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1.
Front Genet ; 12: 777076, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760233

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 has caused symptomatic COVID-19 and widespread death across the globe. We sought to determine genetic variants contributing to COVID-19 susceptibility and hospitalization in a large biobank linked to a national United States health system. We identified 19,168 (3.7%) lab-confirmed COVID-19 cases among Million Veteran Program participants between March 1, 2020, and February 2, 2021, including 11,778 Whites, 4,893 Blacks, and 2,497 Hispanics. A multi-population genome-wide association study (GWAS) for COVID-19 outcomes identified four independent genetic variants (rs8176719, rs73062389, rs60870724, and rs73910904) contributing to COVID-19 positivity, including one novel locus found exclusively among Hispanics. We replicated eight of nine previously reported genetic associations at an alpha of 0.05 in at least one population-specific or the multi-population meta-analysis for one of the four MVP COVID-19 outcomes. We used rs8176719 and three additional variants to accurately infer ABO blood types. We found that A, AB, and B blood types were associated with testing positive for COVID-19 compared with O blood type with the highest risk for the A blood group. We did not observe any genome-wide significant associations for COVID-19 severity outcomes among those testing positive. Our study replicates prior GWAS findings associated with testing positive for COVID-19 among mostly White samples and extends findings at three loci to Black and Hispanic individuals. We also report a new locus among Hispanics requiring further investigation. These findings may aid in the identification of novel therapeutic agents to decrease the morbidity and mortality of COVID-19 across all major ancestral populations.

2.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327268

ABSTRACT

Genetic predisposition to venous thrombosis may impact COVID-19 infection and its sequelae. Participants in the ongoing prospective cohort study, Million Veteran Program (MVP), who were tested for COVID-19, with European ancestry, were evaluated for associations with polygenic venous thromboembolic risk, Factor V Leiden mutation (FVL) (rs6025) and prothrombin gene 3'-UTR mutation (F2 G20210A)(rs1799963), and their interactions. Logistic regression models assessed genetic associations with VTE diagnosis, COVID-19 (positive) testing rates and outcome severity (modified WHO criteria), and post-test conditions, adjusting for outpatient anticoagulation medication usage, age, sex, and genetic principal components. 108,437 out of 464,961 European American MVP participants were tested for COVID-19 with 9786 (9%) positive. PRS(VTE), FVL, F2 G20210A were not significantly associated with the propensity of being tested for COVID-19. PRS(VTE) was significantly associated with a positive COVID-19 test in F5 wild type (WT) individuals (OR 1.05;95% CI [1.02-1.07]), but not in FVL carriers (0.97, [0.91-1.94]). There was no association with severe outcome for FVL, F2 G20210A or PRS(VTE). Outpatient anticoagulation usage in the two years prior to testing was associated with worse clinical outcomes. PRS(VTE) was associated with prevalent VTE diagnosis among both FVL carriers or F5 wild type individuals as well as incident VTE in the two years prior to testing. Increased genetic propensity for VTE in the MVP was associated with increased COVID-19 positive testing rates, suggesting a role of coagulation in the initial steps of COVID-19 infection.

3.
JAMA Intern Med ; 182(4): 386-395, 2022 04 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1653126

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) confers significant risk of acute kidney injury (AKI). Patients with COVID-19 with AKI have high mortality rates. OBJECTIVE: Individuals with African ancestry with 2 copies of apolipoprotein L1 (APOL1) variants G1 or G2 (high-risk group) have significantly increased rates of kidney disease. We tested the hypothesis that the APOL1 high-risk group is associated with a higher-risk of COVID-19-associated AKI and death. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS: This retrospective cohort study included 990 participants with African ancestry enrolled in the Million Veteran Program who were hospitalized with COVID-19 between March 2020 and January 2021 with available genetic information. EXPOSURES: The primary exposure was having 2 APOL1 risk variants (RV) (APOL1 high-risk group), compared with having 1 or 0 risk variants (APOL1 low-risk group). MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: The primary outcome was AKI. The secondary outcomes were stages of AKI severity and death. Multivariable logistic regression analyses adjusted for preexisting comorbidities, medications, and inpatient AKI risk factors; 10 principal components of ancestry were performed to study these associations. We performed a subgroup analysis in individuals with normal kidney function prior to hospitalization (estimated glomerular filtration rate ≥60 mL/min/1.73 m2). RESULTS: Of the 990 participants with African ancestry, 905 (91.4%) were male with a median (IQR) age of 68 (60-73) years. Overall, 392 (39.6%) patients developed AKI, 141 (14%) developed stages 2 or 3 AKI, 28 (3%) required dialysis, and 122 (12.3%) died. One hundred twenty-five (12.6%) of the participants were in the APOL1 high-risk group. Patients categorized as APOL1 high-risk group had significantly higher odds of AKI (adjusted odds ratio [OR], 1.95; 95% CI, 1.27-3.02; P = .002), higher AKI severity stages (OR, 2.03; 95% CI, 1.37-2.99; P < .001), and death (OR, 2.15; 95% CI, 1.22-3.72; P = .007). The association with AKI persisted in the subgroup with normal kidney function (OR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.15-3.26; P = .01). Data analysis was conducted between February 2021 and April 2021. CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: In this cohort study of veterans with African ancestry hospitalized with COVID-19 infection, APOL1 kidney risk variants were associated with higher odds of AKI, AKI severity, and death, even among individuals with prior normal kidney function.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury , COVID-19 , Veterans , Acute Kidney Injury/genetics , African Americans/genetics , Aged , Apolipoprotein L1/genetics , Cohort Studies , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors
4.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21267471

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThere are currently no effective pharmacological or non-pharmacological interventions for Long-COVID. To identify potential therapeutic targets, we focussed on previously described four recovery clusters five months after hospital discharge, their underlying inflammatory profiles and relationship with clinical outcomes at one year. MethodsPHOSP-COVID is a prospective longitudinal cohort study, recruiting adults hospitalised with COVID-19 across the UK. Recovery was assessed using patient reported outcomes measures (PROMs), physical performance, and organ function at five-months and one-year after hospital discharge. Hierarchical logistic regression modelling was performed for patient-perceived recovery at one-year. Cluster analysis was performed using clustering large applications (CLARA) k-medoids approach using clinical outcomes at five-months. Inflammatory protein profiling from plasma at the five-month visit was performed. Findings2320 participants have been assessed at five months after discharge and 807 participants have completed both five-month and one-year visits. Of these, 35{middle dot}6% were female, mean age 58{middle dot}7 (SD 12{middle dot}5) years, and 27{middle dot}8% received invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV). The proportion of patients reporting full recovery was unchanged between five months 501/1965 (25{middle dot}5%) and one year 232/804 (28{middle dot}9%). Factors associated with being less likely to report full recovery at one year were: female sex OR 0{middle dot}68 (95% CI 0{middle dot}46-0{middle dot}99), obesity OR 0{middle dot}50 (95%CI 0{middle dot}34-0{middle dot}74) and IMV OR 0{middle dot}42 (95%CI 0{middle dot}23-0{middle dot}76). Cluster analysis (n=1636) corroborated the previously reported four clusters: very severe, severe, moderate/cognitive, mild relating to the severity of physical, mental health and cognitive impairments at five months in a larger sample. There was elevation of inflammatory mediators of tissue damage and repair in both the very severe and the moderate/cognitive clusters compared to the mild cluster including interleukin-6 which was elevated in both comparisons. Overall, there was a substantial deficit in median (IQR) EQ5D-5L utility index from pre-COVID (retrospective assessment) 0{middle dot}88 (0{middle dot}74-1{middle dot}00), five months 0{middle dot}74 (0{middle dot}60-0{middle dot}88) to one year: 0{middle dot}74 (0{middle dot}59-0{middle dot}88), with minimal improvements across all outcome measures at one-year after discharge in the whole cohort and within each of the four clusters. InterpretationThe sequelae of a hospital admission with COVID-19 remain substantial one year after discharge across a range of health domains with the minority in our cohort feeling fully recovered. Patient perceived health-related quality of life remains reduced at one year compared to pre-hospital admission. Systematic inflammation and obesity are potential treatable traits that warrant further investigation in clinical trials. FundingUKRI & NIHR Research in ContextO_ST_ABSEvidence before this studyC_ST_ABSWe systematically searched PubMed and Embase databases for large studies reporting one-year follow-up data for hospitalised COVID-19 patients published between January 1, 2021 and November 7, 2021, without language restrictions. Search terms related to COVID-19, hospitalisation and long-term follow-up were used. A large prospective cohort study from Wuhan, China (n = 1276) showed that 49% of patients reported at least one persistent symptom during a follow-up clinic visit at 12 months post COVID-19; no significant improvement in exercise capacity was observed between six- and 12-month visits. Another two large cohort studies in China (n = 2433) and Spain (n = 1950) with one-year follow-up data from telephone interviews showed that 45% and 81% of patients reported at least one residual COVID-19 symptom, respectively. However, no previous studies have compared the trajectories of COVID-19 recovery in patients classified by different clinical phenotypes, and there are no large studies investigating the relationship between systemic inflammation and ongoing health impairments post COVID-19. Added value of this studyIn a diverse population of adults post-hospital admission with COVID-19, our large UK prospective multi-centre study reports several novel findings: the minority felt fully recovered at one year with minimal recovery from five months across any health domain; female sex and obesity are associated with being less likely to feel fully recovered at one year; several inflammatory mediators were increased in individuals with the most severe physical, mental health, and cognitive impairments compared to individuals with milder ongoing impairments. Implications of all the available evidenceBoth pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions are urgently needed to improve the ongoing burden following hospitalisation for COVID-19 both for individuals and healthcare systems; our findings support the use of a precision medicine approach with potential treatable traits of systemic inflammation and obesity.

5.
J Eval Clin Pract ; 27(3): 665-666, 2021 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1247235

Subject(s)
Medicine , Humans
6.
Nat Med ; 27(4): 668-676, 2021 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1174686

ABSTRACT

Drug repurposing provides a rapid approach to meet the urgent need for therapeutics to address COVID-19. To identify therapeutic targets relevant to COVID-19, we conducted Mendelian randomization analyses, deriving genetic instruments based on transcriptomic and proteomic data for 1,263 actionable proteins that are targeted by approved drugs or in clinical phase of drug development. Using summary statistics from the Host Genetics Initiative and the Million Veteran Program, we studied 7,554 patients hospitalized with COVID-19 and >1 million controls. We found significant Mendelian randomization results for three proteins (ACE2, P = 1.6 × 10-6; IFNAR2, P = 9.8 × 10-11 and IL-10RB, P = 2.3 × 10-14) using cis-expression quantitative trait loci genetic instruments that also had strong evidence for colocalization with COVID-19 hospitalization. To disentangle the shared expression quantitative trait loci signal for IL10RB and IFNAR2, we conducted phenome-wide association scans and pathway enrichment analysis, which suggested that IFNAR2 is more likely to play a role in COVID-19 hospitalization. Our findings prioritize trials of drugs targeting IFNAR2 and ACE2 for early management of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/genetics , Drug Repositioning , Mendelian Randomization Analysis/methods , SARS-CoV-2 , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2/physiology , COVID-19/drug therapy , Genome-Wide Association Study , Humans , Interleukin-10 Receptor beta Subunit/genetics , Interleukin-10 Receptor beta Subunit/physiology , Quantitative Trait Loci , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/genetics , Receptor, Interferon alpha-beta/physiology
7.
Trials ; 22(1): 229, 2021 Mar 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1150419

ABSTRACT

Along with its heavy toll of morbidity and mortality, the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic exposed several limitations of the current global research response. The slow and inefficient process of carrying out traditional randomized clinical trials led regulatory authorities to hastily approve treatments and tests without sufficient evidence of safety and efficacy.We here outline issues with the current research platform, summarize shortcomings of traditional randomized clinical trials particularly apparent at the time of pandemics, and highlight the advantages of pragmatic clinical trials as an alternative to rapidly generate the needed clinical evidence. We further discuss barriers and challenges to pragmatic clinical trials implementation and explore opportunities for research institutions and regulatory authorities to facilitate widespread adoption of this vital research tool.As a subsequent wave of COVID-19, and/or another epidemic, are all but inevitable in our lifetime, we must ensure that our research infrastructure is conducive to carrying out pragmatic clinical trials to expeditiously generate the needed evidence and blunt the epidemic's toll on human lives and livelihoods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Pragmatic Clinical Trials as Topic , Research Design , COVID-19/diagnosis , Drug Approval , Evidence-Based Medicine , Humans
8.
Eur Heart J ; 42(20): 2015-2018, 2021 05 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145168

ABSTRACT

The link between viral respiratory infection and non-pulmonary organ-specific injury, including cardiac injury, has become increasingly appreciated during the current coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Even prior to the pandemic, however, the association between acute infection with influenza and elevated cardiovascular risk was evident. The recently published results of the NHLBI-funded INfluenza Vaccine to Effectively Stop CardioThoracic Events and Decompensated (INVESTED) trial, a 5200 patient comparative effectiveness study of high-dose vs. standard-dose influenza vaccine to reduce cardiopulmonary events and mortality in a high-risk cardiovascular population, found no difference between strategies. However, the broader implications of influenza vaccine as a strategy to reduce morbidity in high-risk patients remain extremely important, with randomized controlled trial and observational data supporting vaccination in high-risk patients with cardiovascular disease. Given a favourable risk-benefit profile and widespread availability at generally low cost, we contend that influenza vaccination should remain a centrepiece of cardiovascular risk mitigation and describe the broader context of underutilization of this strategy. Few therapeutics in medicine offer seasonal efficacy from a single administration with generally mild, transient side effects, and exceedingly low rates of serious adverse effects. Infection control measures such as physical distancing, hand washing, and the use of masks during the COVID-19 pandemic have already been associated with substantially curtailed incidence of influenza outbreaks across the globe. Appending annual influenza vaccination to these measures represents an important public health and moral imperative.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Cardiovascular Diseases , Influenza Vaccines , Influenza, Human , Cardiovascular Diseases/prevention & control , Humans , Influenza, Human/prevention & control , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
9.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21254057

ABSTRACT

BackgroundThe impact of COVID-19 on physical and mental health, and employment following hospitalisation is poorly understood. MethodsPHOSP-COVID is a multi-centre, UK, observational study of adults discharged from hospital with a clinical diagnosis of COVID-19 involving an assessment between two- and seven-months later including detailed symptom, physiological and biochemical testing. Multivariable logistic regression was performed for patient-perceived recovery with age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), co-morbidities, and severity of acute illness as co-variates. Cluster analysis was performed using outcomes for breathlessness, fatigue, mental health, cognition and physical function. FindingsWe report findings of 1077 patients discharged in 2020, from the assessment undertaken a median 5 [IQR4 to 6] months later: 36% female, mean age 58 [SD 13] years, 69% white ethnicity, 27% mechanical ventilation, and 50% had at least two co-morbidities. At follow-up only 29% felt fully recovered, 20% had a new disability, and 19% experienced a health-related change in occupation. Factors associated with failure to recover were female, middle-age, white ethnicity, two or more co-morbidities, and more severe acute illness. The magnitude of the persistent health burden was substantial and weakly related to acute severity. Four clusters were identified with different severities of mental and physical health impairment: 1) Very severe (17%), 2) Severe (21%), 3) Moderate with cognitive impairment (17%), 4) Mild (46%), with 3%, 7%, 36% and 43% feeling fully recovered, respectively. Persistent systemic inflammation determined by C-reactive protein was related to cluster severity, but not acute illness severity. InterpretationWe identified factors related to recovery from a hospital admission with COVID-19 and four different phenotypes relating to the severity of physical, mental, and cognitive health five months later. The implications for clinical care include the potential to stratify care and the need for a pro-active approach with wide-access to COVID-19 holistic clinical services. Funding: UKRI and NIHR

10.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21252444

ABSTRACT

The National COVID-19 Chest Imaging Database (NCCID) is a centralised database containing chest X-rays, chest Computed Tomography (CT) scans and cardiac Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) from patients across the UK, jointly established by NHSX, the British Society of Thoracic Imaging (BSTI), Royal Surrey NHS Foundation Trust (RSNFT) and Faculty. The objective of the initiative is to support a better understanding of the coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 disease (COVID-19) and development of machine learning (ML) technologies that will improve care for patients hospitalised with a severe COVID-19 infection. The NCCID is now accumulating data from 20 NHS Trusts and Health Boards across England and Wales, with a total contribution of approximately 25,000 imaging studies in the training set (at time of writing) and is actively being used as a research tool by several organisations. This paper introduces the training dataset, including a snapshot analysis performed by NHSX covering: the completeness of clinical data, the availability of image data for the various use-cases (diagnosis, prognosis and longitudinal risk) and potential model confounders within the imaging data. The aim is to inform both existing and potential data users of the NCCIDs suitability for developing diagnostic/prognostic models. In addition, a cohort analysis was performed to measure the representativeness of the NCCID to the wider COVID-19 affected population. Three major aspects were included: geographic, demographic and temporal coverage, revealing good alignment in some categories, e.g., sex and identifying areas for improvements to data collection methods, particularly with respect to geographic coverage. All analyses and discussions are focused on the implications for building ML tools that will generalise well to the clinical use cases.

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