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1.
Vox Sang ; 2022 Jan 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621981

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) was among the few frontline therapies used to treat COVID-19. After large randomized controlled trials (RCTs) relying on late use in hospitalized patients and/or low antibody titres failed to meet their predefined primary endpoint, the infectious disease community reduced usage of CCP in favour of monoclonal antibodies. Consequently, there are CCP stocks at most transfusion centres worldwide, although scattered usage continues. Further, better designed RCTs are also being launched. The urgent question here is: should we use CCP units collected months before given the largely changed viral variant landscape? We review here in vitro evidence that discourages usage of such CCP units against Delta and other variants of concern. CCP collections should be continued in order to update the armamentarium of therapeutics against vaccine breakthrough infections or in unvaccinated patients and is especially relevant in next-generation RCTs.

2.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 637, 2022 01 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1621276

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma is used to treat COVID-19. There are theoretical concerns about the impact of pro-coagulant factors in convalescent plasma on the coagulation cascade particularly among patients with severe COVID-19. The aim of this study was to evaluate the coagulation profile of COVID-19 convalescent plasma. Clotting times and coagulation factor assays were compared between fresh frozen plasma, COVID-19 convalescent plasma, and pathogen-reduced COVID-19 convalescent plasma. Measurements included prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time, thrombin time, fibrinogen, D-dimer, von Willebrand factor activity, von Willebrand factor antigen, coagulation factors II, V, VII-XII, protein S activity, protein C antigen, and alpha-2 plasmin inhibitor. Clotting times and coagulation factor assays were not different between COVID-19 convalescent plasma and fresh frozen plasma, except for protein C antigen. When compared to fresh frozen plasma and regular convalescent plasma, pathogen reduction treatment increased activated partial thromboplastin time and thrombin time, while reducing fibrinogen, coagulation factor II, V, VIII, IX, X, XI, XII, protein S activity, and alpha-2 plasmin inhibitor. The coagulation profiles of human COVID-19 convalescent plasma and standard fresh frozen plasma are not different. Pathogen reduced COVID-19 convalescent plasma is associated with reduction of coagulation factors and a slight prolongation of coagulation times, as anticipated. A key limitation of the study is that the COVID-19 disease course of the convalesced donors was not characterized.

5.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 97(1): 186-189, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1587022
6.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(9): e0123121, 2021 08 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1501537

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal studies assessing durability of the anti-severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (anti-SARS-CoV-2) humoral immune response have generated conflicting results. This has been proposed to be due to differences in patient populations, the lack of standardized methodologies, and the use of assays that measure distinct aspects of the humoral response. SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were serially measured in sera from a cohort of 44 well-characterized convalescent plasma donors over 120 days post-COVID-19 symptom onset, utilizing eight assays, which varied according to antigen source, the detected antibody isotype, and the activity measured (i.e., binding, blocking, or neutralizing). While the majority of assays demonstrated a gradual decline in antibody titers over the course of 120 days, the two electrochemiluminescence immunoassay Roche assays (Roche Diagnostics Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 [qualitative, nucleocapsid based] and Roche Diagnostics Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 S [semiquantitative, spike based]), which utilize dual-antigen binding for antibody detection, demonstrated stable and/or increasing antibody titers over the study period. This study is among the first to assess longitudinal, rather than cross-sectional, SARS-CoV-2 antibody profiles among convalescent COVID-19 patients, primarily using commercially available serologic assays with Food and Drug Administration emergency use authorization. We show that SARS-CoV-2 antibody detection is dependent on the serologic method used, which has implications for future assay utilization and clinical value.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19/therapy , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Kinetics , Sensitivity and Specificity
8.
J Clin Invest ; 130(9): 4791-4797, 2020 09 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1365265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDConvalescent plasma is the only antibody-based therapy currently available for patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). It has robust historical precedence and sound biological plausibility. Although promising, convalescent plasma has not yet been shown to be safe as a treatment for COVID-19.METHODSThus, we analyzed key safety metrics after transfusion of ABO-compatible human COVID-19 convalescent plasma in 5000 hospitalized adults with severe or life-threatening COVID-19, with 66% in the intensive care unit, as part of the US FDA expanded access program for COVID-19 convalescent plasma.RESULTSThe incidence of all serious adverse events (SAEs), including mortality rate (0.3%), in the first 4 hours after transfusion was <1%. Of the 36 reported SAEs, there were 25 reported incidences of related SAEs, including mortality (n = 4), transfusion-associated circulatory overload (n = 7), transfusion-related acute lung injury (n = 11), and severe allergic transfusion reactions (n = 3). However, only 2 of 36 SAEs were judged as definitely related to the convalescent plasma transfusion by the treating physician. The 7-day mortality rate was 14.9%.CONCLUSIONGiven the deadly nature of COVID-19 and the large population of critically ill patients included in these analyses, the mortality rate does not appear excessive. These early indicators suggest that transfusion of convalescent plasma is safe in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.TRIAL REGISTRATIONClinicalTrials.gov NCT04338360.FUNDINGMayo Clinic, Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority (75A50120C00096), National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (UL1TR002377), National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute (5R35HL139854 and R01 HL059842), National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (5T32DK07352), Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (PDF-532926-2019), National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease (R21 AI145356, R21 AI152318, and AI152078), Schwab Charitable Fund, United Health Group, National Basketball Association, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, and Octapharma USA Inc.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Compassionate Use Trials , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Safety , Transfusion Reaction/epidemiology , Transfusion Reaction/etiology , Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury/epidemiology , Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury/etiology , United States/epidemiology , United States Food and Drug Administration , Young Adult
9.
Viruses ; 13(8)2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1355048

ABSTRACT

COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) is currently under investigation for both treatment and post-exposure prophylaxis. The active component of CCP mediating improved outcome is commonly reported as specific antibodies, particularly neutralizing antibodies, with clinical efficacy characterized according to the level or antibody affinity. In this review, we highlight the potential role of additional factors in CCP that can be either beneficial (e.g., AT-III, alpha-1 AT, ACE2+ extracellular vesicles) or detrimental (e.g., anti-ADAMTS13, anti-MDA5 or anti-interferon autoantibodies, pro-coagulant extracellular vesicles). Variations in these factors in CCP may contribute to varied outcomes in patients with COVID-19 and undergoing CCP therapy. We advise careful, retrospective investigation of such co-factors in randomized clinical trials that use fresh frozen plasma in control arms. Nevertheless, it might be difficult to establish a causal link between these components and outcome, given that CCP is generally safe and neutralizing antibody effects may predominate.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/therapy , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Anti-Inflammatory Agents/blood , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Autoantibodies/blood , Blood Coagulation Factor Inhibitors/blood , Blood Coagulation Factors/analysis , Cross Reactions , Extracellular Vesicles , Humans , Immunization, Passive/adverse effects , Immunologic Factors/blood , Immunosuppressive Agents/blood
10.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 4864, 2021 08 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1354101

ABSTRACT

Successful therapeutics and vaccines for coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) have harnessed the immune response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Evidence that SARS-CoV-2 exists as locally evolving variants suggests that immunological differences may impact the effectiveness of antibody-based treatments such as convalescent plasma and vaccines. Considering that near-sourced convalescent plasma likely reflects the antigenic composition of local viral strains, we hypothesize that convalescent plasma has a higher efficacy, as defined by death within 30 days of transfusion, when the convalescent plasma donor and treated patient were in close geographic proximity. Results of a series of modeling techniques applied to approximately 28,000 patients from the Expanded Access to Convalescent Plasma program (ClinicalTrials.gov number: NCT04338360) support this hypothesis. This work has implications for the interpretation of clinical studies, the ability to develop effective COVID-19 treatments, and, potentially, for the effectiveness of COVID-19 vaccines as additional locally-evolving variants continue to emerge.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Plasma/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibody Specificity , Antigenic Variation , Blood Donors , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive/mortality , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Treatment Outcome , United States/epidemiology , Young Adult
12.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Pract ; 9(9): 3331-3338.e2, 2021 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1309265

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The complex relationship between clinical manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and individual immune responses is not fully elucidated. OBJECTIVE: To examine phenotypes of symptomatology and their relationship with positive anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody responses. METHODS: An observational study was performed of adults (≥18 years) from 5 US states. Participants completed an electronic survey and underwent testing to anti-SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein IgG antibody between May and July 2020. Latent class analysis was used to identify characteristic symptom clusters. RESULTS: Overall, 9507 adults (mean age, 39.6 ± 15.0 years) completed the survey; 6665 (70.1%) underwent antibody testing for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG. Positive SARS-CoV-2 antibodies were associated with self-reported positive SARS-CoV-2 nasal swab result (bivariable logistic regression; odds ratio [95% CI], 5.98 [4.83-7.41]), household with 6 or more members (1.27 [1.14-1.41]) and sick contact (3.65 [3.19-4.17]), and older age (50-69 years: 1.55 [1.37-1.76]; ≥70 years: 1.52 [1.16-1.99]), but inversely associated with female sex (0.61 [0.55-0.68]). Latent class analysis revealed 8 latent classes of symptoms. Latent classes 1 (all symptoms) and 4 (fever, cough, muscle ache, anosmia, dysgeusia, and headache) were associated with the highest proportion (62.0% and 57.4%) of positive antibodies, whereas classes 6 (fever, cough, muscle ache, headache) and 8 (anosmia, dysgeusia) had intermediate proportions (48.2% and 40.5%), and classes 3 (headache, diarrhea, stomach pain) and 7 (no symptoms) had the lowest proportion (7.8% and 8.5%) of positive antibodies. CONCLUSIONS: SARS-CoV-2 infections manifest with substantial diversity of symptoms, which are associated with variable anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibody responses. Prolonged fever, anosmia, and receiving supplemental oxygen therapy had strongest associations with positive SARS-CoV-2 IgG.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Immunoglobulin G , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2
13.
Am J Transplant ; 21(8): 2890-2894, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1297494

ABSTRACT

Current guidelines recommend deferring liver transplantation (LT) in patients with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection until clinical improvement occurs and two PCR tests collected at least 24 hours apart are negative. We report a case of an 18-year-old, previously healthy African-American woman diagnosed with COVID-19, who presents with acute liver failure (ALF) requiring urgent LT in the context of SARS-CoV-2 polymerase chain reaction (PCR) positivity. The patient was thought to have acute Wilsonian crisis on the basis of hemolytic anemia, alkaline phosphatase:bilirubin ratio <4, AST:ALT ratio >2.2, elevated serum copper, and low uric acid, although an unusual presentation of COVID-19 causing ALF could not be excluded. After meeting criteria for status 1a listing, the patient underwent successful LT, despite ongoing SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity. Remdesivir was given immediately posttransplant, and mycophenolate mofetil was withheld initially and the SARS-CoV-2 PCR test eventually became negative. Three months following transplantation, the patient has made a near-complete recovery. This case highlights that COVID-19 with SARS-CoV-2 PCR positivity may not be an absolute contraindication for transplantation in ALF. Criteria for patient selection and timing of LT amid the COVID-19 pandemic need to be validated in future studies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Liver Failure, Acute , Liver Transplantation , Adolescent , Female , Humans , Liver Failure, Acute/etiology , Liver Failure, Acute/surgery , Liver Transplantation/adverse effects , Pandemics , Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2
15.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 8: 684151, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1282395

ABSTRACT

Convalescent plasma has been used worldwide to treat patients hospitalized with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and prevent disease progression. Despite global usage, uncertainty remains regarding plasma efficacy, as randomized controlled trials (RCTs) have provided divergent evidence regarding the survival benefit of convalescent plasma. Here, we argue that during a global health emergency, the mosaic of evidence originating from multiple levels of the epistemic hierarchy should inform contemporary policy and healthcare decisions. Indeed, worldwide matched-control studies have generally found convalescent plasma to improve COVID-19 patient survival, and RCTs have demonstrated a survival benefit when transfused early in the disease course but limited or no benefit later in the disease course when patients required greater supportive therapies. RCTs have also revealed that convalescent plasma transfusion contributes to improved symptomatology and viral clearance. To further investigate the effect of convalescent plasma on patient mortality, we performed a meta-analytical approach to pool daily survival data from all controlled studies that reported Kaplan-Meier survival plots. Qualitative inspection of all available Kaplan-Meier survival data and an aggregate Kaplan-Meier survival plot revealed a directionally consistent pattern among studies arising from multiple levels of the epistemic hierarchy, whereby convalescent plasma transfusion was generally associated with greater patient survival. Given that convalescent plasma has a similar safety profile as standard plasma, convalescent plasma should be implemented within weeks of the onset of future infectious disease outbreaks.

16.
Elife ; 102021 06 04.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1278700

ABSTRACT

Background: The US Food and Drug Administration authorized COVID-19 convalescent plasma (CCP) therapy for hospitalized COVID-19 patients via the Expanded Access Program (EAP) and the Emergency Use Authorization (EUA), leading to use in about 500,000 patients during the first year of the pandemic for the USA. Methods: We tracked the number of CCP units dispensed to hospitals by blood banking organizations and correlated that usage with hospital admission and mortality data. Results: CCP usage per admission peaked in Fall 2020, with more than 40% of inpatients estimated to have received CCP between late September and early November 2020. However, after randomized controlled trials failed to show a reduction in mortality, CCP usage per admission declined steadily to a nadir of less than 10% in March 2021. We found a strong inverse correlation (r = -0.52, p=0.002) between CCP usage per hospital admission and deaths occurring 2 weeks after admission, and this finding was robust to examination of deaths taking place 1, 2, or 3 weeks after admission. Changes in the number of hospital admissions, SARS-CoV-2 variants, and age of patients could not explain these findings. The retreat from CCP usage might have resulted in as many as 29,000 excess deaths from mid-November 2020 to February 2021. Conclusions: A strong inverse correlation between CCP use and mortality per admission in the USA provides population-level evidence consistent with the notion that CCP reduces mortality in COVID-19 and suggests that the recent decline in usage could have resulted in excess deaths. Funding: There was no specific funding for this study. AC was supported in part by RO1 HL059842 and R01 AI1520789; MJJ was supported in part by 5R35HL139854. This project has been funded in whole or in part with Federal funds from the Department of Health and Human Services; Office of the Assistant Secretary for Preparedness and Response; Biomedical Advanced Research and Development Authority under Contract No. 75A50120C00096.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Age Factors , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunization, Passive/statistics & numerical data , Linear Models , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
17.
JAMA Oncol ; 2021 06 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1274650

ABSTRACT

Importance: COVID-19 is a life-threatening illness for many patients. Prior studies have established hematologic cancers as a risk factor associated with particularly poor outcomes from COVID-19. To our knowledge, no studies have established a beneficial role for anti-COVID-19 interventions in this at-risk population. Convalescent plasma therapy may benefit immunocompromised individuals with COVID-19, including those with hematologic cancers. Objective: To evaluate the association of convalescent plasma treatment with 30-day mortality in hospitalized adults with hematologic cancers and COVID-19 from a multi-institutional cohort. Design, Setting, and Participants: This retrospective cohort study using data from the COVID-19 and Cancer Consortium registry with propensity score matching evaluated patients with hematologic cancers who were hospitalized for COVID-19. Data were collected between March 17, 2020, and January 21, 2021. Exposures: Convalescent plasma treatment at any time during hospitalization. Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was 30-day all-cause mortality. Cox proportional hazards regression analysis with adjustment for potential confounders was performed. Hazard ratios (HRs) are reported with 95% CIs. Secondary subgroup analyses were conducted on patients with severe COVID-19 who required mechanical ventilatory support and/or intensive care unit admission. Results: A total of 966 individuals (mean [SD] age, 65 [15] years; 539 [55.8%] male) were evaluated in this study; 143 convalescent plasma recipients were compared with 823 untreated control patients. After adjustment for potential confounding factors, convalescent plasma treatment was associated with improved 30-day mortality (HR, 0.60; 95% CI, 0.37-0.97). This association remained significant after propensity score matching (HR, 0.52; 95% CI, 0.29-0.92). Among the 338 patients admitted to the intensive care unit, mortality was significantly lower in convalescent plasma recipients compared with nonrecipients (HR for propensity score-matched comparison, 0.40; 95% CI, 0.20-0.80). Among the 227 patients who required mechanical ventilatory support, mortality was significantly lower in convalescent plasma recipients compared with nonrecipients (HR for propensity score-matched comparison, 0.32; 95% CI, 0.14-0.72). Conclusions and Relevance: The findings of this cohort study suggest a potential survival benefit in the administration of convalescent plasma to patients with hematologic cancers and COVID-19.

18.
Transfusion ; 61(8): 2503-2511, 2021 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1243670

ABSTRACT

In the absence of effective countermeasures, human convalescent plasma has been widely used to treat severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, the causative agent of novel coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19), including among patients with innate or acquired immunosuppression. However, the association between COVID-19-associated mortality in patients with immunosuppression and therapeutic use of convalescent plasma is unknown. We review 75 reports, including one large matched-control registry study of 143 COVID-19 patients with hematological malignancies, and 51 case reports and 23 case series representing 238 COVID-19 patients with immunosuppression. We review clinical features and treatment protocols of COVID-19 patients with immunosuppression after treatment with human convalescent plasma. We also discuss the time course and clinical features of recovery. The available data from case reports and case series provide evidence suggesting a mortality benefit and rapid clinical improvement in patients with several forms of immunosuppression following COVID-19 convalescent plasma transfusion. The utility of convalescent plasma or other forms of antibody therapy in immune-deficient and immune-suppressed patients with COVID-19 warrants further investigation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Immune Tolerance , COVID-19/immunology , Hematologic Neoplasms/complications , Hematologic Neoplasms/immunology , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/complications , Immunologic Deficiency Syndromes/immunology , Organ Transplantation/adverse effects , Treatment Outcome
19.
Mayo Clin Proc ; 96(5): 1262-1275, 2021 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219471

ABSTRACT

To determine the effect of COVID-19 convalescent plasma on mortality, we aggregated patient outcome data from 10 randomized clinical trials, 20 matched control studies, 2 dose-response studies, and 96 case reports or case series. Studies published between January 1, 2020, and January 16, 2021, were identified through a systematic search of online PubMed and MEDLINE databases. Random effects analyses of randomized clinical trials and matched control data demonstrated that patients with COVID-19 transfused with convalescent plasma exhibited a lower mortality rate compared with patients receiving standard treatments. Additional analyses showed that early transfusion (within 3 days of hospital admission) of higher titer plasma is associated with lower patient mortality. These data provide evidence favoring the efficacy of human convalescent plasma as a therapeutic agent in hospitalized patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , COVID-19/mortality , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Mortality , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Time-to-Treatment
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