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1.
2022 International Joint Conference on Neural Networks, IJCNN 2022 ; JOUR, 2022-July.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2097610

ABSTRACT

Accurate and rapid diagnosis of COVID-19 is crucial for curbing its fast spread across the globe, with constant mutations leading to newer variants. Recent studies have exhibited that chest CT scans manifest clear radiological findings for the COVID-19 infected patients. Convolutional neural networks (CNN) have been used considerably for COVID-19 diagnosis;however, most CNN architectures demand a huge amount of parameters, resulting in overfitting on limited training data and a slower inference. Further, residual and densely connected neural networks such as ResNet and DenseNet have been proven to strengthen feature extraction and feature propagation but fail to fully discover both local and global representations. Moreover, few linearly stacked networks fall short in capturing and preserving multiscaled features from various receptive fields. This paper proposes a new CNN architecture called global dense multiscale feature learning network (GDenseMNet) for COVID-19 detection from CT images that effectively incorporates global dense connections while capturing multiscaled features. The GDenseMNet model comprises multiscale local feature extraction (MLF) blocks that capture local features of various size receptive fields using multiple filters and residual skip connections. The global dense connections between these blocks further enable global feature learning capability. The proposed architecture is lightweight, end-to-end learnable, and validated using the SARS-CoV-2 CT-Scan dataset. Experimental results demonstrate that the GDenseMNet model achieves promising detection performance compared to state-of-the-art CNN approaches and hence, it can be utilized as an effective tool real-time COVID-19 diagnosis. © 2022 IEEE.

2.
Frontiers in Sustainable Food Systems ; JOUR, 6.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2089958

ABSTRACT

The microbiome innovation has resulted in an umbrella term, postbiotics, which refers to non-viable microbial cells, metabolic byproducts and their microbial components released after lysis. Postbiotics, modulate immune response, gene expression, inhibit pathogen binding, maintain intestinal barriers, help in controlling carcinogenesis and pathogen infections. Postbiotics have antimicrobial, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties with favorable physiological, immunological, neuro-hormonal, regulatory and metabolic reactions. Consumption of postbiotics relieves symptoms of various diseases and viral infections such as SARS-CoV-2. Postbiotics can act as alternatives for pre-probiotic specially in immunosuppressed patients, children and premature neonates. Postbiotics are used to preserve and enhance nutritional properties of food, elimination of biofilms and skin conditioning in cosmetics. Postbiotics have numerous advantages over live bacteria with no risk of bacterial translocation from the gut to blood, acquisition of antibiotic resistance genes. The process of extraction, standardization, transport, and storage of postbiotic is more natural. Bioengineering techniques such as fermentation technology, high pressure etc., may be used for the synthesis of different postbiotics. Safety assessment and quality assurance of postbiotic is important as they may induce stomach discomfort, sepsis and/or toxic shock. Postbiotics are still in their infancy compared to pre- and pro- biotics but future research in this field may contribute to improved physiological functions and host health. The current review comprehensively summarizes new frontiers of research in postbiotics. Copyright © 2022 Aggarwal, Sabharwal, Kaushik, Joshi, Aayushi and Suri.

3.
Annals of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology ; 129(5):S15-S15, 2022.
Article in English | CINAHL | ID: covidwho-2075882
4.
Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science ; 10(8):239-243, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2068385

ABSTRACT

The world is facing COVID-19 pandemic which has created havoc amongst the mankind. It has created huge burden on health care facilities. The COVID-19 disease is caused by a newly emerged mutant of corona virus that is SARS-CoV-2. The virus is highly contagious and infects through respiratory route. It invades the respiratory tract mainly lungs causing coronavirus pneumonia. Patients usually present with fever, non-productive cough, breathlessness, myalgia, fatigue. In severe cases, disease can rapidly progress to ARDS (Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome), septic shock, MODS (Multi-Organ Dysfunction Syndrome). Death may occur due to the complications. Furthermore, early diagnosis of severe cases and early interventions help in decreasing the burden on intensive healthcare facilities. HRCT scans are being used to assess the disease severity and CT score were calculated which was graded as mild, moderate and severe with score 0-8, 9-15 and 16-25 respectively. But this is highly expensive for general population of a developing country like India. Interleukins, D-dimer, ferritin, pro-calcitonin tests have also been used to assess the severity but again they pose a financial constraint for the population. So we needed a basic investigation which could let us assess the severity of disease and prognosis of the patient early for effective and early management of the patient. This might help provide better intensive care management for the patients at early stage and decrease the morbidity and mortality in COVID-19 patients. We have tried to unfold the CBC as prognostic marker for COVID-19 patients.

5.
Journal of Research in Medical and Dental Science ; 10(8):253-257, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-2067989

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 a global pandemic started in December 2019 and in these last year it has been linked to a range of bacterial, fungal, and viral infections. Mucormycosis sometimes known as black fungus is one of the rare but deadly angioinvaise fungal infection caused by group of fungi mucormycocetes which leads to upsurge of Mucormycosis in COVID-19 patients. Many states in India have declared mucormycosis as an epidemic due to its upsurge in numbers and higher fatality rate. Though mucorales can affect the any part of body but it has tissue tropism towards nasal sinuses, orbit, CNS, pulmonary, skin. Most common clinical presentation of fungi is infection of sinus with nasal blockage and discharge. Mucormycosis is a non-contagious fungal infection, more common in immune compromised patient. Acute inflammatory reactions in COVID-19, corticosteroids treatment and diabetes enfeeble the immunity and it makes the perfect storm for Mucormycosis. Diabetes that isn't well managed results in the acidosis a satisfactory environment for fungi to grow. An early diagnosis and management can decrease the fatality rate. Aim: The goal of this study is to provide a comprehensive overview of the literature concerning Mucormycosis aetiology, features, and management and how it can be prevented in COVID-19 (SARSCoV-2) patients. Conclusion: COVID-19, overuse of corticosteroid along with uncontrolled diabetes leads to an upsurge of mucormycosis. So an effort should be made to stringently monitor and keep the blood glucose level under control and judicious use of corticosteroid and antibiotics should be practiced in COVID-19 patients.

6.
J Neonatal Perinatal Med ; 2022 Aug 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2002475

ABSTRACT

We report the case of a 35-week gestation infant girl born by emergent cesarean section for fetal distress in a woman with recent coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Tests for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on the infant at 24 and 48 hours of life were negative. However, at 72 hours of life, the infant's respiratory status worsened, and a repeat SARS-CoV-2 PCR was positive. The infant developed leukopenia, thrombocytopenia, and progressive respiratory failure, and died on the ninth day of life. Pathologic examination of the placenta revealed findings consistent with COVID-19 placentitis, and SARS-CoV-2 RNA staining was positive, suggesting intrauterine transmission of the infection.

7.
IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE) ; 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1978353

ABSTRACT

This Research to Practice Full Paper presents the experiences and lessons learned from five programs that provide financial awards and a holistic student support structure to lowincome, academically talented students in Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics (STEM). This report synthesizes the experiences of a diverse set of institutions, both public and private, that vary in size and geographic location. We have experience supporting students from a range of disciplines with an emphasis on students studying Computer Science. The goals of this work are to (1) outline the decisions that must be considered when designing a financial award program;(2) describe the interventions we have implemented and underline the institutional contexts that have led to their success;(3) describe the unique challenges posed by the COVID pandemic;and (4) highlight key elements necessary for successful program implementation. We specifically discuss the challenges we have encountered when implementing existing best practices. We report observations and results, some of which buttress those reported in the literature. Our work is intended to serve as a guide for educators who wish to implement programs to support students from financially disadvantaged and/or historically marginalized groups. By sharing our experiences and pain points, we hope to make it easier for them to design and implement effective programs adapted to their institutional needs and contexts.

8.
Vaccine ; 40(36): 5299-5301, 2022 08 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1967210

ABSTRACT

X-linked agammaglobulinemia (XLA) is an inborn error of immunity characterized by insufficient production of immunoglobulins and lack of measurable antibody response to vaccines. The rise of novel infections limits the protective effect of immunoglobulin replacement in immunodeficient patients though. While XLA patients are not expected to mount an antibody response to COVID-19 vaccination, it has been demonstrated that XLA patients can mount a T-cell response to COVID-19 vaccines, similar to the influenza vaccine. We present three patients with XLA who received an mRNA COVID-19 vaccine. One patient demonstrated positive antibody response. Many XLA patients do not receive routine vaccinations due to ongoing immunoglobulin replacement therapy and lack of native antibody production, but in addition to T-cell response to vaccination, select XLA patients may mount a positive antibody response. Therefore, COVID-19 vaccination should be encouraged for all XLA patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Agammaglobulinemia , COVID-19/prevention & control , Genetic Diseases, X-Linked , Humans , Immunoglobulins , RNA, Messenger , Vaccination
9.
American Journal of Stem Cells ; 11(3):37-55, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1955743

ABSTRACT

Objective: Mesenchymal stem cells can serve as a therapeutic option for COVID-19. Their immunomodula-tory and anti-inflammatory properties can regulate the exaggerated inflammatory response and promote recovery of lung damage. Method: Phase-1, single-centre open-label, prospective clinical trial was conducted to evaluate the safety and efficacy of intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells derived from umbilical cord and placenta in moderate COVID-19. The study was done in 2 stages with total 20 patients. Herein, the results of stage 1 including first 10 patients receiving 100 million cells on day 1 and 4 with a follow up of 6 months have been discussed. Results: No adverse events were recorded immediately after the administration of MSCs or on follow up. There was no deterioration observed in clinical, laboratory and radiological parameters. All symptoms of the study group resolved within 10 days. Levels of inflammatory biomarkers such as NLR, CRP, IL6, ferritin and D-dimer improved in all patients after intervention along with improved oxygenation demonstrated by improvement in the SpO2/FiO2 ratio and PaO2/FiO2 ratio. None of the patients progressed to severe stage. 9 out of 10 patients were discharged within 9 days of their admission. Improvements were noted in chest x-ray and chest CT scan scores at day 7 in most patients. No post-covid fibrosis was observed on chest CT 28 days after intervention and Chest X ray after 6 months of the intervention. Conclusion: Administration of 100 million mesenchymal stem cells in combina-tion with standard treatment was found to be safe and resulted in prevention of the cytokine storm, halting of the disease progression and acceleration of recovery in moderate COVID-19. This clinical trial has been registered with the Clinical Trial Registry-India (CTRI) as CTRI/2020/08/027043. http://www.ctri.nic.in/Clinicaltrials/pmaindet2. php?trialid=43175.

10.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF EARLY CHILDHOOD SPECIAL EDUCATION ; 14(02):5070-5077, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1939399

ABSTRACT

Recently we have faced the era of most terrifying pandemic 'COVID- 19', which have changed our lifestyle and the way of our working. It has affected every sphere of our life. Education system was badly disrupted by the pandemic. But human has found out some ways with the help of technology by which life and its related activities can be carried out smoothly. The objective of the present study is to find out the perception of the secondary and senior secondary students regarding the level of comfort, confidence, motivation and satisfaction in learning with the help of technology enhanced learning environment. The study is important because it finds the issues to be resolved in technology driven teaching-learning so that technology can be used more efficiently to teach the millions of the students out of schools worldwide. The study is descriptive in nature. There are 45 students are selected for the data collection with the purposive sampling method, and a survey questionnaire is prepared for the data collection. The results show that there are 27.8% students are neutral to feel comfortable with online mode of learning, whereas 28.9% are disagreed that they feel themselves motivated to learn, 25.9% are neutral that they feel themselves confident, 34.8% are disagreed that they are satisfied by the technology enhanced learning environment.

11.
INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF KNOWLEDGE AND LEARNING ; 15(3):203-232, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1938469

ABSTRACT

Online teaching is no longer a choice but is an essential requirement for teachers due to the outbreak of global pandemic COVID-19. In India, lockdown conditions are still in force, and educational institutions are closed until further notice. Teachers are conducting online sessions from their homes, so it is important to identify the barriers encountered by teachers in online teaching. The purpose of this paper is to identify and prioritise the barriers faced by teachers in online teaching during COVID-19 pandemic in the HEIs of India. AHP approach is employed to prioritise the barriers encountered by teachers in online teaching during COVID-19 pandemic. The data was collected from 27 teachers working in various universities of Uttarakhand, India. These findings indicate that 'lack of institutional support' is the main barrier followed by home environment settings, technical issues, teachers' readiness, and students' readiness in online teaching during COVID-19 pandemic in India.

12.
27th International Conference on Parallel and Distributed Computing, Euro-Par 2021 ; 13098 LNCS:255-266, 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1919678

ABSTRACT

This work has started from the necessity of improving the accuracy of numerical simulations of COVID-19 transmission. Coughing is one of the most effective ways to transmit SARS-CoV-2, the strain of coronavirus that causes COVID-19. Cough is a spontaneous reflex that helps to protect the lungs and airways from unwanted irritants and pathogens and it involves droplet expulsion at speeds close to 50 miles/h. Unfortunately, it’s also one of the most efficient ways to spread diseases, especially respiratory viruses that need host cells in which to reproduce. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) are a powerful way to simulate droplets expelled by mouth and nose when people are coughing and/or sneezing. As with all numerical models, the models for coughing and sneezing introduce uncertainty through the selection of scales and parameters. Considering these uncertainties is essential for the acceptance of any numerical simulation. Numerical forecasting models often use Data Assimilation (DA) methods for uncertainty quantification in the medium to long-term analysis. DA is the approximation of the true state of some physical system at a given time by combining time-distributed observations with a dynamic model in an optimal way. DA incorporates observational data into a prediction model to improve numerically forecast results. In this paper, we develop a Variational Data Assimilation model to assimilate direct observation of the physical mechanisms of droplet formation at the exit of the mouth during coughing. Specifically, we use high-speed imaging, from prior research work, which directly examines the fluid fragmentation at the exit of the mouths of healthy subjects in a sneezing condition. We show the impact of the proposed approach in terms of accuracy with respect to CFD simulations. © 2022, Springer Nature Switzerland AG.

13.
Global Advances in Health and Medicine ; 11:73, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1916553

ABSTRACT

Methods: This is a six-week, waitlisted, Randomized Controlled Trial where participants are referred to study team by physicians at the BIDMC COVID clinic. Consenting participants are blindly randomized into either the intervention group or the waitlisted control. Intervention group participants learn the practices in the first week while waitlisted participants receive the intervention at the third week. Assessments evaluating changes in stress (Perceived Stress Scale), mood disturbance (Profile of Mood States), quality of life (SF-12), breathing discomfort (Multidimensional Dyspnea Profile) and physical symptoms (Somatic Symptoms Scale) were collected at 3 timepoints for both groups. Results: Currently, 57 participants are enrolled, of which 17 completed the study. Of the 17 completed participants, 88% routinely practiced Isha Kriya, 82% Simha Kriya & 94% Nadi Shuddhi. Average overall study satisfaction was reported as 7.6 on a scale on 1-10. Testimonials suggest that the intervention has been useful in managing symptoms. Data collection is ongoing. Background: Of those that are diagnosed with COVID-19, 10- 20% experience Post-COVID-19 Syndrome (PCS), where they continue to have symptoms such as fatigue, dyspnea, brain fog, stress, anxiety, and depression for months post-infection. Simha Kriya, Nadi Shuddhi, and Isha Kriya are yogic breathing and guided meditation practices that help maintain physical and mental wellbeing and reduce stress, anxiety, and fatigue.We hypothesized that these simple, safe, and scalable online practices may hold significant potential to improve the quality of life of PCS patients. Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first RCT to study the feasibility of a multicomponent, online delivered yogic practices for PCS. Results from this study will provide a better understanding of the impact of complementary treatments on PCS symptoms. The protocol for this study (2021P000552) was approved by BIDMC's IRB. This trial (NCT05139979) was registered with US NIH on clinicaltrails.gov. There were no conflicts of interest.

14.
Global Advances in Health and Medicine ; 11:72-73, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1916552

ABSTRACT

Methods: This prospective cohort study enrolled consenting participants registered for the Inner Engineering Completion Online (IECO) courses, which for the first time were delivered remotely. Participants learned a 21-minute breathing and meditation practice called Shambhavi Mahamudra Kriya. Each enrolled participant was asked to complete self-reported electronic surveys at three key time points: baseline, immediate post-IECO completion and six weeks after IECO completion. Effects of IECO practice were assessed using four well-validated neuropsychological scales: Perceived Stress Score (PSS), PERMA Profiler, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS). A Signed Rank test was used to analyze the survey data and P values of <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Of the 375 participants interested in participation, 164 participants were eligible. Sixty-eight participants completed surveys at all time points and were identified as compliant participants. The baseline median score for perceived stress score (PSS) in compliant participants was 13 (IQR 9, 18);immediate post-IECO median PSS score was 11.5 (IQR 8, 16) demonstrating a 1.5 unit decrease in PSS scores (p-value = 0.0023). Similarly, comparing PSS scores for immediate Post IECO [11.5 (IQR 8, 15.5)] to PSS scores at six weeks [8 (IQR 4.5, 12.5)] showed a statistically significant 3.5-unit decrease, indicating a reduction in stress upon routine practice of the intervention (p<0.0001). Background: Feelings of stress, anxiety and hopelessness have skyrocketed since the start of the Covid-19 pandemic. It is common knowledge that mind-body interventions (MBI) improve emotional balance an enhanced sense of productivity, and self-confidence. Therefore, we hypothesized that exposure to a digitally delivered MBI 'Inner Engineering Completion Online', would reduce stress and promote wellbeing. Conclusion: Incorporating the remotely delivered mind-body intervention Shambhavi Mahamudra Kriya into daily life via the IECO program over as few as six weeks produced a significant stress reduction, improvement in sleep quality & mindfulness.

15.
Journal of Cardiac Critical Care ; 6(1):40-42, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1882826

ABSTRACT

Dysglycemia has emerged as a very common challenge in critically ill patients, especially with regard to current coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic. Prediabetes, poorly controlled diabetes, pharmaceutical intervention in intensive care unit (ICU) with glucocorticoids, catecholamines and other medicines, and stress response all contribute to dysglycemia in critically ill patients. Early identification and management are the key to prevent further complications. Patient prognosis in terms of clinical outcome, length of ICU stay, and in-hospital morbidity/mortality are adversely affected by patient's dysglycemic status. Apart from hyperglycemia, the other three important pillars of dysglycemia are discussed in this article. Synopsis of early intervention have been captured from India-specific practice guidelines. Important landmark trials have also been captured in this article to provide a clarity on certain aspects of managing dysglycemia in ICUs. Hence, this review article is an attempt to bring forth the salient aspects in diagnosing and managing dysglycemia in critical care settings.

16.
Population Medicine ; 4(March), 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1876293

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION COVID-19 has placed excess stress on the antenatal health care system and added additional complexity to expecting mothers. This study aimed to study the attitude and precautionary practices of non-infected pregnant women during the COVID-19 pandemic in Nepal. METHODS A cross-sectional study was carried out interviewing all 195 pregnant women attending an antenatal care outpatient department in Nepal, between 15 March and 16 April 2021, using a pretested questionnaire. Precautionary practices were defined as the practice of social distancing, wearing masks, and sanitizing or washing hands, by the mothers during the antenatal period with a 5-point Likert scale for each item Precautionary practices were categorized into good (≥ median score) and poor(< median score). RESULTS The majority of the women who participated in this study were from aged 20–29 years (71.7%), were Brahmin (48.2%) and 84.6% Hindu. Since 46.2% of women assumed the close contact of mother to child as safe practice with specific precautions, only 17.9% were willing to isolate themselves if infected by COVID-19. Overall, 35.9% of the respondents were only willing to breastfeed their newborn, even with specific precaution if infected. Nearly half of the respondents (47.2%) had poor precautionary practice during the COVID-19 pandemic and the level of precautionary practices was found significantly associated with age and occupational status. CONCLUSIONS Most of the respondents were concerned about the threats of mother to child transmission but found to have poor precautionary practices towards COVID-19. Thus, adequate counselling regarding COVID related issues during an antenatal checkup is required to be provided by health workers to break their perceived stigma for better maternal and neonatal outcomes © 2022 Thapa T. et al. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial 4.0 International License. (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0)

17.
Journal of Clinical Immunology ; 42(SUPPL 1):S94-S94, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1849321
18.
Journal of Clinical Immunology ; 42(SUPPL 1):S28-S28, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1849320
19.
Journal of Clinical Immunology ; 42(SUPPL 1):S65-S66, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1848939
20.
Embase; 2022.
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-335759

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 emergency use authorizations and approvals for vaccines were achieved in record time. However, there remains a need to develop additional safe, effective, easy-to-produce, and inexpensive prevention to reduce the risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection. This need is due to difficulties in vaccine manufacturing and distribution, vaccine hesitancy, and, critically, the increased prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 variants with greater contagiousness or reduced sensitivity to immunity. Antibodies from eggs of hens (immunoglobulin Y;IgY) that were administered receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein were developed as nasal drops to capture the virus on the nasal mucosa. Although initially raised against the 2019 novel coronavirus index strain (2019-nCoV), these anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgY surprisingly had indistinguishable enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay binding against variants of concern that have emerged, including Alpha (B.1.1.7), Beta (B.1.351), Delta (B.1.617.2), and Omicron (B.1.1.529). This is distinct for sera from immunized or convalescent patients. Culture neutralization titers against available Alpha, Beta, and Delta were also indistinguishable from the index SARS-CoV-2 strain. Efforts to develop these IgY for clinical use demonstrated that the intranasal anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgY preparation showed no binding (cross-reactivity) to a variety of human tissues and had an excellent safety profile in rats following 28-day intranasal delivery of the formulated IgY. A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled phase 1 study evaluating single-ascending and multiple doses of anti-SARS-CoV-2 RBD IgY administered intranasally for 14 days in 48 healthy adults also demonstrated an excellent safety and tolerability profile, and no evidence of systemic absorption. As these antiviral IgY have broad selectivity against many variants of concern, are fast to produce, and are a low-cost product, their use as prophylaxis to reduce SARS-CoV-2 viral transmission warrants further evaluation.

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