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1.
International Journal of Public Health Science ; 12(2):752-763, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2261131

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic and its aftereffects have affected human lives psychologically, economically, and socially. The study examines the dynamics of mental health problems faced by young adults and the consequent effects on their daily lives during the pandemic period. Three surveys were conducted among colleges/universities going students in India during the time periods May-June 2020, October 2020-February 2021, and January-February 2022;using Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) 17+ self-reported extended version. Through 1,021, 743, and 932 responses in the three surveys respectively, the effect of the pandemic on the mental health (characterized by behavioral problems and social dysfunction) of respondents, categorized on basis of demographic variables and ‘COVID-19' status was studied. Females were found to be more ‘distressed' than during this period. There was no effect of age and family income. The 45% of the respondents in the Non-COVID group and 48% in the COVID-19 group had severe distress. With the passing of time, both the number of problem areas and the severity of problems faced by young adults increased thus affecting their day-to-day activities. The proportions of the respondents in borderline and abnormal categories were much higher both for difficulty and the impact scores of SDQ than the standard proportions. © 2023, Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama. All rights reserved.

2.
International Journal of Public Health Science ; 12(1):311-321, 2023.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-2203618

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 pandemic has affected the mental health of individuals, particularly young adults. Using the ‘strength and difficulty questionnaire 17+ extended version', we studied the severity of psychological problems and the resultant distress in young adults;the relationship between the ‘difficulty' and ‘impact' scores;and the effect of distress in terms of a number of day-to-day activities affected during a pandemic. Data was collected from 743 college/university students (December 2020-February 2021) in India. Descriptive, relative frequencies, and nonparametric tests are applied here. Females were facing more psychological behavioral problems as compared to males as the p-value is less than 0.001. Males with age<20 years were least affected by COVID-19. Day-to-day activities are affected by almost 45% of young adults because of distress. ‘difficulty' and ‘impact' severity bands were significantly different from the previous standard proportions. No significant association was there between ‘difficulty' and ‘impact' scores (p-value<0.001). 53% of those contracting COVID-19 had severe distress as against 45% of those who did not. 46% of the respondents were in the ‘abnormal' category and 59 out of 327 were facing 'a great deal' problems in more than two areas. © 2023, Intelektual Pustaka Media Utama. All rights reserved.

3.
Journal of Virology ; 96(3):16, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1755903

ABSTRACT

Susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARSCoV-2) and the outcome of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have been linked to underlying health conditions and the age of affected individuals. Here, we assessed the effect of age on SARS-CoV-2 infection using a ferret model. For this, young (6-monthold) and aged (18- to 39-month-old) ferrets were inoculated intranasally with various doses of SARS-CoV-2. By using infectious virus shedding in respiratory secretions and seroconversion, we estimated that the infectious dose of SARS-CoV-2 in aged animals is similar to 32 PFU per animal, while in young animals it was estimated to be similar to 100 PFU. We showed that viral replication in the upper respiratory tract and shedding in respiratory secretions is enhanced in aged ferrets compared to young animals. Similar to observations in humans, this was associated with higher transcription levels of two key viral entry factors, ACE2 and TMPRSS2, in the upper respiratory tract of aged ferrets. IMPORTANCE In humans, ACE2 and TMPRSS2 are expressed in various cells and tissues, and differential expression has been described in young and old people, with a higher level of expressing cells being detected in the nasal brushing of older people than young individuals. We described the same pattern occurring in ferrets, and we demonstrated that age affects susceptibility of ferrets to SARS-CoV-2. Aged animals were more likely to get infected when exposed to lower infectious dose of the virus than young animals, and the viral replication in the upper respiratory tract and shedding are enhanced in aged ferrets. Together, these results suggest that the higher infectivity and enhanced ability of SARS-CoV-2 to replicate in aged individuals is associated, at least in part, with transcription levels of ACE2 and TMPRSS2 at the sites of virus entry. The young and aged ferret model developed here may represent a great platform to assess age-related differences in SARS-CoV-2 infection dynamics and replication.

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