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Int J Mol Sci ; 22(13)2021 Jul 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1295858


The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has claimed over 2.7 million lives globally. Obesity has been associated with increased severity and mortality of COVID-19. However, the molecular mechanisms by which obesity exacerbates COVID-19 pathologies are not well-defined. The levels of free fatty acids (FFAs) are elevated in obese subjects. This study was therefore designed to examine how excess levels of different FFAs may affect the progression of COVID-19. Biological molecules associated with palmitic acid (PA) and COVID-19 were retrieved from QIAGEN Knowledge Base, and Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tools were used to analyze these datasets and explore the potential pathways affected by different FFAs. Our study found that one of the top 10 canonical pathways affected by PA was the coronavirus pathogenesis pathway, mediated by key inflammatory mediators, including PTGS2; cytokines, including IL1ß and IL6; chemokines, including CCL2 and CCL5; transcription factors, including NFκB; translation regulators, including EEF1A1; and apoptotic mediators, including BAX. In contrast, n-3 fatty acids may attenuate PA's activation of the coronavirus pathogenesis pathway by inhibiting the activity of such mediators as IL1ß, CCL2, PTGS2, and BAX. Furthermore, PA may modulate the expression of ACE2, the main cell surface receptor for the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein.

COVID-19/metabolism , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/metabolism , Obesity/metabolism , Palmitic Acid/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/pathology , Chemokines/metabolism , Computational Biology/methods , Cytokines/metabolism , Databases, Factual , Fatty Acids, Nonesterified/blood , Humans , Inflammation Mediators/metabolism , Obesity/pathology , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification