body of literature showing that afucosylated IgG immune complex signaling through CD16a contributes to the overwhelming inflammatory response that is central to the pathogenesis of severe forms of dengue disease and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Humans , Immunoglobulin G/chemistry , Immunoglobulin G/metabolism , Polysaccharides/chemistry , Polysaccharides/metabolism , Receptors, IgG
15.
J Nucl Cardiol ; 2022 Jul 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1920116
16.
Elife ; 112022 06 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1903837

ABSTRACT

In Spring 2021, the highly transmissible SARS-CoV-2 Delta variant began to cause increases in cases, hospitalizations, and deaths in parts of the United States. At the time, with slowed vaccination uptake, this novel variant was expected to increase the risk of pandemic resurgence in the US in summer and fall 2021. As part of the COVID-19 Scenario Modeling Hub, an ensemble of nine mechanistic models produced 6-month scenario projections for July-December 2021 for the United States. These projections estimated substantial resurgences of COVID-19 across the US resulting from the more transmissible Delta variant, projected to occur across most of the US, coinciding with school and business reopening. The scenarios revealed that reaching higher vaccine coverage in July-December 2021 reduced the size and duration of the projected resurgence substantially, with the expected impacts was largely concentrated in a subset of states with lower vaccination coverage. Despite accurate projection of COVID-19 surges occurring and timing, the magnitude was substantially underestimated 2021 by the models compared with the of the reported cases, hospitalizations, and deaths occurring during July-December, highlighting the continued challenges to predict the evolving COVID-19 pandemic. Vaccination uptake remains critical to limiting transmission and disease, particularly in states with lower vaccination coverage. Higher vaccination goals at the onset of the surge of the new variant were estimated to avert over 1.5 million cases and 21,000 deaths, although may have had even greater impacts, considering the underestimated resurgence magnitude from the model.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology , Vaccination
17.
J Surg Educ ; 2022 Jun 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1895271

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: General surgery residency programs have increased their social media presence to educate and recruit prospective residents. This study aims to understand the impact of general surgery residency program social media on the 2020-2021 applicants' evaluation of prospective programs, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: An optional 20-item online survey regarding specialty choice, sub-internship rotation completion, social media resource use, social media impact, and general demographic information. SETTING: Large academic medical center, United States. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1191 Participants to our general surgery residency program were sent a survey. Six hundred thirteen completed the survey. RESULTS: Surveys were sent to all general surgery residency applicants of a single program (1,191) and 613 (51.4%) responded. Overall, social media resources use included official residency program website (92.4%), Doximity (36.5%), and Twitter (35.6%). The most frequently relied upon resources by applicants were the official residency program website (64.9%) Twitter (10.9%) and Instagram (10.8%). Most respondents agreed that social media was an effective means to inform applicants (70.9%) and that it positively impacted their perception of the program (62.6%). The most commonly cited benefits were helping the program exhibit its culture and comradery among residents, faculty, and staff (79.2%), with posts of social events and camaraderie as being the most helpful in learning about residency programs. Of all applicants, 71.3% noted that social media had a significant impact on perceptions of programs during the application cycles that were limited by COVID-19 safety and travel restrictions. However, most applicants disagree with (35.3%) or are neutral toward (32.1%) the statement that social media will have less of an impact on future cycles not limited by COVID-19. CONCLUSION: During the 2020-2021 application cycle, the majority of applicants utilized social media to inform and educate themselves about the general surgery programs they applied to. Residency-based social media had a positive impact on the majority of applicants, especially in terms of allowing a program to demonstrate its culture and camaraderie. Investing time and resources into residency social media accounts appears to be a meaningful pursuit for general surgery programs and is an important aspect in today's recruitment effort.

18.
J Surg Educ ; 79(4): 918-927, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1889654

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Mentorship facilitates successful matching for surgical specialties. A formal mentorship plan may counteract restricted mentorship opportunities due to the COVID-19 pandemic. DESIGN: We surveyed medical students applying to surgery specialties who participated in our formalized mentorship program (MF) and those of a prior cohort who were informally mentored (MI). Epistemic Network Analysis was used to model qualitative responses. SETTING: University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health. PARTICIPANTS: Fourth-year medical students who matched into ACGME-accredited surgical specialties. RESULTS: MF students (n = 12) met with their mentors more frequently than MI students (n = 13; p = 0.03). Both groups received career guidance, letters of recommendation and application preparation. However, the MI cohort reported greater psychological and emotional support whereas the MF cohort reported more assistance with skills development. CONCLUSIONS: A formalized mentorship program fostered successful mentoring relationships despite limitations from the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Mentoring , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Mentors/education , Pandemics
19.
Cogn Res Princ Implic ; 7(1): 46, 2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865316

ABSTRACT

Over the past two years, face masks have been a critical tool for preventing the spread of COVID-19. While previous studies have examined the effects of masks on speech recognition, much of this work was conducted early in the pandemic. Given that human listeners are able to adapt to a wide variety of novel contexts in speech perception, an open question concerns the extent to which listeners have adapted to masked speech during the pandemic. In order to evaluate this, we replicated Toscano and Toscano (PLOS ONE 16(2):e0246842, 2021), looking at the effects of several types of face masks on speech recognition in different levels of multi-talker babble noise. We also examined the effects of listeners' self-reported frequency of encounters with masked speech and the effects of the implementation of public mask mandates on speech recognition. Overall, we found that listeners' performance in the current experiment (with data collected in 2021) was similar to that of listeners in Toscano and Toscano (with data collected in 2020) and that performance did not differ based on mask experience. These findings suggest that listeners may have already adapted to masked speech by the time data were collected in 2020, are unable to adapt to masked speech, require additional context to be able to adapt, or that talkers also changed their productions over time. Implications for theories of perceptual learning in speech are discussed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Speech Perception , Humans , Masks , Noise , Speech
20.
Ann Plast Surg ; 88(6): 599-605, 2022 06 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1865043

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Integrated plastic surgery residency programs have increased their social media presence to educate and recruit prospective residents. This study aims to understand the impact of integrated plastic surgery residency program social media on the 2020 to 2021 applicants' evaluation of prospective programs, particularly during the coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An optional 20-item online survey was sent to integrated plastic surgery residency applicants applying to the authors' program. RESULTS: Surveys were sent to 300 integrated plastic surgery residency applicants with an average of 168 responses (56% response rate). Social media resources included official residency program website (87.1%), Instagram (70.2%), and Doximity (46.8%). The most frequently used resource by applicants was the official residency program website (43.9%); Instagram was the second most frequently used (40.2%) followed by Doximity (8.3%). Most respondents agreed that social media was an effective means to inform applicants (66.1%), and it positively impacted their perception of the program (64.8%). The cited benefits were helping the program exhibit its culture and comradery among residents, faculty, and staff (78.4%). Among applicants, 73.6% noted that it had a significant impact on their perceptions of programs. Most respondents truncated their planned plastic surgery subinternships, completing 1 instead of 3 planned subinternships because of coronavirus disease 2019 limitations. CONCLUSIONS: During the 2020 to 2021 plastic surgery application cycle, applicants used social media accounts of plastic surgery residency programs to inform and educate themselves about prospective programs. This study suggests that investing resources into a social media residency accounts is a meaningful pursuit for integrated plastic surgery programs and is an important aspect in today's recruitment.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Internship and Residency , Social Media , Surgery, Plastic , COVID-19/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , Surgery, Plastic/education
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