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1.
JCI Insight ; 7(14)2022 Jul 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1962552

ABSTRACT

Acute lung injury (ALI) can cause acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), a lethal condition with limited treatment options and currently a common global cause of death due to COVID-19. ARDS secondary to transfusion-related ALI (TRALI) has been recapitulated preclinically by anti-MHC-I antibody administration to LPS-primed mice. In this model, we demonstrate that inhibitors of PTP1B, a protein tyrosine phosphatase that regulates signaling pathways of fundamental importance to homeostasis and inflammation, prevented lung injury and increased survival. Treatment with PTP1B inhibitors attenuated the aberrant neutrophil function that drives ALI and was associated with release of myeloperoxidase, suppression of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET) formation, and inhibition of neutrophil migration. Mechanistically, reduced signaling through the CXCR4 chemokine receptor, particularly to the activation of PI3Kγ/AKT/mTOR, was essential for these effects, linking PTP1B inhibition to promoting an aged-neutrophil phenotype. Considering that dysregulated activation of neutrophils has been implicated in sepsis and causes collateral tissue damage, we demonstrate that PTP1B inhibitors improved survival and ameliorated lung injury in an LPS-induced sepsis model and improved survival in the cecal ligation and puncture-induced (CLP-induced) sepsis model. Our data highlight the potential for PTP1B inhibition to prevent ALI and ARDS from multiple etiologies.


Subject(s)
Acute Lung Injury , COVID-19 , Respiratory Distress Syndrome , Sepsis , Acute Lung Injury/metabolism , Animals , Lipopolysaccharides/pharmacology , Mice , Neutrophils , Respiratory Distress Syndrome/etiology , Sepsis/complications
2.
Res Pract Thromb Haemost ; 6(5): e12765, 2022 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1935731

ABSTRACT

Background: Venous thromboembolism (VTE) risk is increased in patients with COVID-19 infection. Understanding which patients are likely to develop VTE may inform pharmacologic VTE prophylaxis decision making. The hospital-associated venous thromboembolism-Intermountain Risk Score (HA-VTE IMRS) and the hospital-associated major bleeding-Intermountain Risk Score (HA-MB IMRS) are risk scores predictive of VTE and bleeding that were derived from only patient age and data found in the complete blood count (CBC) and basic metabolic panel (BMP). Objectives: We assessed the HA-VTE IMRS and HA-MB IMRS for predictiveness of 90-day VTE and major bleeding, respectively, among patients diagnosed with COVID-19, and further investigated if adding D-dimer improved these predictions. We also reported 30-day outcomes. Patients/Methods: We identified 5047 sequential patients with a laboratory confirmed diagnosis of COVID-19 and a CBC and BMP between 2 days before and 7 days following the diagnosis of COVID-19 from March 12, 2020, to February 28, 2021. We calculated the HA-VTE IMRS and the HA-MB IMRS for all patients. We assessed the added predictiveness of D-dimer obtained within 48 hours of the COVID test. Results: The HA-VTE IMRS yielded a c-statistic of 0.70 for predicting 90-day VTE and adding D-dimer improved the c-statistic to 0.764 with the corollary sensitivity/specificity/positive/negative predictive values of 49.4%/75.7%/6.7%/97.7% and 58.8%/76.2%/10.9%/97.4%, respectively. Among hospitalized and ambulatory patients separately, the HA-VTE IMRS performed similarly. The HA-MB IMRS predictiveness for 90-day major bleeding yielded a c-statistic of 0.64. Conclusion: The HA-VTE IMRS and HA-MB IMRS predict 90- and 30-day VTE and major bleeding among COVID-19 patients. Adding D-dimer improved the predictiveness of the HA-VTE IMRS for VTE.

3.
J Vis Exp ; (184)2022 06 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1934282

ABSTRACT

Identification and isolation of contagious individuals along with quarantine of close contacts, is critical for slowing the spread of COVID-19. Large-scale testing in a surveillance or screening capacity for asymptomatic carriers of COVID-19 provides both data on viral spread and the follow-up ability to rapidly test individuals during suspected outbreaks. The COVID-19 early detection program at Michigan State University has been utilizing large-scale testing in a surveillance or screening capacity since fall of 2020. The methods adapted here take advantage of the reliability, large sample volume, and self-collection benefits of saliva, paired with a cost-effective, reagent conserving two-dimensional pooling scheme. The process was designed to be adaptable to supply shortages, with many components of the kits and the assay easily substituted. The processes outlined for collecting and processing SARS-CoV-2 samples can be adapted to test for future viral pathogens reliably expressed in saliva. By providing this blueprint for universities or other organizations, preparedness plans for future viral outbreaks can be developed.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Reproducibility of Results , Saliva , Specimen Handling
5.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 11388, 2022 Jul 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1921711

ABSTRACT

The emergence of the novel SARS-CoV-2 virus is the most important public-health issue of our time. Understanding the diverse clinical presentations of the ensuing disease, COVID-19, remains a critical unmet need. Here we present a comprehensive listing of the diverse clinical indications associated with COVID-19. We explore the theory that anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies could cross-react with endogenous human proteins driving some of the pathologies associated with COVID-19. We describe a novel computational approach to estimate structural homology between SARS-CoV-2 proteins and human proteins. Antibodies are more likely to interrogate 3D-structural epitopes than continuous linear epitopes. This computational workflow identified 346 human proteins containing a domain with high structural homology to a SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan strain protein. Of these, 102 proteins exhibit functions that could contribute to COVID-19 clinical pathologies. We present a testable hypothesis to delineate unexplained clinical observations vis-à-vis COVID-19 and a tool to evaluate the safety-risk profile of potential COVID-19 therapies.


Subject(s)
Antibody Formation , COVID-19 , Cross Reactions , Epitopes , Humans , SARS-CoV-2
6.
Virus Evol ; 8(1): veab098, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1915850

ABSTRACT

Genomic sequencing is crucial to understanding the epidemiology and evolution of Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Often, genomic studies rely on remnant diagnostic material, typically nasopharyngeal (NP) swabs, as input into whole-genome SARS-CoV-2 next-generation sequencing pipelines. Saliva has proven to be a safe and stable specimen for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 RNA via traditional diagnostic assays; however, saliva is not commonly used for SARS-CoV-2 sequencing. Using the ARTIC Network amplicon-generation approach with sequencing on the Oxford Nanopore MinION, we demonstrate that sequencing SARS-CoV-2 from saliva produces genomes comparable to those from NP swabs, and that RNA extraction is necessary to generate complete genomes from saliva. In this study, we show that saliva is a useful specimen type for genomic studies of SARS-CoV-2.

7.
AJR Am J Roentgenol ; : 1-6, 2022 Jul 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902849

ABSTRACT

A production facility shutdown related to containment measures during the COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a global shortage of iodinated contrast media. This article describes the strategies implemented at one large U.S. health system to maintain care continuity during the ongoing shortage. The strategies have included attempts to procure additional stock, repackage existing stock for use in larger numbers of patients, use noncontrast CT or alternative imaging modalities in place of contrast-enhanced CT, and collaborate with specialties outside of radiology to participate in conservation efforts. In addition, individual CT protocols underwent tailored modifications to use dual-energy technique and/or lower tube voltages, to allow lower contrast media doses with maintained visualization of tissue enhancement. The experiences during this period provide insights to facilitate long-term reductions in contrast media doses and ongoing CT protocol optimization after supplies return to normal levels. Critical throughout the efforts to mitigate the impact of the shortage have been system-level action, operational flexibility, and close communication by the health system's radiologists, technologists, physicists, pharmacists, and ordering providers.

8.
JCI Insight ; 2022 Jun 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1902170

ABSTRACT

Older people exhibit dysregulated innate immunity to respiratory viral infections, including influenza and SARS-CoV-2, to increase morbidity and mortality. Nanoparticles are a potential practical therapeutic that could reduce exaggerated innate immune responses within the lungs during viral infection. However, such therapeutics have not been examined for effectiveness during respiratory viral infection, particular in aged hosts. Here, we employed a lethal model of influenza viral infection in vulnerable aged mice to examine the ability of biodegradable, cargo-free nanoparticles, designated ONP-302, to resolve innate immune dysfunction and improve outcomes during infection. We administered ONP-302 via intravenous injection to aged mice at day 3 post-infection when the hyperinflammatory innate immune response is already established. During infection, we found that ONP-302 treatment reduced the numbers of inflammatory monocytes within the lungs and increased their number in both the liver and spleen, without impacting viral clearance. Importantly, cargo-free nanoparticles reduced lung damage, histological lung inflammation and improved gas exchange and, ultimately, the clinical outcomes in influenza-infected aged mice. In conclusion, ONP-302 improves outcomes in influenza-infected aged mice. Thus, our study provides fundamental information concerning a practical therapeutic which, if translated clinically, could improve disease outcomes for vulnerable older patients suffering from respiratory viral infections.

9.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(649): eabo0686, 2022 06 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1891729

ABSTRACT

T cell-derived pro-inflammatory cytokines are a major driver of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) pathogenesis. Although these cytokines have traditionally been attributed to CD4 T cells, we have found that CD8 T cells are notably abundant in synovium and make more interferon (IFN)-γ and nearly as much tumor necrosis factor (TNF) as their CD4 T cell counterparts. Furthermore, using unbiased high-dimensional single-cell RNA-seq and flow cytometric data, we found that the vast majority of synovial tissue and synovial fluid CD8 T cells belong to an effector CD8 T cell population characterized by high expression of granzyme K (GzmK) and low expression of granzyme B (GzmB) and perforin. Functional experiments demonstrate that these GzmK+ GzmB+ CD8 T cells are major cytokine producers with low cytotoxic potential. Using T cell receptor repertoire data, we found that CD8 GzmK+ GzmB+ T cells are clonally expanded in synovial tissues and maintain their granzyme expression and overall cell state in blood, suggesting that they are enriched in tissue but also circulate. Using GzmK and GzmB signatures, we found that GzmK-expressing CD8 T cells were also the major CD8 T cell population in the gut, kidney, and coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, suggesting that they form a core population of tissue-associated T cells across diseases and human tissues. We term this population tissue-enriched expressing GzmK or TteK CD8 cells. Armed to produce cytokines in response to both antigen-dependent and antigen-independent stimuli, CD8 TteK cells have the potential to drive inflammation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , Cytokines/metabolism , Granzymes/metabolism , Humans
10.
Lancet ; 399(10337): 1777-1778, 2022 05 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1886137

Subject(s)
Refugees , Humans , Lebanon
11.
Curr Probl Diagn Radiol ; 51(5): 675-679, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1868092

ABSTRACT

The unprecedented impact of the Sars-CoV-2 pandemic (COVID-19) has strained the healthcare system worldwide. The impact is even more profound on diseases requiring timely complex multidisciplinary care such as pancreatic cancer. Multidisciplinary care teams have been affected significantly in multiple ways as healthcare teams collectively acclimate to significant space limitations and shortages of personnel and supplies. As a result, many patients are now receiving suboptimal remote imaging for diagnosis, staging, and surgical planning for pancreatic cancer. In addition, the lack of face-to-face interactions between the physician and patient and between multidisciplinary teams has challenged patient safety, research investigations, and house staff education. In this study, we discuss how the COVID-19 pandemic has transformed our high-volume pancreatic multidisciplinary clinic, the unique challenges faced, as well as the potential benefits that have arisen out of this situation. We also reflect on its implications for the future during and beyond the pandemic as we anticipate a hybrid model that includes a component of virtual multidisciplinary clinics as a means to provide accessible world-class healthcare for patients who require complex oncologic management.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pancreatic Neoplasms , Delivery of Health Care , Humans , Pancreatic Neoplasms/diagnostic imaging , Pancreatic Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
12.
Ann Intern Med ; 175(7): 969-979, 2022 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1863261

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: A substantial proportion of persons who develop COVID-19 report persistent symptoms after acute illness. Various pathophysiologic mechanisms have been implicated in the pathogenesis of postacute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). OBJECTIVE: To characterize medical sequelae and persistent symptoms after recovery from COVID-19 in a cohort of disease survivors and controls. DESIGN: Cohort study. (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT04411147). SETTING: National Institutes of Health Clinical Center, Bethesda, Maryland. PARTICIPANTS: Self-referred adults with laboratory-documented SARS-CoV-2 infection who were at least 6 weeks from symptom onset were enrolled regardless of presence of PASC. A control group comprised persons with no history of COVID-19 or serologic evidence of SARS-CoV-2 infection, recruited regardless of their current health status. Both groups were enrolled over the same period and from the same geographic area. MEASUREMENTS: All participants had the same evaluations regardless of presence of symptoms, including physical examination, laboratory tests and questionnaires, cognitive function testing, and cardiopulmonary evaluation. A subset also underwent exploratory immunologic and virologic evaluations. RESULTS: 189 persons with laboratory-documented COVID-19 (12% of whom were hospitalized during acute illness) and 120 antibody-negative control participants were enrolled. At enrollment, symptoms consistent with PASC were reported by 55% of the COVID-19 cohort and 13% of control participants. Increased risk for PASC was noted in women and those with a history of anxiety disorder. Participants with findings meeting the definition of PASC reported lower quality of life on standardized testing. Abnormal findings on physical examination and diagnostic testing were uncommon. Neutralizing antibody levels to spike protein were negative in 27% of the unvaccinated COVID-19 cohort and none of the vaccinated COVID-19 cohort. Exploratory studies found no evidence of persistent viral infection, autoimmunity, or abnormal immune activation in participants with PASC. LIMITATIONS: Most participants with COVID-19 had mild to moderate acute illness that did not require hospitalization. The prevalence of reported PASC was likely overestimated in this cohort because persons with PASC may have been more motivated to enroll. The study did not capture PASC that resolved before enrollment. CONCLUSION: A high burden of persistent symptoms was observed in persons after COVID-19. Extensive diagnostic evaluation revealed no specific cause of reported symptoms in most cases. Antibody levels were highly variable after COVID-19. PRIMARY FUNDING SOURCE: Division of Intramural Research, National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Acute Disease , Adult , COVID-19/complications , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Quality of Life , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Journal of Emergency and Critical Care Medicine ; 6, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1863511

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-COV-19 (COVID-19) pandemic has been an unprecedented global health crisis that has had far reaching implications and has exposed various susceptible patient populations including pregnant women. The effect of COVID-19 on pregnant women is an area of current research, with many studies focusing on maternal and fetal outcomes and maternal-fetal transmission of the virus. Current research suggests that COVID-19 presents similarly in both non-pregnant and pregnant women. Although COVID-19 is rarely vertically transmitted, it is currently unclear whether or not COVID-19 has an effect on the incidence of IUFD in pregnant patients. Case Description: Here, we report the case of a 23-year-old female approximately 26 weeks pregnant, recently diagnosed with COVID-19. The patient required intubation during evaluation in the emergency department (ED) and ultimately was placed on extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) while in the intensive care unit (ICU). During the ICU stay intrauterine fetal demise (IUFD) was diagnosed and a spontaneous en caul vaginal delivery occurred. Conclusions: Currently, there is limited data available regarding the effect, or complications, of COVID-19 on the three trimesters of pregnancy. There is also limited data on the use of ECMO in pregnant patients with a COVID-19 infection. The case reported here is further evidence of the necessity of further research into the effects of COVID-19 on pregnant patients and the utilization of ECMO in these cases. © 2022 Laparoscopic Surgery.All right reserved.

14.
Am J Speech Lang Pathol ; 31(3): 1205-1220, 2022 05 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1860446

ABSTRACT

PURPOSE: Functional speech disorders (FSDs), a subtype of functional neurological disorders, are distinguishable from neurogenic motor speech disorders based on their clinical features, clinical course, and response to treatment. However, their differential diagnosis and management can be challenging. FSDs are not well understood, but growing evidence suggests a biopsychosocial basis distinct from structural lesions that cause neurogenic motor speech disorders. METHOD AND RESULTS: Following an overview of FSDs, four patients are described to illustrate the range of clinical manifestations, biopsychosocial contexts, and responses to treatment of FSDs. The path to differential diagnosis is discussed, with particular attention to positive features that led to the FSD diagnosis. Approaches to education, counseling, and management are discussed. CONCLUSIONS: This case series demonstrates that FSDs can present with a variety of manifestations including dysfluencies, articulation errors, dysphonia, rate and prosodic abnormalities, and combinations of disruptions in speech subsystems. FSDs may present in the context of known recent or remote physical or psychosocial trauma or, as in many cases, in the absence of an identifiable triggering event. FSDs are recognizable by positive clinical features and should not be considered a diagnosis of exclusion. With appropriate identification, counseling, and treatment, FSDs may resolve, sometimes rapidly; in some cases, treatment may be prolonged or ineffective.


Subject(s)
Dysphonia , Speech , Dysphonia/diagnosis , Dysphonia/therapy , Humans , Speech Disorders/diagnosis , Speech Disorders/therapy
15.
Commun Biol ; 5(1): 439, 2022 05 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1839575

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 variants shaped the second year of the COVID-19 pandemic and the discourse around effective control measures. Evaluating the threat posed by a new variant is essential for adapting response efforts when community transmission is detected. In this study, we compare the dynamics of two variants, Alpha and Iota, by integrating genomic surveillance data to estimate the effective reproduction number (Rt) of the variants. We use Connecticut, United States, in which Alpha and Iota co-circulated in 2021. We find that the Rt of these variants were up to 50% larger than that of other variants. We then use phylogeography to show that while both variants were introduced into Connecticut at comparable frequencies, clades that resulted from introductions of Alpha were larger than those resulting from Iota introductions. By monitoring the dynamics of individual variants throughout our study period, we demonstrate the importance of routine surveillance in the response to COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , Genomics , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , United States/epidemiology
16.
2022 IEEE International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communication and Applied Informatics, ACCAI 2022 ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1831721

ABSTRACT

The Covid-19 Pandemic has affected the entire world. Most notably, the healthcare industry has been under constant pressure to treat patients. Spikes in the number of patients have put the workforce under tremendous pressure. Doctors and nurses are finding it difficult to observe multiple patients at the same time. In addition to that, medical practitioners are reluctant to deal with the diagnosis and treatments, as it requires frequent physical intervention. The aim of this project is to reduce this strain on medical practitioners by developing a system that aims to constantly track the activity of the patients and replicate the same using a 3D Human Model. For this multiple Inertial Motion Sensors (IMU's) are used that will collect the motion data of the joints of the patient, with help of which our 3D Model will replicate the actions. The system will use Internet of Things and Cloud Computing to collect and transfer data to the web application. All the activity of the patient can be monitored using fully authenticated web applications by doctors and even by the family members. Thus with the help of the technology patients can be monitored without any physical intervention and the risk of getting affected by viruses or diseases for the doctors is also minimized. © 2022 IEEE.

17.
mBio ; 13(3): e0068322, 2022 06 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1788919

ABSTRACT

Compared to the original ancestral strain of SARS-CoV-2, the Delta variant of concern has shown increased transmissibility and resistance toward COVID-19 vaccines and therapies. However, the pathogenesis of the disease associated with Delta is still not clear. In this study, using K18-hACE2 transgenic mice, we assessed the pathogenicity of the Delta variant by characterizing the immune response following infection. We found that Delta induced the same clinical disease manifestations as the ancestral SARS-CoV-2, but with significant dissemination to multiple tissues, such as brain, intestine, and kidney. Histopathological analysis showed that tissue pathology and cell infiltration in the lungs of Delta-infected mice were the same as in mice infected with the ancestral SARS-CoV-2. Delta infection caused perivascular inflammation in the brain and intestinal wall thinning in K18-hACE2 transgenic mice. Increased cell infiltration in the kidney was observed in both ancestral strain- and Delta-infected mice, with no clear visible tissue damage identified in either group. Interestingly, compared with mice infected with the ancestral strain, the numbers of CD45+ cells, T cells, B cells, inflammatory monocytes, and dendritic cells were all significantly lower in the lungs of the Delta-infected mice, although there was no significant difference in the levels of proinflammatory cytokines between the two groups. Our results showed distinct immune response patterns in the lungs of K18-hACE2 mice infected with either the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 or Delta variant of concern, which may help to guide therapeutic interventions for emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants. IMPORTANCE SARS-CoV-2 variants, with the threat of increased transmissibility, infectivity, and immune escape, continue to emerge as the COVID-19 pandemic progresses. Detailing the pathogenesis of disease caused by SARS-CoV-2 variants, such as Delta, is essential to better understand the clinical threat caused by emerging variants and associated disease. This study, using the K18-hACE2 mouse model of severe COVID-19, provides essential observation and analysis on the pathogenicity and immune response of Delta infection. These observations shed light on the changing disease profile associated with emerging SARS-CoV-2 variants and have potential to guide COVID-19 treatment strategies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Hepatitis D , Animals , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19 Vaccines , Disease Models, Animal , Humans , Melphalan , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , gamma-Globulins
18.
Med (N Y) ; 3(5): 325-334.e4, 2022 05 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1773641

ABSTRACT

Background: The SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant became a global concern due to its rapid spread and displacement of the dominant Delta variant. We hypothesized that part of Omicron's rapid rise was based on its increased ability to cause infections in persons that are vaccinated compared to Delta. Methods: We analyzed nasal swab PCR tests for samples collected between December 12 and 16, 2021, in Connecticut when the proportion of Delta and Omicron variants was relatively equal. We used the spike gene target failure (SGTF) to classify probable Delta and Omicron infections. We fitted an exponential curve to the estimated infections to determine the doubling times for each variant. We compared the test positivity rates for each variant by vaccination status, number of doses, and vaccine manufacturer. Generalized linear models were used to assess factors associated with odds of infection with each variant among persons testing positive for SARS-CoV-2. Findings: For infections with high virus copies (Ct < 30) among vaccinated persons, we found higher odds that they were infected with Omicron compared to Delta, and that the odds increased with increased number of vaccine doses. Compared to unvaccinated persons, we found significant reduction in Delta positivity rates after two (43.4%-49.1%) and three vaccine doses (81.1%), while we only found a significant reduction in Omicron positivity rates after three doses (62.3%). Conclusion: The rapid rise in Omicron infections was likely driven by Omicron's escape from vaccine-induced immunity. Funding: This work was supported by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines , Hospitalization , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics
19.
BMJ Open ; 12(3): e053864, 2022 03 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1765122

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: The Intermountain Risk Score (IMRS), composed using published sex-specific weightings of parameters in the complete blood count (CBC) and basic metabolic profile (BMP), is a validated predictor of mortality. We hypothesised that IMRS calculated from prepandemic CBC and BMP predicts COVID-19 outcomes and that IMRS using laboratory results tested at COVID-19 diagnosis is also predictive. DESIGN: Prospective observational cohort study. SETTING: Primary, secondary, urgent and emergent care, and drive-through testing locations across Utah and in sections of adjacent US states. Viral RNA testing for SARS-CoV-2 was conducted from 3 March to 2 November 2020. PARTICIPANTS: Patients aged ≥18 years were evaluated if they had CBC and BMP measured in 2019 and tested positive for COVID-19 in 2020. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: The primary outcome was a composite of hospitalisation or mortality, with secondary outcomes being hospitalisation and mortality separately. RESULTS: Among 3883 patients, 8.2% were hospitalised and 1.6% died. Subjects with low, mild, moderate and high-risk IMRS had the composite endpoint in 3.5% (52/1502), 8.6% (108/1256), 15.5% (152/979) and 28.1% (41/146) of patients, respectively. Compared with low-risk, subjects in mild-risk, moderate-risk and high-risk groups had HR=2.33 (95% CI 1.67 to 3.24), HR=4.01 (95% CI 2.93 to 5.50) and HR=8.34 (95% CI 5.54 to 12.57), respectively. Subjects aged <60 years had HR=3.06 (95% CI 2.01 to 4.65) and HR=7.38 (95% CI 3.14 to 17.34) for moderate and high risks versus low risk, respectively; those ≥60 years had HR=1.95 (95% CI 0.99 to 3.86) and HR=3.40 (95% CI 1.63 to 7.07). In multivariable analyses, IMRS was independently predictive and was shown to capture substantial risk variation of comorbidities. CONCLUSIONS: IMRS, a simple risk score using very basic laboratory results, predicted COVID-19 hospitalisation and mortality. This included important abilities to identify risk in younger adults with few diagnosed comorbidities and to predict risk prior to SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Predictive Value of Tests , Prospective Studies , Risk Assessment/methods , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
20.
JMIRx Med ; 2(4): e31503, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1760106

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Clinical and virologic characteristics of COVID-19 infections in veterans in New England have not been described. The average US veteran is a male older than the general US population. SARS-CoV-2 infection is known to cause poorer outcomes among men and older adults, making the veteran population an especially vulnerable group for COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: This study aims to evaluate clinical and virologic factors impacting COVID-19 outcomes. METHODS: This retrospective chart review included 476 veterans in six New England states with confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection between April and September 2020. Whole genome sequencing was performed on SARS-CoV-2 RNA isolated from these veterans, and the correlation of genomic data to clinical outcomes was evaluated. Clinical and demographic variables were collected by manual chart review and were correlated to the end points of peak disease severity (based on oxygenation requirements), hospitalization, and mortality using multivariate regression analyses. RESULTS: Of 476 veterans, 274 had complete and accessible charts. Of the 274 veterans, 92.7% (n=254) were men and 83.2% (n=228) were White, and the mean age was 63 years. In the multivariate regression, significant predictors of hospitalization (C statistic 0.75) were age (odds ratio [OR] 1.05, 95% CI 1.03-1.08) and non-White race (OR 2.39, 95% CI 1.13-5.01). Peak severity (C statistic 0.70) also varied by age (OR 1.07, 95% CI 1.03-1.11) and O2 requirement on admission (OR 45.7, 95% CI 18.79-111). Mortality (C statistic 0.87) was predicted by age (OR 1.06, 95% CI 1.01-1.11), dementia (OR 3.44, 95% CI 1.07-11.1), and O2 requirement on admission (OR 6.74, 95% CI 1.74-26.1). Most (291/299, 97.3%) of our samples were dominated by the spike protein D614G substitution and were from SARS-CoV-2 B.1 lineage or one of 37 different B.1 sublineages, with none representing more than 8.7% (26/299) of the cases. CONCLUSIONS: In a cohort of veterans from the six New England states with a mean age of 63 years and a high comorbidity burden, age was the largest predictor of hospitalization, peak disease severity, and mortality. Non-White veterans were more likely to be hospitalized, and patients who required oxygen on admission were more likely to have severe disease and higher rates of mortality. Multiple SARS-CoV-2 lineages were distributed in patients in New England early in the COVID-19 era, mostly related to viruses from New York State with D614G mutation.

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