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1.
Immunity ; 55(7): 1299-1315.e4, 2022 07 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2076210

ABSTRACT

As the establishment of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2)-specific T cell memory in children remains largely unexplored, we recruited convalescent COVID-19 children and adults to define their circulating memory SARS-CoV-2-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells prior to vaccination. We analyzed epitope-specific T cells directly ex vivo using seven HLA class I and class II tetramers presenting SARS-CoV-2 epitopes, together with Spike-specific B cells. Unvaccinated children who seroconverted had comparable Spike-specific but lower ORF1a- and N-specific memory T cell responses compared with adults. This agreed with our TCR sequencing data showing reduced clonal expansion in children. A strong stem cell memory phenotype and common T cell receptor motifs were detected within tetramer-specific T cells in seroconverted children. Conversely, children who did not seroconvert had tetramer-specific T cells of predominantly naive phenotypes and diverse TCRαß repertoires. Our study demonstrates the generation of SARS-CoV-2-specific T cell memory with common TCRαß motifs in unvaccinated seroconverted children after their first virus encounter.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte , Humans , Immunologic Memory , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell , Receptors, Antigen, T-Cell, alpha-beta/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 10(5)2022 May 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1875823

ABSTRACT

Longitudinal data comparing SARS-CoV-2 serology in individuals following infection and vaccination over 12 months are limited. This study compared the magnitude, decay, and variability in serum IgG, IgA, and neutralizing activity induced by natural infection (n = 218) or mRNA vaccination in SARS-CoV-2 naïve (n = 143) or experienced (n = 122) individuals over time using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and an in vitro virus neutralization assay. Serological responses were found to be highly variable after natural infection compared with vaccination but durable through 12 months. Antibody levels in vaccinated, SARS-CoV-2 naïve individuals peaked by 1 month then declined through 9 months, culminating in non-detectable SARS-CoV-2-specific serum IgA. Individuals with both infection and vaccination showed SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG and IgA levels that were more robust and slower to decline than the other groups; neutralizing activity remained highest in this group at 9 months past vaccination. These data reinforce the benefit of vaccination after SARS-CoV-2 recovery.

3.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 752993, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1779952

ABSTRACT

Objectives: Studies of household transmission of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) focused on households with children are limited. We investigated household secondary attack rate (SAR), transmission dynamics, and contributing factors in households with children. Materials and Methods: In this prospective case-ascertained study in Los Angeles County, California, all households members were enrolled if ≥1 member tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Nasopharyngeal PCRs, serology, and symptom data were obtained over multiple visits. Results: A total of 489 individuals in 105 households were enrolled from June to December 2020. The majority (77.3%) reported a household annual income of <$50,000, and most (92.9%) were of Hispanic/Latinx ethnicity. Children <18 years old accounted for 46.9% index cases, of whom 45.3% were asymptomatic. Household index cases were predominantly children during low community transmission and adults during the high community transmission period (χ2 = 7.647, p = 0.0036. The mean household SAR was 77.0% (95% CI: 69.4-84.6%). Child and adult index cases both efficiently transmitted SARS-CoV-2 within households [81.9%, (95% CI: 72.1-91.9%) vs. 72.4% (95% CI: 59.8-85.1%), p = 0.23]. Household income and pets were significantly associated with higher SAR in the multivariable analysis of household factors (p = 0.0013 and 0.004, respectively). Conclusions: The SAR in households with children in an urban setting with a large ethnic minority population is much higher than previously described. Children play important roles as index cases. SAR was disproportionately impacted by household income. Vaccination and public health efforts need special focus on children and vulnerable communities to help mitigate SARS-CoV-2 spread.

4.
Influenza Other Respir Viruses ; 16(2): 255-264, 2022 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1476268

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Age and obesity status are associated with severe outcomes among hospitalized individuals with COVID-19. It remains unclear whether age and obesity are risk factors for milder COVID-19 illness. METHODS: We prospectively enrolled SARS-CoV-2-exposed individuals. Participants recorded symptoms for 28 days and were tested for SARS-CoV-2 by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and serology. Type, number, and duration of symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 laboratory parameters were compared by age and obesity status. RESULTS: Of 552 individuals enrolled from June 2020 to January 2021, 470 (85.1%) tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 including 261 (55.5%) adults ≥18 years, 61 (13.0%) adolescents 12-17 years, and 148 (31.5%) children <12 years. Children had fewer symptoms (median 2 vs. 3, p < 0.001) lasting fewer days (median 5 vs. 7, p < 0.001) compared with adolescents/adults. Body mass index of 300 (63.8%) individuals classified with overweight or obesity (OWOB). Individuals with OWOB suffered more symptoms compared with individuals without OWOB (median 3 vs. 2, p = 0.037), including more cough and shortness of breath (p = 0.023 and 0.026, respectively). Adolescents with OWOB were more likely to be symptomatic (66.7% vs. 34.2%, p = 0.008) and have longer respiratory symptoms (median 7 vs. 4 days, p = 0.049) compared with adolescents without OWOB. Lower RT-PCR Ct values were found in children and symptomatic individuals compared with adolescent and adults and asymptomatic individuals, respectively (p = 0.001 and 0.022). CONCLUSIONS: Adolescents and adults with OWOB experience more respiratory symptoms from COVID-19 despite similar viral loads. These findings underscore the importance of vaccinating individuals with OWOB.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Adolescent , Adult , Child , Humans , Obesity , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests , Viral Load
6.
J Clin Microbiol ; 59(2)2021 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1044803

ABSTRACT

Testing efforts for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) have been burdened by the scarcity of testing materials and personal protective equipment for health care workers. The simple and painless process of saliva collection allows for widespread testing, but enthusiasm is hampered by variable performance compared to that of nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples. We prospectively collected paired NPS and saliva samples from a total of 300 unique adult and pediatric patients. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 32.2% (97/300) of the individuals using the TaqPath COVID-19 Combo kit (Thermo Fisher). Performance of saliva and NPS was compared against the total number of positives regardless of specimen type. The overall concordances for saliva and NPS were 91.0% (273/300) and 94.7% (284/300), respectively. The values for positive percent agreement (PPA) for saliva and NPS were 81.4% (79/97) and 89.7% (87/97), respectively. Saliva yielded detection of 10 positive cases that were negative by NPS. For symptomatic and asymptomatic pediatric patients not previously diagnosed with COVID-19, the performances of saliva and NPS were comparable (PPA, 82.4% versus 85.3%). The overall values for PPA for adults were 83.3% and 90.7% for saliva and NPS, respectively, with saliva yielding detection of 4 fewer cases than NPS. However, saliva performance for symptomatic adults was identical to NPS performance (PPA of 93.8%). With lower cost and self-collection capabilities, saliva can be an appropriate sample choice alternative to NPS for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in children and adults.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Saliva/virology , Specimen Handling/methods , Adolescent , Adult , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Nasopharynx/virology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Sensitivity and Specificity , Viral Load , Young Adult
7.
medRxiv ; 2020 Oct 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-915972

ABSTRACT

Testing efforts for SARS-CoV-2 have been burdened by the scarcity of testing materials and personal protective equipment for healthcare workers. The simple and painless process of saliva collection allows for widespread testing, but enthusiasm is hampered by variable performance compared to nasopharyngeal swab (NPS) samples. We prospectively collected paired NPS and saliva samples from a total of 300 unique adult and pediatric patients. SARS-CoV-2 RNA was detected in 32.2% (97/300) of the individuals using the TaqPath COVID-19 Combo Kit (Thermo Fisher). Performance of saliva and NPS were compared against the total number of positives regardless of specimen type. The overall concordance for saliva and NPS was 91.0% (273/300) and 94.7% (284/300), respectively. The positive percent agreement (PPA) for saliva and NPS was 81.4% (79/97) and 89.7% (87/97), respectively. Saliva detected 10 positive cases that were negative by NPS. In symptomatic and asymptomatic pediatric patients not previously diagnosed with COVID-19, the performances of saliva and NPS were comparable (PPA: 82.4% vs 85.3%). The overall PPA for adults were 83.3% and 90.7% for saliva and NPS, respectively, with saliva detecting 4 cases less than NPS. However, saliva performance in symptomatic adults was identical to NPS (PPA of 93.8%). With lower cost and self-collection capabilities, saliva can be an appropriate alternative sample choice to NPS for detection of SARS-CoV-2 in children and adults. SUMMARY: Saliva is an acceptable alternative specimen compared to nasopharyngeal swabs for detection of SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, saliva demonstrated comparable performance to nasopharyngeal swabs in symptomatic and asymptomatic pediatric patients and in symptomatic adults.

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