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J Crit Care ; 71: 154115, 2022 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2015608


PURPOSE: Death is common in intensive care units, and integrating palliative care enhances outcomes. Most research has been conducted in high-income countries. The aim is to understand what is known about the type and topics of research on the provision of palliative care within intensive care units in low- and middle-income countries MATERIALS AND METHODS: Scoping review with nine databases systematically searched for literature published in English on palliative care in intensive care units in low- and middle- income settings (01/01/1990 to 31/05/2021). Two reviewers independently checked search results and extracted textual data, which were analyzed and represented as themes. RESULTS: Thirty papers reported 19 empirical studies, two clinical case reports and six discussion papers. Papers originated from Asia and Africa, primarily using observational designs and qualitative approaches, with no trials or other robust evaluative or comparative studies. No studies directly sought data from patients or families. Five areas of research focus were identified: withholding and withdrawing treatment; professional knowledge and skills; patient and family views; culture and context; and costs of care. CONCLUSIONS: Palliative care in intensive care units in low-and middle-income countries is understudied. Research focused on the specific needs of intensive care in low- and middle-income countries is required to ensure optimal patient outcomes.

Hospice and Palliative Care Nursing , Terminal Care , Developing Countries , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Palliative Care
Psychiatry Res ; 307: 114299, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1531725


Digital technology has emerged as a promising approach for training and building capacity of community health workers in low-income and middle-income countries (LMICs). Little is known about the cost of developing digital training programs in LMICs, which hinders the adoption, implementation, and scaling up of the programs in routine primary care settings. This study assessed the costs of developing a digital program for training community health workers to deliver a psychological treatment for depression in a rural district of Madhya Pradesh, India. We developed survey instruments to document required resources in development, including involved personnel (their roles, responsibilities, time spent, and salaries or payments), information technologies (e.g., smartphones, software programs), and infrastructure-related costs (e.g., vehicle, office space, utilities). Costs were estimated from an accounting perspective. Over a 10-month developmental period, the total costs were 208,814 USD, with the largest portion on human resources (61%, with 14% on management and supervision), followed by information technologies (33%), and infrastructure-related costs (6%). These findings could inform policymakers in LMICs on costs of developing online-training programs, which will be especially useful during the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 , Community Health Workers , Depression , Humans , India , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
Asian J Psychiatr ; 63: 102750, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309133


The COVID-19 pandemic impacted ongoing clinical trials globally resulting in the suspension, cancellation or transition to entirely remote implementation of studies. In India, the first countrywide lockdown was imposed in phases starting from March 2020 to June 2020, followed by a continued restriction on in-person activities including study procedures, which halted the ESSENCE (Enabling translation of Science to Service to ENhance Depression CarE) trial activities such as recruitment, consenting, baseline assessment, digital training orientation, face to face training and end-line assessment evaluation. This situation made it imperative to amend procedures in order to mitigate the risk and address safety requirements for participants and the research team. This paper summarizes the need, development and implementation of the protocols focused on risk reduction and safety enhancement with an objective to resume and continue the research activities while ensuring the safety of study participants and research staff. These protocols are comprised of guidelines and recommendations based on existing literature tailored according to different components in each arm of the trial such as guidelines for supervisors, travellers, training/recruitment venue safety procedures, individual safety procedures; and procedures to implement the study activities. These protocols can be adapted by researchers in other settings to conduct research trials during pandemics such as COVID-19.

COVID-19 , Pandemics , Communicable Disease Control , Humans , India , Mental Health , Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic , Research Report , SARS-CoV-2