Your browser doesn't support javascript.
Show: 20 | 50 | 100
Results 1 - 11 de 11
Filter
1.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 955930, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2123424

ABSTRACT

Background: Recent studies on severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) reveal that Omicron variant BA.1 and sub-lineages have revived the concern over resistance to antiviral drugs and vaccine-induced immunity. The present study aims to analyze the clinical profile and genome characterization of the SARS-CoV-2 variant in eastern Uttar Pradesh (UP), North India. Methods: Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was conducted for 146 SARS-CoV-2 samples obtained from individuals who tested coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) positive between the period of 1 January 2022 and 24 February 2022, from three districts of eastern UP. The details regarding clinical and hospitalized status were captured through telephonic interviews after obtaining verbal informed consent. A maximum-likelihood phylogenetic tree was created for evolutionary analysis using MEGA7. Results: The mean age of study participants was 33.9 ± 13.1 years, with 73.5% accounting for male patients. Of the 98 cases contacted by telephone, 30 (30.6%) had a travel history (domestic/international), 16 (16.3%) reported having been infected with COVID-19 in past, 79 (80.6%) had symptoms, and seven had at least one comorbidity. Most of the sequences belonged to the Omicron variant, with BA.1 (6.2%), BA.1.1 (2.7%), BA.1.1.1 (0.7%), BA.1.1.7 (5.5%), BA.1.17.2 (0.7%), BA.1.18 (0.7%), BA.2 (30.8%), BA.2.10 (50.7%), BA.2.12 (0.7%), and B.1.617.2 (1.3%) lineages. BA.1 and BA.1.1 strains possess signature spike mutations S:A67V, S:T95I, S:R346K, S:S371L, S:G446S, S:G496S, S:T547K, S:N856K, and S:L981F, and BA.2 contains S:V213G, S:T376A, and S:D405N. Notably, ins214EPE (S1- N-Terminal domain) mutation was found in a significant number of Omicron BA.1 and sub-lineages. The overall Omicron BA.2 lineage was observed in 79.5% of women and 83.2% of men. Conclusion: The current study showed a predominance of the Omicron BA.2 variant outcompeting the BA.1 over a period in eastern UP. Most of the cases had a breakthrough infection following the recommended two doses of vaccine with four in five cases being symptomatic. There is a need to further explore the immune evasion properties of the Omicron variant.

2.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 888408, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2065554

ABSTRACT

Background: Omicron, a new variant of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), was first detected in November 2021. This was believed to be highly transmissible and was reported to evade immunity. As a result, an urgent need was felt to screen all positive samples so as to rapidly identify Omicron cases and isolate them to prevent the spread of infection. Genomic surveillance of SARS-CoV-2 was planned to correlate disease severity with the genomic profile. Methods: All the SARS-CoV-2 positive cases detected in the state of Rajasthan were sent to our Lab. Samples received from 24 November 2021 to 4 January 2022 were selected for Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS). Processing was done as per protocol on the Ion Torrent S5 System for 1,210 samples and bioinformatics analysis was done. Results: Among the 1,210 samples tested, 762 (62.9%) were Delta/Delta-like and other lineages, 291 (24%) were Omicron, and 157 (12.9%) were invalid or repeat samples. Within a month, the proportion of Delta and other variants was reversed, 6% Omicron became 81%, and Delta and other variants became 19%, initially all Omicron cases were seen in international travelers and their contacts but soon community transmission was seen. The majority of patients with Omicron were asymptomatic (56.7%) or had mild disease (33%), 9.2% had moderate symptoms, and two (0.7%) had severe disease requiring hospitalization, of which one (0.3%) died and the rest were (99.7%) recovered. History of vaccination was seen in 81.1%, of the previous infection in 43.2% of cases. Among the Omicron cases, BA.1 (62.8%) was the predominant lineage followed by BA.2 (23.7%) and B.1.529 (13.4%), rising trends were seen initially for BA.1 and later for BA.2 also. Although 8.9% of patients with Delta lineage during that period were hospitalized, 7.2% required oxygen, and 0.9% died. To conclude, the community spread of Omicron occurred in a short time and became the predominant circulating variant; BA.1 was the predominant lineage detected. Most of the cases with Omicron were asymptomatic or had mild disease, and the mortality rate was very low as compared to Delta and other lineages.

3.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect ; 2022 Jul 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1914641

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: During October 2020, Delta variant was detected for the first time in India and rampantly spread across the globe. It also led to second wave of pandemic in India which affected millions of people. However, there is limited information pertaining to the SARS-CoV-2 strain infecting the children in India. METHODS: Here, we assessed the SARS-CoV-2 lineages circulating in the pediatric population of India during the second wave of the pandemic. Clinical and demographic details linked with the nasopharyngeal/oropharyngeal swabs (NPS/OPS) collected from SARS-CoV-2 cases (n = 583) aged 0-18 year and tested positive by real-time RT-PCR were retrieved from March to June 2021. RESULTS: Symptoms were reported among 37.2% of patients and 14.8% reported to be hospitalized. The E gene CT value had significant statistical difference at the point of sample collection when compared to that observed in the sequencing laboratory. Out of these 512 sequences 372 were VOCs, 51 were VOIs. Most common lineages observed were Delta, followed by Kappa, Alpha and B.1.36, seen in 65.82%, 9.96%, 6.83% and 4.68%, respectively in the study population. CONCLUSION: Overall, it was observed that Delta strain was the leading cause of SARS-CoV-2 infection in Indian children during the second wave of the pandemic. We emphasize on the need of continuous genomic surveillance in SARS-CoV-2 infection even amongst children.

4.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 888195, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911066

ABSTRACT

Background: During the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, outbreaks of Zika were reported from Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, and Maharashtra, India in 2021. The Dengue and Chikungunya negative samples were retrospectively screened to determine the presence of the Zika virus from different geographical regions of India. Methods: During May to October 2021, the clinical samples of 1475 patients, across 13 states and a union territory of India were screened and re-tested for Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika by CDC Trioplex Real time RT-PCR. The Zika rRTPCR positive samples were further screened with anti-Zika IgM and Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. Next generation sequencing was used for further molecular characterization. Results: The positivity was observed for Zika (67), Dengue (121), and Chikungunya (10) amongst screened cases. The co-infections of Dengue/Chikungunya, Dengue/Zika, and Dengue/Chikungunya/Zika were also observed. All Zika cases were symptomatic with fever (84%) and rash (78%) as major presenting symptoms. Of them, four patients had respiratory distress, one presented with seizures, and one with suspected microcephaly at birth. The Asian Lineage of Zika and all four serotypes of Dengue were found in circulation. Conclusion: Our study indicates the spread of the Zika virus to several states of India and an urgent need to strengthen its surveillance.

7.
Viruses ; 14(3)2022 02 24.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1737033

ABSTRACT

Due to the failure of virus isolation of the Omicron variant in Vero CCL-81 from the clinical specimens of COVID-19 cases, an initial in vivo and subsequent in vitro approach was utilized for the isolation of the virus. A total of 74 oropharyngeal/nasopharyngeal specimens were collected from SARS-CoV-2 positive international travellers and a contact case at Delhi and Mumbai, India. All the specimens were sequenced using next-generation sequencing and simultaneously inoculated onto Vero CCL-81 cells for virus isolation. Subsequently, two omicron positive specimens were inoculated into Syrian hamsters for two passages. The initial passage of the positive hamster specimens was inoculated onto Vero CCL-81 cells. The clinical specimens, hamster specimens, and Vero CCL-81 passages were sequenced to assess the mutational changes in different host species. The replication of the Omicron variant in hamsters was confirmed with the presence of a high viral load in nasal turbinate and lung specimens of both passages. The successful isolation of the virus from hamster specimens with Vero CCL-81 was observed with cytopathic effect in infected cells and high viral load in the cell suspension. The genome analysis revealed the presence of L212C mutation, Tyrosine 69 deletion, and C25000T nucleotide change in spike gene of hamster passage sequences and an absence of V17I mutation in E gene in hamster passage sequences, unlike human clinical specimen and Vero CCL-81 passages. No change was observed in the furin cleavage site in any of the specimen sequences, suggesting intact pathogenicity of the virus isolate. Our data demonstrated successful isolation of the Omicron variant with the in vivo method first followed by in vitro method. The virus isolate could be used in the future to explore different aspects of the Omicron variant.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetinae , Genomics , Humans , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Vero Cells
8.
Viruses ; 13(9)2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1430972

ABSTRACT

From March to June 2021, India experienced a deadly second wave of COVID-19, with an increased number of post-vaccination breakthrough infections reported across the country. To understand the possible reason for these breakthroughs, we collected 677 clinical samples (throat swab/nasal swabs) of individuals from 17 states/Union Territories of the country who had received two doses (n = 592) and one dose (n = 85) of vaccines and tested positive for COVID-19. These cases were telephonically interviewed and clinical data were analyzed. A total of 511 SARS-CoV-2 genomes were recovered with genome coverage of higher than 98% from both groups. Analysis of both groups determined that 86.69% (n = 443) of them belonged to the Delta variant, along with Alpha, Kappa, Delta AY.1, and Delta AY.2. The Delta variant clustered into four distinct sub-lineages. Sub-lineage I had mutations in ORF1ab A1306S, P2046L, P2287S, V2930L, T3255I, T3446A, G5063S, P5401L, and A6319V, and in N G215C; Sub-lineage II had mutations in ORF1ab P309L, A3209V, V3718A, G5063S, P5401L, and ORF7a L116F; Sub-lineage III had mutations in ORF1ab A3209V, V3718A, T3750I, G5063S, and P5401L and in spike A222V; Sub-lineage IV had mutations in ORF1ab P309L, D2980N, and F3138S and spike K77T. This study indicates that majority of the breakthrough COVID-19 clinical cases were infected with the Delta variant, and only 9.8% cases required hospitalization, while fatality was observed in only 0.4% cases. This clearly suggests that the vaccination does provide reduction in hospital admission and mortality.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , Genome, Viral , Genomics , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , Comorbidity , Disease Outbreaks , Female , Geography, Medical , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Phylogeny , Public Health Surveillance , SARS-CoV-2/classification
9.
Viruses ; 13(5)2021 05 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1234829

ABSTRACT

The number of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) cases is increasing in India. This study looks upon the geographic distribution of the virus clades and variants circulating in different parts of India between January and August 2020. The NPS/OPS from representative positive cases from different states and union territories in India were collected every month through the VRDLs in the country and analyzed using next-generation sequencing. Epidemiological analysis of the 689 SARS-CoV-2 clinical samples revealed GH and GR to be the predominant clades circulating in different states in India. The northern part of India largely reported the 'GH' clade, whereas the southern part reported the 'GR', with a few exceptions. These sequences also revealed the presence of single independent mutations-E484Q and N440K-from Maharashtra (first observed in March 2020) and Southern Indian States (first observed in May 2020), respectively. Furthermore, this study indicates that the SARS-CoV-2 variant (VOC, VUI, variant of high consequence and double mutant) was not observed during the early phase of virus transmission (January-August). This increased number of variations observed within a short timeframe across the globe suggests virus evolution, which can be a step towards enhanced host adaptation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/epidemiology , Phylogeography/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Adult , COVID-19/genetics , Female , Genome, Viral/genetics , Genomics/methods , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing/methods , Humans , India/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Mutation/genetics , Phylogeny , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1386, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114712

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis that poses a great challenge to the public health system of affected countries. Safe and effective vaccines are needed to overcome this crisis. Here, we develop and assess the protective efficacy and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in rhesus macaques. Twenty macaques were divided into four groups of five animals each. One group was administered a placebo, while three groups were immunized with three different vaccine candidates of BBV152 at 0 and 14 days. All the macaques were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 fourteen days after the second dose. The protective response was observed with increasing SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and neutralizing antibody titers from 3rd-week post-immunization. Viral clearance was observed from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, nasal swab, throat swab and lung tissues at 7 days post-infection in the vaccinated groups. No evidence of pneumonia was observed by histopathological examination in vaccinated groups, unlike the placebo group which exhibited interstitial pneumonia and localization of viral antigen in the alveolar epithelium and macrophages by immunohistochemistry. This vaccine candidate BBV152 has completed Phase I/II (NCT04471519) clinical trials in India and is presently in phase III, data of this study substantiates the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the vaccine candidates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Immunohistochemistry , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Macaca mulatta , Male , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/metabolism
11.
Indian J Med Res ; 151(2 & 3): 226-235, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-113825

ABSTRACT

Background & objectives: Bats are considered to be the natural reservoir for many viruses, of which some are potential human pathogens. In India, an association of Pteropus medius bats with the Nipah virus was reported in the past. It is suspected that the recently emerged severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) also has its association with bats. To assess the presence of CoVs in bats, we performed identification and characterization of bat CoV (BtCoV) in P. medius and Rousettus species from representative States in India, collected during 2018 and 2019. Methods: Representative rectal swab (RS) and throat swab specimens of Pteropus and Rousettus spp. bats were screened for CoVs using a pan-CoV reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) targeting the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) gene. A single-step RT-PCR was performed on the RNA extracted from the bat specimens. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was performed on a few representative bat specimens that were tested positive. Phylogenetic analysis was carried out on the partial sequences of RdRp gene sequences retrieved from both the bat species and complete viral genomes recovered from Rousettus spp. Results: Bat samples from the seven States were screened, and the RS specimens of eight Rousettus spp. and 21 Pteropus spp. were found positive for CoV RdRp gene. Among these, by Sanger sequencing, partial RdRp sequences could be retrieved from three Rousettus and eight Pteropus bat specimens. Phylogenetic analysis of the partial RdRp region demonstrated distinct subclustering of the BtCoV sequences retrieved from these Rousettus and Pteropus spp. bats. NGS led to the recovery of four sequences covering approximately 94.3 per cent of the whole genome of the BtCoVs from Rousettus bats. Three BtCoV sequences had 93.69 per cent identity to CoV BtRt-BetaCoV/GX2018. The fourth BtCoV sequence was 96.8 per cent identical to BtCoV HKU9-1. Interpretation & conclusions: This study was a step towards understanding the CoV circulation in Indian bats. Detection of potentially pathogenic CoVs in Indian bats stresses the need for enhanced screening for novel viruses in them. One Health approach with collaborative activities by the animal health and human health sectors in these surveillance activities shall be of use to public health. This would help in the development of diagnostic assays for novel viruses with outbreak potential and be useful in disease interventions. Proactive surveillance remains crucial for identifying the emerging novel viruses with epidemic potential and measures for risk mitigation.


Subject(s)
Chiroptera/virology , Coronavirus/classification , Coronavirus/isolation & purification , Genome, Viral , Animals , High-Throughput Nucleotide Sequencing , India , Phylogeny , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
SELECTION OF CITATIONS
SEARCH DETAIL