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2.
Front Immunol ; 13: 834988, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1817941

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 present with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Thromboembolic events constitute a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Severe COVID-19 has been associated with hyperinflammation and pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Platelets are important mediators and sensors of inflammation and are directly affected by cardiovascular stressors. In this report, we found that platelets from severely ill, hospitalized COVID-19 patients exhibited higher basal levels of activation measured by P-selectin surface expression and had poor functional reserve upon in vitro stimulation. To investigate this question in more detail, we developed an assay to assess the capacity of plasma from COVID-19 patients to activate platelets from healthy donors. Platelet activation was a common feature of plasma from COVID-19 patients and correlated with key measures of clinical outcome including kidney and liver injury, and APACHEIII scores. Further, we identified ferritin as a pivotal clinical marker associated with platelet hyperactivation. The COVID-19 plasma-mediated effect on control platelets was highest for patients that subsequently developed inpatient thrombotic events. Proteomic analysis of plasma from COVID-19 patients identified key mediators of inflammation and cardiovascular disease that positively correlated with in vitro platelet activation. Mechanistically, blocking the signaling of the FcγRIIa-Syk and C5a-C5aR pathways on platelets, using antibody-mediated neutralization, IgG depletion or the Syk inhibitor fostamatinib, reversed this hyperactivity driven by COVID-19 plasma and prevented platelet aggregation in endothelial microfluidic chamber conditions. These data identified these potentially actionable pathways as central for platelet activation and/or vascular complications and clinical outcomes in COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, we reveal a key role of platelet-mediated immunothrombosis in COVID-19 and identify distinct, clinically relevant, targetable signaling pathways that mediate this effect.


Subject(s)
Blood Platelets/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Complement C5a/metabolism , Receptor, Anaphylatoxin C5a/metabolism , Receptors, IgG/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Thromboembolism/immunology , Adult , Aminopyridines/pharmacology , Cells, Cultured , Female , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Morpholines/pharmacology , Platelet Activation , Pyrimidines/pharmacology , Severity of Illness Index , Signal Transduction , Syk Kinase/antagonists & inhibitors
3.
Cell ; 185(11): 1875-1887.e8, 2022 05 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1778028

ABSTRACT

We examined antibody and memory B cell responses longitudinally for ∼9-10 months after primary 2-dose SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccination and 3 months after a 3rd dose. Antibody decay stabilized between 6 and 9 months, and antibody quality continued to improve for at least 9 months after 2-dose vaccination. Spike- and RBD-specific memory B cells remained durable over time, and 40%-50% of RBD-specific memory B cells simultaneously bound the Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants. Omicron-binding memory B cells were efficiently reactivated by a 3rd dose of wild-type vaccine and correlated with the corresponding increase in neutralizing antibody titers. In contrast, pre-3rd dose antibody titers inversely correlated with the fold-change of antibody boosting, suggesting that high levels of circulating antibodies may limit the added protection afforded by repeat short interval boosting. These data provide insight into the quantity and quality of mRNA-vaccine-induced immunity over time through 3 or more antigen exposures.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , RNA, Messenger , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
4.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-481163

ABSTRACT

Despite a clear role in protective immunity, the durability and quality of antibody and memory B cell responses induced by mRNA vaccination, particularly by a 3rd dose of vaccine, remains unclear. Here, we examined antibody and memory B cell responses in a cohort of individuals sampled longitudinally for [~]9-10 months after the primary 2-dose mRNA vaccine series, as well as for [~]3 months after a 3rd mRNA vaccine dose. Notably, antibody decay slowed significantly between 6- and 9-months post-primary vaccination, essentially stabilizing at the time of the 3rd dose. Antibody quality also continued to improve for at least 9 months after primary 2-dose vaccination. Spike- and RBD-specific memory B cells were stable through 9 months post-vaccination with no evidence of decline over time, and [~]40-50% of RBD-specific memory B cells were capable of simultaneously recognizing the Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Omicron variants. Omicron-binding memory B cells induced by the first 2 doses of mRNA vaccine were boosted significantly by a 3rd dose and the magnitude of this boosting was similar to memory B cells specific for other variants. Pre-3rd dose memory B cell frequencies correlated with the increase in neutralizing antibody titers after the 3rd dose. In contrast, pre-3rd dose antibody titers inversely correlated with the fold-change of antibody boosting, suggesting that high levels of circulating antibodies may limit reactivation of immunological memory and constrain further antibody boosting by mRNA vaccines. These data provide a deeper understanding of how the quantity and quality of antibody and memory B cell responses change over time and number of antigen exposures. These data also provide insight into potential immune dynamics following recall responses to additional vaccine doses or post-vaccination infections. Graphical Summary O_FIG O_LINKSMALLFIG WIDTH=200 HEIGHT=123 SRC="FIGDIR/small/481163v1_ufig1.gif" ALT="Figure 1"> View larger version (20K): org.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@123d2d9org.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@e7db82org.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@1fc73deorg.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@11b21f9_HPS_FORMAT_FIGEXP M_FIG C_FIG

6.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 7222, 2021 12 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1565718

ABSTRACT

Multi-system Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a major complication of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection in pediatric patients. Weeks after an often mild or asymptomatic initial infection with SARS-CoV-2 children may present with a severe shock-like picture and marked inflammation. Children with MIS-C present with varying degrees of cardiovascular and hyperinflammatory symptoms. Here we perform a comprehensive analysis of the plasma proteome of more than 1400 proteins in children with SARS-CoV-2. We hypothesize that the proteome would reflect heterogeneity in hyperinflammation and vascular injury, and further identify pathogenic mediators of disease. We show that protein signatures demonstrate overlap between MIS-C, and the inflammatory syndromes macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). We demonstrate that PLA2G2A is an important marker of MIS-C that associates with TMA. We find that IFNγ responses are dysregulated in MIS-C patients, and that IFNγ levels delineate clinical heterogeneity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Proteome , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/pathology , Biomarkers , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/pathology , Case-Control Studies , Chemokine CXCL9 , Child , Group II Phospholipases A2 , Humans , Inflammation , Interleukin-10 , Proteomics , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/metabolism , Vascular Diseases
7.
Science ; 374(6572): abm0829, 2021 Dec 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1467659

ABSTRACT

The durability of immune memory after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) messenger RNA (mRNA) vaccination remains unclear. In this study, we longitudinally profiled vaccine responses in SARS-CoV-2­naïve and ­recovered individuals for 6 months after vaccination. Antibodies declined from peak levels but remained detectable in most subjects at 6 months. By contrast, mRNA vaccines generated functional memory B cells that increased from 3 to 6 months postvaccination, with the majority of these cells cross-binding the Alpha, Beta, and Delta variants. mRNA vaccination further induced antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells, and early CD4+ T cell responses correlated with long-term humoral immunity. Recall responses to vaccination in individuals with preexisting immunity primarily increased antibody levels without substantially altering antibody decay rates. Together, these findings demonstrate robust cellular immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 and its variants for at least 6 months after mRNA vaccination.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Immunologic Memory , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , /immunology , Humans
8.
Immunity ; 54(9): 2133-2142.e3, 2021 09 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1433401

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines have shown remarkable clinical efficacy, but questions remain about the nature and kinetics of T cell priming. We performed longitudinal antigen-specific T cell analyses on healthy SARS-CoV-2-naive and recovered individuals prior to and following mRNA prime and boost vaccination. Vaccination induced rapid antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in naive subjects after the first dose, whereas CD8+ T cell responses developed gradually and were variable in magnitude. Vaccine-induced Th1 and Tfh cell responses following the first dose correlated with post-boost CD8+ T cells and neutralizing antibodies, respectively. Integrated analysis revealed coordinated immune responses with distinct trajectories in SARS-CoV-2-naive and recovered individuals. Last, whereas booster vaccination improved T cell responses in SARS-CoV-2-naive subjects, the second dose had little effect in SARS-CoV-2-recovered individuals. These findings highlight the role of rapidly primed CD4+ T cells in coordinating responses to the second vaccine dose in SARS-CoV-2-naive individuals.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Th1 Cells/immunology , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Antigens, CD/metabolism , Antigens, Differentiation, T-Lymphocyte/metabolism , Female , Humans , Immunity, Cellular , Immunity, Humoral , Immunization, Secondary , Immunologic Memory , Lectins, C-Type/metabolism , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Peptides/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Young Adult
9.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-457229

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines have shown remarkable efficacy, especially in preventing severe illness and hospitalization. However, the emergence of several variants of concern and reports of declining antibody levels have raised uncertainty about the durability of immune memory following vaccination. In this study, we longitudinally profiled both antibody and cellular immune responses in SARS-CoV-2 naive and recovered individuals from pre-vaccine baseline to 6 months post-mRNA vaccination. Antibody and neutralizing titers decayed from peak levels but remained detectable in all subjects at 6 months post-vaccination. Functional memory B cell responses, including those specific for the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), and Delta (B.1.617.2) variants, were also efficiently generated by mRNA vaccination and continued to increase in frequency between 3 and 6 months post-vaccination. Notably, most memory B cells induced by mRNA vaccines were capable of cross-binding variants of concern, and B cell receptor sequencing revealed significantly more hypermutation in these RBD variant-binding clones compared to clones that exclusively bound wild-type RBD. Moreover, the percent of variant cross-binding memory B cells was higher in vaccinees than individuals who recovered from mild COVID-19. mRNA vaccination also generated antigen-specific CD8+ T cells and durable memory CD4+ T cells in most individuals, with early CD4+ T cell responses correlating with humoral immunity at later timepoints. These findings demonstrate robust, multi-component humoral and cellular immune memory to SARS-CoV-2 and current variants of concern for at least 6 months after mRNA vaccination. Finally, we observed that boosting of pre-existing immunity with mRNA vaccination in SARS-CoV-2 recovered individuals primarily increased antibody responses in the short-term without significantly altering antibody decay rates or long-term B and T cell memory. Together, this study provides insights into the generation and evolution of vaccine-induced immunity to SARS-CoV-2, including variants of concern, and has implications for future booster strategies. GRAPHICAL ABSTRACT O_FIG O_LINKSMALLFIG WIDTH=146 HEIGHT=200 SRC="FIGDIR/small/457229v1_ufig1.gif" ALT="Figure 1"> View larger version (32K): org.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@16c64b1org.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@146ca3aorg.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@86b7edorg.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@956879_HPS_FORMAT_FIGEXP M_FIG C_FIG

10.
mBio ; 12(4): e0177721, 2021 08 31.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1360545

ABSTRACT

Viral infection of the respiratory tract can be associated with propagating effects on the airway microbiome, and microbiome dysbiosis may influence viral disease. Here, we investigated the respiratory tract microbiome in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and its relationship to disease severity, systemic immunologic features, and outcomes. We examined 507 oropharyngeal, nasopharyngeal, and endotracheal samples from 83 hospitalized COVID-19 patients as well as non-COVID patients and healthy controls. Bacterial communities were interrogated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the commensal DNA viruses Anelloviridae and Redondoviridae were quantified by qPCR. We found that COVID-19 patients had upper respiratory microbiome dysbiosis and greater change over time than critically ill patients without COVID-19. Oropharyngeal microbiome diversity at the first time point correlated inversely with disease severity during hospitalization. Microbiome composition was also associated with systemic immune parameters in blood, as measured by lymphocyte/neutrophil ratios and immune profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Intubated patients showed patient-specific lung microbiome communities that were frequently highly dynamic, with prominence of Staphylococcus. Anelloviridae and Redondoviridae showed more frequent colonization and higher titers in severe disease. Machine learning analysis demonstrated that integrated features of the microbiome at early sampling points had high power to discriminate ultimate level of COVID-19 severity. Thus, the respiratory tract microbiome and commensal viruses are disturbed in COVID-19 and correlate with systemic immune parameters, and early microbiome features discriminate disease severity. Future studies should address clinical consequences of airway dysbiosis in COVID-19, its possible use as biomarkers, and the role of bacterial and viral taxa identified here in COVID-19 pathogenesis. IMPORTANCE COVID-19, caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection of the respiratory tract, results in highly variable outcomes ranging from minimal illness to death, but the reasons for this are not well understood. We investigated the respiratory tract bacterial microbiome and small commensal DNA viruses in hospitalized COVID-19 patients and found that each was markedly abnormal compared to that in healthy people and differed from that in critically ill patients without COVID-19. Early airway samples tracked with the level of COVID-19 illness reached during hospitalization, and the airway microbiome also correlated with immune parameters in blood. These findings raise questions about the mechanisms linking SARS-CoV-2 infection and other microbial inhabitants of the airway, including whether the microbiome might regulate severity of COVID-19 disease and/or whether early microbiome features might serve as biomarkers to discriminate disease severity.


Subject(s)
Bacteria/classification , Dysbiosis/microbiology , Lung/microbiology , Nasopharynx/microbiology , Oropharynx/microbiology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anelloviridae/classification , Anelloviridae/genetics , Anelloviridae/isolation & purification , Bacteria/genetics , Bacteria/isolation & purification , COVID-19/pathology , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Male , Microbiota , Middle Aged , RNA, Ribosomal, 16S/genetics , Severity of Illness Index
11.
Sci Immunol ; 6(58)2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1349998

ABSTRACT

Novel mRNA vaccines for SARS-CoV-2 have been authorized for emergency use. Despite their efficacy in clinical trials, data on mRNA vaccine-induced immune responses are mostly limited to serological analyses. Here, we interrogated antibody and antigen-specific memory B cells over time in 33 SARS-CoV-2 naïve and 11 SARS-CoV-2 recovered subjects. SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals required both vaccine doses for optimal increases in antibodies, particularly for neutralizing titers against the B.1.351 variant. Memory B cells specific for full-length spike protein and the spike receptor binding domain (RBD) were also efficiently primed by mRNA vaccination and detectable in all SARS-CoV-2 naive subjects after the second vaccine dose, though the memory B cell response declined slightly with age. In SARS-CoV-2 recovered individuals, antibody and memory B cell responses were significantly boosted after the first vaccine dose; however, there was no increase in circulating antibodies, neutralizing titers, or antigen-specific memory B cells after the second dose. This robust boosting after the first vaccine dose strongly correlated with levels of pre-existing memory B cells in recovered individuals, identifying a key role for memory B cells in mounting recall responses to SARS-CoV-2 antigens. Together, our data demonstrated robust serological and cellular priming by mRNA vaccines and revealed distinct responses based on prior SARS-CoV-2 exposure, whereby COVID-19 recovered subjects may only require a single vaccine dose to achieve peak antibody and memory B cell responses. These findings also highlight the utility of defining cellular responses in addition to serologies and may inform SARS-CoV-2 vaccine distribution in a resource-limited setting.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic , Adult , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Messenger , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Young Adult
12.
World Neurosurg ; 154: e61-e71, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1294294

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a surge in the use of telehealth visits across the country to minimize in-person visits and to limit the spread of COVID-19. To date, no standards or outlines for telehealth spine examinations have been detailed and many surgeons simply defer the physical examination when performing telehealth visits. Nevertheless, just as physical examination of the spine is an integral part of live clinical encounters, appropriately modified physical examinations should also be part of virtual visits. METHODS: In this study we provide our methodology for guiding providers and patients in efficiently performing telehealth spine examinations. RESULTS: The study details steps for efficiently performing a physical examination in the telehealth setting. Our written suggestions are supplemented with photographs and video recordings to help streamline the virtual examination. CONCLUSIONS: An effective and efficient spine physical examination can be performed during telehealth visits. Future directions include verifying the findings from our virtual physical examination with in-person examinations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Physical Examination/methods , Spine , Telemedicine/trends , Hand , Humans , Male , Movement , Sensation , Spinal Diseases/diagnosis , Surgeons
13.
Nat Med ; 27(7): 1280-1289, 2021 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1238011

ABSTRACT

Patients with cancer have high mortality from coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and the immune parameters that dictate clinical outcomes remain unknown. In a cohort of 100 patients with cancer who were hospitalized for COVID-19, patients with hematologic cancer had higher mortality relative to patients with solid cancer. In two additional cohorts, flow cytometric and serologic analyses demonstrated that patients with solid cancer and patients without cancer had a similar immune phenotype during acute COVID-19, whereas patients with hematologic cancer had impairment of B cells and severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific antibody responses. Despite the impaired humoral immunity and high mortality in patients with hematologic cancer who also have COVID-19, those with a greater number of CD8 T cells had improved survival, including those treated with anti-CD20 therapy. Furthermore, 77% of patients with hematologic cancer had detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell responses. Thus, CD8 T cells might influence recovery from COVID-19 when humoral immunity is deficient. These observations suggest that CD8 T cell responses to vaccination might provide protection in patients with hematologic cancer even in the setting of limited humoral responses.


Subject(s)
CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Neoplasms/immunology , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , B-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Cohort Studies , Female , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Humans , Immunity, Cellular/immunology , Immunity, Humoral/immunology , Immunophenotyping , Logistic Models , Male , Middle Aged , Multivariate Analysis , Neoplasms/complications , Proportional Hazards Models , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate
14.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-442279

ABSTRACT

Patients with COVID-19 present with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Thromboembolic events constitute a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. Severe COVID-19 has been associated with hyperinflammation and pre-existing cardiovascular disease. Platelets are important mediators and sensors of inflammation and are directly affected by cardiovascular stressors. In this report, we found that platelets from severely ill, hospitalized COVID-19 patients exhibit higher basal levels of activation measured by P-selectin surface expression, and have a poor functional reserve upon in vitro stimulation. Correlating clinical features to the ability of plasma from COVID-19 patients to stimulate control platelets identified ferritin as a pivotal clinical marker associated with platelet hyperactivation. The COVID-19 plasma-mediated effect on control platelets was highest for patients that subsequently developed inpatient thrombotic events. Proteomic analysis of plasma from COVID-19 patients identified key mediators of inflammation and cardiovascular disease that positively correlated with in vitro platelet activation. Mechanistically, blocking the signaling of the Fc{gamma}RIIa-Syk and C5a-C5aR pathways on platelets, using antibody-mediated neutralization, IgG depletion or the Syk inhibitor fostamatinib, reversed this hyperactivity driven by COVID-19 plasma and prevented platelet aggregation in endothelial microfluidic chamber conditions, thus identifying these potentially actionable pathways as central for platelet activation and/or vascular complications in COVID-19 patients. In conclusion, we reveal a key role of platelet-mediated immunothrombosis in COVID-19 and identify distinct, clinically relevant, targetable signaling pathways that mediate this effect. These studies have implications for the role of platelet hyperactivation in complications associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection. Cover illustration O_FIG_DISPLAY_L [Figure 1] M_FIG_DISPLAY C_FIG_DISPLAY One-sentence summaryThe Fc{gamma}RIIA and C5a-C5aR pathways mediate platelet hyperactivation in COVID-19

15.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-440862

ABSTRACT

The SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccines have shown remarkable clinical efficacy, but questions remain about the nature and kinetics of T cell priming. We performed longitudinal antigen-specific T cell analyses in healthy individuals following mRNA vaccination. Vaccination induced rapid near-maximal antigen-specific CD4+ T cell responses in all subjects after the first vaccine dose. CD8+ T cell responses developed gradually after the first and second dose and were variable. Vaccine-induced T cells had central memory characteristics and included both Tfh and Th1 subsets, similar to natural infection. Th1 and Tfh responses following the first dose predicted post-boost CD8+ T cell and neutralizing antibody levels, respectively. Integrated analysis of 26 antigen-specific T cell and humoral responses revealed coordinated features of the immune response to vaccination. Lastly, whereas booster vaccination improved CD4+ and CD8+ T cell responses in SARS-CoV-2 naive subjects, the second vaccine dose had little effect on T cell responses in SARS-CoV-2 recovered individuals. Thus, longitudinal analysis revealed robust T cell responses to mRNA vaccination and highlighted early induction of antigen-specific CD4+ T cells. Graphical Abstract O_FIG O_LINKSMALLFIG WIDTH=192 HEIGHT=200 SRC="FIGDIR/small/440862v1_ufig1.gif" ALT="Figure 1"> View larger version (52K): org.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@db812dorg.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@fdc549org.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@a34663org.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@1621e52_HPS_FORMAT_FIGEXP M_FIG C_FIG

16.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21255439

ABSTRACT

Multi-system Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) is a major complication of the Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) pandemic in pediatric patients. Weeks after an often mild or asymptomatic initial infection with SARS-CoV-2 children may present with a severe shock-like picture and marked inflammation. Children with MIS-C present with varying degrees of cardiovascular and hyperinflammatory symptoms. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the plasma proteome of more than 1400 proteins in children with SARS-CoV-2. We hypothesized that the proteome would reflect heterogeneity in hyperinflammation and vascular injury, and further identify pathogenic mediators of disease. Protein signatures demonstrated overlap between MIS-C, and the inflammatory syndromes macrophage activation syndrome (MAS) and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA). We demonstrate that PLA2G2A is a key marker of MIS-C that associates with TMA. We found that IFN{gamma} responses are dysregulated in MIS-C patients, and that IFN{gamma} levels delineate clinical heterogeneity.

17.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21254514

ABSTRACT

RationaleViral infection of the respiratory tract can be associated with propagating effects on the airway microbiome, and microbiome dysbiosis may influence viral disease. ObjectiveTo define the respiratory tract microbiome in COVID-19 and relationship disease severity, systemic immunologic features, and outcomes. Methods and MeasurementsWe examined 507 oropharyngeal, nasopharyngeal and endotracheal samples from 83 hospitalized COVID-19 patients, along with non-COVID patients and healthy controls. Bacterial communities were interrogated using 16S rRNA gene sequencing, commensal DNA viruses Anelloviridae and Redondoviridae were quantified by qPCR, and immune features were characterized by lymphocyte/neutrophil (L/N) ratios and deep immune profiling of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC). Main ResultsCOVID-19 patients had upper respiratory microbiome dysbiosis, and greater change over time than critically ill patients without COVID-19. Diversity at the first time point correlated inversely with disease severity during hospitalization, and microbiome composition was associated with L/N ratios and PBMC profiles in blood. Intubated patients showed patient-specific and dynamic lung microbiome communities, with prominence of Staphylococcus. Anelloviridae and Redondoviridae showed more frequent colonization and higher titers in severe disease. Machine learning analysis demonstrated that integrated features of the microbiome at early sampling points had high power to discriminate ultimate level of COVID-19 severity. ConclusionsThe respiratory tract microbiome and commensal virome are disturbed in COVID-19, correlate with systemic immune parameters, and early microbiome features discriminate disease severity. Future studies should address clinical consequences of airway dysbiosis in COVID-19, possible use as biomarkers, and role of bacterial and viral taxa identified here in COVID-19 pathogenesis.

18.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppmedrxiv-21252872

ABSTRACT

Novel mRNA vaccines for SARS-CoV2 have been authorized for emergency use and are currently being administered to millions of individuals worldwide. Despite their efficacy in clinical trials, there is limited data on vaccine-induced immune responses in individuals with a prior SARS-CoV2 infection compared to SARS-CoV2 naive subjects. Moreover, how mRNA vaccines impact the development of antibodies as well as memory B cells in COVID-19 experienced versus COVID-19 naive subjects remains poorly understood. In this study, we evaluated antibody responses and antigen-specific memory B cell responses over time in 33 SARS-CoV2 naive and 11 SARS-CoV2 recovered subjects. mRNA vaccination induced significant antibody and memory B cell responses against full-length SARS-CoV2 spike protein and the spike receptor binding domain (RBD). SARS-CoV2 naive individuals benefitted from both doses of mRNA vaccine with additional increases in antibodies and memory B cells following booster immunization. In contrast, SARS-CoV2 recovered individuals had a significant immune response after the first dose with no increase in circulating antibodies or antigen-specific memory B cells after the second dose. Moreover, the magnitude of the memory B cell response induced by vaccination was lower in older individuals, revealing an age-dependence to mRNA vaccine-induced B cell memory. Side effects also tended to associate with post-boost antibody levels, but not with post-boost memory B cells, suggesting that side effect severity may be a surrogate of short-term antibody responses. The frequency of pre-vaccine antigen-specific memory B cells in SARS-CoV2 recovered individuals strongly correlated with post-vaccine antibody levels, supporting a key role for memory B cells in humoral recall responses to SARS-CoV2. This observation may have relevance for future booster vaccines and for responses to viral variants that partially escape pre-existing antibodies and require new humoral responses to be generated from memory B cells. Finally, post-boost antibody levels were not correlated with post-boost memory responses in SARS-CoV2 naive individuals, indicating that short-term antibody levels and memory B cells are complementary immunological endpoints that should be examined in tandem when evaluating vaccine response. Together, our data provide evidence of both serological response and immunological memory following mRNA vaccination that is distinct based on prior SARS-CoV2 exposure. These findings may inform vaccine distribution in a resource-limited setting. O_FIG O_LINKSMALLFIG WIDTH=200 HEIGHT=155 SRC="FIGDIR/small/21252872v1_ufig1.gif" ALT="Figure 1"> View larger version (44K): org.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@f9b82dorg.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@aa9f2aorg.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@1b79862org.highwire.dtl.DTLVardef@757b06_HPS_FORMAT_FIGEXP M_FIG C_FIG

19.
Sci Immunol ; 6(57)2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1115087

ABSTRACT

Pediatric COVID-19 following SARS-CoV-2 infection is associated with fewer hospitalizations and often milder disease than in adults. A subset of children, however, present with Multisystem Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) that can lead to vascular complications and shock, but rarely death. The immune features of MIS-C compared to pediatric COVID-19 or adult disease remain poorly understood. We analyzed peripheral blood immune responses in hospitalized SARS-CoV-2 infected pediatric patients (pediatric COVID-19) and patients with MIS-C. MIS-C patients had patterns of T cell-biased lymphopenia and T cell activation similar to severely ill adults, and all patients with MIS-C had SARS-CoV-2 spike-specific antibodies at admission. A distinct feature of MIS-C patients was robust activation of vascular patrolling CX3CR1+ CD8+ T cells that correlated with the use of vasoactive medication. Finally, whereas pediatric COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) had sustained immune activation, MIS-C patients displayed clinical improvement over time, concomitant with decreasing immune activation. Thus, non-MIS-C versus MIS-C SARS-CoV-2 associated illnesses are characterized by divergent immune signatures that are temporally distinct from one another and implicate CD8+ T cells in the clinical presentation and trajectory of MIS-C.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aging/immunology , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Flow Cytometry , Humans , Leukopenia/immunology , Male , Young Adult
20.
Science ; 369(6508)2020 09 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-981641

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is currently a global pandemic, but human immune responses to the virus remain poorly understood. We used high-dimensional cytometry to analyze 125 COVID-19 patients and compare them with recovered and healthy individuals. Integrated analysis of ~200 immune and ~50 clinical features revealed activation of T cell and B cell subsets in a proportion of patients. A subgroup of patients had T cell activation characteristic of acute viral infection and plasmablast responses reaching >30% of circulating B cells. However, another subgroup had lymphocyte activation comparable with that in uninfected individuals. Stable versus dynamic immunological signatures were identified and linked to trajectories of disease severity change. Our analyses identified three immunotypes associated with poor clinical trajectories versus improving health. These immunotypes may have implications for the design of therapeutics and vaccines for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
B-Lymphocytes/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Adaptive Immunity , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Antibodies, Viral/blood , B-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19 , Cytokines/blood , Female , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Lymphocyte Activation , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Plasma Cells/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severity of Illness Index , T-Lymphocyte Subsets/immunology , T-Lymphocytes, Helper-Inducer/immunology , Time Factors , Young Adult
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