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1.
Antivir Chem Chemother ; 30: 20402066221130853, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2089137

ABSTRACT

As a result of the multiple gathering and travels restrictions during the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, the annual meeting of the International Society for Antiviral Research (ISAR), the International Conference on Antiviral Research (ICAR), could not be held in person in 2021. Nonetheless, ISAR successfully organized a remote conference, retaining the most critical aspects of all ICARs, a collegiate gathering of researchers in academia, industry, government and non-governmental institutions working to develop, identify, and evaluate effective antiviral therapy for the benefit of all human beings. This article highlights the 2021 remote meeting, which presented the advances and objectives of antiviral and vaccine discovery, research, and development. The meeting resulted in a dynamic and effective exchange of ideas and information, positively impacting the prompt progress towards new and effective prophylaxis and therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents , COVID-19 , Humans , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Pandemics
2.
Antiviral Res ; 195: 105180, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1415189

ABSTRACT

Galidesivir (BCX4430) is an adenosine nucleoside analog that is broadly active in cell culture against several RNA viruses of various families. This activity has also been shown in animal models of viral disease associated with Ebola, Marburg, yellow fever, Zika, and Rift Valley fever viruses. In many cases, the compound is more efficacious in animal models than cell culture activity would predict. Based on favorable data from in vivo animal studies, galidesivir has recently undergone evaluation in several phase I clinical trials, including against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, and as a medical countermeasure for the treatment of Marburg virus disease.


Subject(s)
Adenine/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine/analogs & derivatives , Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Pyrrolidines/pharmacology , Adenine/pharmacology , Adenosine/pharmacology , Animals , Clinical Trials, Phase I as Topic , Drug Evaluation, Preclinical , Marburgvirus/drug effects , Nucleosides/analogs & derivatives , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects
3.
Viruses ; 12(12)2020 12 05.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-966929

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic spread of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2) demands skillful strategies for novel drug development, drug repurposing and cotreatments, in particular focusing on existing candidates of host-directed antivirals (HDAs). The developmental drug IMU-838, currently being investigated in a phase 2b trial in patients suffering from autoimmune diseases, represents an inhibitor of human dihydroorotate dehydrogenase (DHODH) with a recently proven antiviral activity in vitro and in vivo. Here, we established an analysis system for assessing the antiviral potency of IMU-838 and DHODH-directed back-up drugs in cultured cell-based infection models. By the use of SARS-CoV-2-specific immunofluorescence, Western blot, in-cell ELISA, viral yield reduction and RT-qPCR methods, we demonstrated the following: (i) IMU-838 and back-ups show anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity at several levels of viral replication, i.e., protein production, double-strand RNA synthesis, and release of infectious virus; (ii) antiviral efficacy in Vero cells was demonstrated in a micromolar range (IMU-838 half-maximal effective concentration, EC50, of 7.6 ± 5.8 µM); (iii) anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity was distinct from cytotoxic effects (half-cytotoxic concentration, CC50, >100 µM); (iv) the drug in vitro potency was confirmed using several Vero lineages and human cells; (v) combination with remdesivir showed enhanced anti-SARS-CoV-2 activity; (vi) vidofludimus, the active determinant of IMU-838, exerted a broad-spectrum activity against a selection of major human pathogenic viruses. These findings strongly suggest that developmental DHODH inhibitors represent promising candidates for use as anti-SARS-CoV-2 therapeutics.


Subject(s)
Antiviral Agents/pharmacology , Drug Repositioning , Oxidoreductases Acting on CH-CH Group Donors/antagonists & inhibitors , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Adenosine Monophosphate/analogs & derivatives , Adenosine Monophosphate/pharmacology , Alanine/analogs & derivatives , Alanine/pharmacology , Animals , Antiviral Agents/chemistry , Chlorocebus aethiops , Clinical Trials, Phase II as Topic , Dihydroorotate Dehydrogenase , Drug Discovery , Drug Synergism , Humans , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/drug effects
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