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1.
researchsquare; 2024.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-3952915.v1

ABSTRACT

Background This study aims to analyze relevant policy texts, explore and determine the focal points and inadequacies of the Chinese government in guaranteeing supplies of medicines, and provide advice on how to make better policies about drug supply when public health emergencies occur.Methods We selected 559 documents that guided the support of drug supply during emergencies issued by governments at both the national and provincial levels from December 1, 2019, to February 28, 2023. In addition, we developed a four-dimensional analysis framework of the issuing agency, issuing period, policy tools, and drug supply chain to analyze specific policy items, determine their basic characteristics, and quantitatively analyze them from a policy mix perspective.Results The analysis using policy tools showed that the national government tended to call on stakeholders in all aspects of drug supply to fulfil their responsibilities, and both national and provincial governments tended to use incentive tools, such as opening up urgent drug supply tracks and applying financial incentives to promote drug supply. However, managing stakeholders’ behaviors in drug supply and the capacity building to guarantee drug supply are still lacking and require improvement. From the perspective of the drug supply chain, the national government has paid much attention to the distribution of drugs, whereas attention to the supply of drug substances has been lacking. As various stages of the COVID-19 pandemic, the number of policies related to drug supply increased slowly after a surge at the beginning of the pandemic and then rapidly decreased. From the policy mix perspective, the analysis showed that incentives were lacking in drug research and development, and capacity building was not discussed much in the drug manufacturing process.Conclusions We suggest enhancing the complementarity and cohesion of the policy content issued by national and provincial governments, strengthening the coordination and connection between policymaking bodies, optimizing the internal structure of policy tools, improving the performance of various policy strategies, and using appropriate policy tools to create policies suited to various stages of emergencies and drug supply chains.

2.
Complexity ; 2023, 2023.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-2321855

ABSTRACT

Public libraries are popular gathering places, so understanding the factors that contribute to colony-forming unit (CFU) concentrations and how to minimize them is essential. This study aimed to investigate the factors that affect CFU concentrations in a public library, using air sampling (Bioluminescent ATP-assay) and statistical analysis software (SPSS) to collect and analyze data. The findings indicated that the CFU concentration in the library was significantly influenced by the air quality surrounding the building, the number of library visitors, and the hygiene and health of both visitors and employees. Additionally, indoor temperature and humidity were found to be key factors affecting CFU concentration. These findings suggest the need for better ventilation and air filtration systems, as well as regular cleaning and disinfection in public libraries. Furthermore, research is recommended to investigate other potential factors that may impact indoor air quality in public spaces.

3.
World J Gastroenterol ; 28(46): 6599-6618, 2022 Dec 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2296320

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is growing evidence that patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) frequently present with liver impairment. Hepatitis B virus (HBV) remains a major public health threat in current society. Both severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and HBV can cause liver damage, and current findings on whether HBV infection increases disease severity in COVID-19 patients are inconsistent, and whether SARS-CoV-2 infection accelerates hepatitis B progression or leads to a worse prognosis in hepatitis B patients has not been adequately elucidated. AIM: To explore the complex relationship between COVID-19 and hepatitis B in order to inform the research and management of patients co-infected with SARS-CoV-2 and HBV. METHODS: An experienced information specialist searched the literature in the following online databases: PubMed, China National Knowledge Infrastructure, Google Scholar, Scopus, Wiley, Web of Science, Cochrane, and ScienceDirect. The literature published from December 2019 to September 1, 2022 was included in the search. We also searched medRxiv and bioRxiv for gray literature and manually scanned references of included articles. Articles reporting studies conducted in humans discussing hepatitis B and COVID-19 were included. We excluded duplicate publications. News reports, reports, and other gray literature were included if they contained quantifiable evidence (case reports, findings, and qualitative analysis). Some topics that included HBV or COVID-19 samples but did not have quantitative evidence were excluded from the review. RESULTS: A total of 57 studies were eligible and included in this review. They were from 11 countries, of which 33 (57.9%) were from China. Forty-two of the 57 studies reported abnormalities in liver enzymes, three mainly reported abnormalities in blood parameters, four indicated no significant liver function alterations, and another eight studies did not provide data on changes in liver function. Fifty-seven studies were retrospective and the total number of co-infections was 1932, the largest sample size was 7723, and the largest number of co-infections was 353. Most of the studies suggested an interaction between hepatitis B and COVID-19, while 12 studies clearly indicated no interaction between hepatitis B and COVID-19. Six of the 57 studies clearly reported HBV activation. Six studies were related to liver transplant patients. CONCLUSION: There is some association between COVID-19 and hepatitis B. Future high-quality randomized trials are needed to further elucidate the interaction between COVID-19 and hepatitis B.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Coinfection , Hepatitis B , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Hepatitis B/complications , Hepatitis B/diagnosis , Hepatitis B/epidemiology , Hepatitis B virus
4.
Frontiers in immunology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2045184

ABSTRACT

After kidney transplantation, patients exhibit a poor response to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination. However, the efficacy and adverse effects of vaccines based on different platforms in these patients remain unclear. We prospectively analyzed both anti-spike protein antibody and cellular responses 1 month after the first and second doses of SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in 171 kidney transplant patients. Four vaccines, including one viral vector (ChAdOx1 nCov-19, n = 30), two mRNA (mRNA1273, n = 81 and BNT162b2, n = 38), and one protein subunit (MVC-COV1901, n = 22) vaccines were administered. Among the four vaccines, mRNA1273 elicited the strongest humoral response and induced the highest interferon-γ levels in patients with a positive cellular response against the spike protein. Antiproliferative agents were negatively associated with both the antibody and cellular responses. A transient elevation in creatinine levels was noted in approximately half of the patients after the first dose of mRNA1273 or ChadOx1, and only one of them presented with borderline cellular rejection without definite causality to vaccination. In conclusion, mRNA1273 had better immunogenicity than the other vaccines. Further, renal function needs to be carefully monitored after vaccination, and vaccination strategies should be tailored according to the transplant status and vaccine characteristics.

5.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 9: 854788, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1952377

ABSTRACT

Objective: The long-term impact of COVID-19 on patient health has been a recent focus. This study aims to determine the persistent symptoms and psychological conditions of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 15 months after onset, that patients first developed symptoms. The potential risk factors were also explored. Methods: A cohort of COVID-19 patients discharged from February 20, 2020 to March 31, 2020 was recruited. Follow-ups were conducted using validated questionnaires and psychological screening scales at 15 months after onset to evaluate the patients' health status. The risk factors for long-term health impacts and their associations with disease severity was analyzed. Findings: 534 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. The median age of the patients was 62.0 years old (IQR 52.0-70.0) and 295 were female (55.2%). The median time from onset to follow-up was 460.0 (451.0-467.0) days. Sleep disturbance (18.5%, 99/534) and fatigue (17.2%, 92/534) were the most common persistent symptoms. 6.4% (34/534) of the patients had depression, 9.2% (49/534) were anxious, 13.0% (70/534) had insomnia and 4.7% (25/534) suffered from post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Multivariate adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that glucocorticoid use during hospitalization (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.12-11.44) was significantly associated with an increased risk of fatigue. The OR values for anxiety and sleep disorders were 2.36 (95% CI 1.07-5.20) and 2.16 (95% CI 1.13-4.14) in females to males. The OR value of PTSD was 25.6 (95% CI 3.3-198.4) in patients with persistent symptoms to those without persistent symptoms. No significant associations were observed between fatigue syndrome or adverse mental outcomes and disease severity. Conclusions: 15-month follow-up in this study demonstrated the need of extended rehabilitation intervention for complete recovery in COVID-19 patients.

6.
American journal of translational research ; 14(4):2655-2667, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1837264

ABSTRACT

Purpose: To investigate changes in the production of IgM and IgG antibodies and the negative transformation of viral nucleic acids in COVID-19 patients after convalescent plasma therapy, and also to discuss the clinical therapeutic effect, so as to provide a basis for the treatment of COVID-19 using specific antibodies. Methods: The convalescent plasma of recovered patients from COVID-19 was used to treat other patients, and the levels of antibodies IgM and IgG and the nucleic acid genes ORF1ab and N in the patients were tested regularly for statistical comparison and analysis. Results: In general, the Ct value and concentration of IgM and IgG antibodies in the plasma infusion group were significantly higher (1-3 times higher) than those in the non-plasma infusion group, respectively, but these differences were not significant (P>0.05). However, the content of antibodies in severe patients in the plasma transfusion group was significantly higher than those in the non-plasma transfusion group at discharge, the results being statistically significant (P<0.05). Conclusions: The application of convalescent plasma significantly increases the antibody content in severe and critical inpatients, effectively enhances immune function, accelerates the clearance of virus and the nucleic acid negative conversion rate, and significantly promotes early improvement in COVID-19 patients.

7.
ssrn; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-SSRN | ID: ppzbmed-10.2139.ssrn.3949426

ABSTRACT

Background: The long-term impact of COVID-19 on patient health has been a recent focus. This study aims to determine the persistent symptoms and psychological conditions of patients hospitalized with COVID-19 15 months after onset. The potential risk factors were also explored.Methods: A cohort of COVID-19 patients discharged from February 20, 2020 to March 31, 2020 was recruited. Follow-ups were conducted using validated questionnaires and psychological screening scales at 15 months after onset to evaluate the patients’ health status. The risk factors for long-term health impacts and their associations with disease severity was analyzed.Findings: 534 COVID-19 patients were enrolled. The median age of the patients was 62.0 years old (IQR 52.0-70.0) and 295 were female (55.2%). The median time from onset to follow-up was 460.0 (451.0-467.0) days. Sleep disturbance (18.5%, 99/534) and fatigue (17.2%, 92/534) were the most common persistent symptoms. 6.4% (34/534) of the patients had depression, 9.2% (49/534) were anxious, 13.0% (70/534) had insomnia and 4.7% (25/534) suffered from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Multivariate adjusted logistic regression analysis showed that glucocorticoid use during hospitalization (OR 3.58, 95% CI 1.12-11.44) was significantly associated with an increased risk of fatigue. The OR values for anxiety and sleep disorders were 2.36 (95% CI 1.07-5.20) and 2.16 (95% CI 1.13-4.14) in females compared with males. The OR value of PTSD was 25.6 (95% CI 3.3-198.4) in patients with persistent symptoms to those without persistent symptoms. No significant associations were observed between fatigue syndrome or adverse mental outcomes and disease severity.Interpretation: 15-month follow-up in this study aroused the need of extended rehabilitation intervention for complete recovery in COVID-19 patients. Funding: None to declare. Declaration of Interest: All the authors declare no competing interests.Ethical Approval: The Research Ethics Committee of Shanghai Changzheng Hospital approved this study (2020SL007).

8.
World J Clin Cases ; 9(8): 1953-1967, 2021 Mar 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1145712

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2, is a worldwide pandemic. Some COVID-19 patients develop severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and progress to respiratory failure. In such cases, extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) treatment is a necessary life-saving procedure. CASE SUMMARY: Two special COVID-19 cases-one full-term pregnant woman and one elderly (72-year-old) man-were treated by veno-venous (VV)-ECMO in the Second People's Hospital of Zhongshan, Zhongshan City, Guangdong Province, China. Both patients had developed refractory hypoxemia shortly after hospital admission, despite conventional support, and were therefore managed by VV-ECMO. Although both experienced multiple ECMO-related complications on top of the COVID-19 disease, their conditions improved gradually. Both patients were weaned successfully from the ECMO therapy. At the time of writing of this report, the woman has recovered completely and been discharged from hospital to home; the man remains on mechanical ventilation, due to respiratory muscle weakness and suspected lung fibrosis. As ECMO itself is associated with various complications, it is very important to understand and treat these complications to achieve optimal outcome. CONCLUSION: VV-ECMO can provide sufficient gas exchange for COVID-19 patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome. However, it is crucial to understand and treat ECMO-related complications.

9.
Cell Prolif ; 53(12): e12949, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-901005

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is rapidly spreading worldwide. Lianhua Qingwen capsule (LQC) has shown therapeutic effects in patients with COVID-19. This study is aimed to discover its molecular mechanism and provide potential drug targets. MATERIALS AND METHODS: An LQC target and COVID-19-related gene set was established using the Traditional Chinese Medicine Systems Pharmacology database and seven disease-gene databases. Gene ontology (GO), Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction (PPI) network were performed to discover the potential mechanism. Molecular docking was performed to visualize the patterns of interactions between the effective molecule and targeted protein. RESULTS: A gene set of 65 genes was generated. We then constructed a compound-target network that contained 234 nodes of active compounds and 916 edges of compound-target pairs. The GO and KEGG indicated that LQC can act by regulating immune response, apoptosis and virus infection. PPI network and subnetworks identified nine hub genes. The molecular docking was conducted on the most significant gene Akt1, which is involved in lung injury, lung fibrogenesis and virus infection. Six active compounds of LQC can enter the active pocket of Akt1, namely beta-carotene, kaempferol, luteolin, naringenin, quercetin and wogonin, thereby exerting potential therapeutic effects in COVID-19. CONCLUSIONS: The network pharmacological strategy integrates molecular docking to unravel the molecular mechanism of LQC. Akt1 is a promising drug target to reduce tissue damage and help eliminate virus infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/prevention & control , Drugs, Chinese Herbal/pharmacology , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/drug effects , SARS-CoV-2/drug effects , Apoptosis/drug effects , Gene Ontology , Humans , Molecular Docking Simulation/methods , Protein Interaction Maps/drug effects , Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-akt/metabolism , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity
10.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.10.29.360479

ABSTRACT

Dysfunctional immune response in the COVID-19 patients is a recurrent theme impacting symptoms and mortality, yet the detailed understanding of pertinent immune cells is not complete. We applied single-cell RNA sequencing to 284 samples from 205 COVID-19 patients and controls to create a comprehensive immune landscape. Lymphopenia and active T and B cell responses were found to coexist and associated with age, sex and their interactions with COVID-19. Diverse epithelial and immune cell types were observed to be virus-positive and showed dramatic transcriptomic changes. Elevation of ANXA1 and S100A9 in virus-positive squamous epithelial cells may enable the initiation of neutrophil and macrophage responses via the ANXA1-FPR1 and S100A8/9-TLR4 axes. Systemic up-regulation of S100A8/A9, mainly by megakaryocytes and monocytes in the peripheral blood, may contribute to the cytokine storms frequently observed in severe patients. Our data provide a rich resource for understanding the pathogenesis and designing effective therapeutic strategies for COVID-19.

11.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.10.29.361261

ABSTRACT

The recent COVID-19 pandemic has brought about a surge of crowd-sourced initiatives aimed at simulating the proteins of the SARS-CoV-2 virus. A bottleneck currently exists in translating these simulations into tangible predictions that can be leveraged for pharmacological studies. Here we report on extensive electrostatic calculations done on an exascale simulation of the opening of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, performed by the Folding@home initiative. We compute the electric potential as the solution of the non-linear Poisson-Boltzmann equation using a parallel sharp numerical solver. The inherent multiple length scales present in the geometry and solution are reproduced using highly adaptive Octree grids. We analyze our results focusing on the electro-geometric properties of the receptor-binding domain and its vicinity. This work paves the way for a new class of hybrid computational and data-enabled approaches, where molecular dynamics simulations are combined with continuum modeling to produce high-fidelity computational measurements serving as a basis for protein bio-mechanism investigations.

12.
Ann Transl Med ; 8(18): 1158, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-875041

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: To evaluate the role of high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in the diagnosis of 2019 novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) pneumonia and to provide experience in the early detection and diagnosis of 2019-nCoV pneumonia. METHODS: Seventy-two patients confirmed to be infected with 2019-nCoV from multiple medical centers in western China were retrospectively analyzed, including epidemiologic characteristics, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings and HRCT chest features. RESULTS: All patients had lung parenchymal abnormalities on HRCT scans, which were mostly multifocal in both lungs and asymmetric in all patients, and were mostly in the peripheral or subpleural lung regions in 52 patients (72.22%), in the central lung regions in 16 patients (22.22%), and in both lungs with "white lung" manifestations in 4 patients (5.56%). Subpleural multifocal consolidation was a predominant abnormality in 38 patients (52.78%). Ground-glass opacity was seen in 34 patients (47.22%). Interlobular septal thickening was found in 18 patients, 8 of whom had only generally mild thickening with no zonal predominance. Reticulation was seen in 8 patients (11.11%), and was mild and randomly distributed. In addition, both lungs of 28 patients had 2 or 3 CT imaging features. Out of these 72 patients, 36 were diagnosed as early stage, 32 patients as progressive stage, and 4 patient as severe stage pneumonia. Moreover, the diagnostic accuracy of HRCT features combined with epidemiological history was not significantly different from the detection of viral nucleic acid (all P >0.05). CONCLUSIONS: The HRCT features of 2019-nCoV pneumonia are characteristic to a certain degree, which when combined with epidemiological history yield high clinical value in the early detection and diagnosis of 2019-nCoV pneumonia.

13.
SN Compr Clin Med ; 2(10): 1717-1723, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-731189

ABSTRACT

On February 6, 2020, Xiaogan City became the second most seriously affected city with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), outside Wuhan district, Hubei Province, China. The objectives are to study the clinical features of COVID-19 patients and assess the relationship between the severity of COVID-19, age, and C-reactive protein (CRP) levels. The retrospective data of 134 COVID-19 patients hospitalized in 3 hospitals of Xiaogan City, between February 1 and March 1, 2020, was collected. This study documented COVID-19 patients. Clinical data in terms of body temperature, history of travel, and direct contact with COVID-19 patients, and incubation period was collected. Out of the 134 patients, only 5 required intensive care. Moreover, 2 patients succumbed during this period. The median age of patients was 45 (33-56) years. The most common symptoms at the onset of disease were fever (66.4%), cough (33, 6%), and sore throat (14.7%). Amongst the medicines used, antiviral agents (92.3%) followed by the traditional Chinese medicine (89.5%) were most commonly used. In both the crude and adjusted (I to III) models, odds ratio and its 95% confidence interval for both age and CRP levels were > 1. Moreover, the smooth curve fitting graph reflected that the severity of COVID-19 was positively correlated with both age and CRP levels (all P value < 0.05). The signs and symptoms of COVID-19 patients were fairly moderate. The health care professionals treating the COVID-19 patients should be aware of the increased likelihood of progression to severe COVID-19 in elderly patients and those with high CRP levels.

14.
researchsquare; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-64082.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: The initial mechanism of COVID-19 is the binding of the virus to ACE2. Since the heart and the vessels also express ACE2, they both could become targets of the virus. However, cardiac performance of patients in ICU and general ward may be different, requested individualized treatment. The aim of this study is to explore the global and segmental myocardial performance of the severe and mild COVID-19 patients.Methods: 45 patients, including 25 mild and 20 severe patients in intensive care unit (ICU) with COVID-19 infection were included in this study. The clinical history, laboratory test and standard and strain echocardiography were performed at admission. Of them, 13 severe patients received serial echocardiography, especially, 10 patients received echocardiographic examinations more than 7 times.  Results: 1. Both mild and severe COVID-19 infected patients showed reduced cardiac diastolic function; 2. Severe patients in ICU exhibited exacerbated right ventricular systolic function; 3. Both mild and severe patients with COVID-19 showed impaired left ventricular strain, worse strain in severe patient. 4. The apical longitudinal strain of mild patients was higher than basal and middle segment. No difference among apical, middle and basal segments in severe patients. 5. There was a negative correlation between LV GLS and log TnT-hs, as well as NT-pro BNP. 6. The EF value and strain of left atrium of mild and severe patients decreased; 7. LV GLS, LV GCS and LA GLS area under the ROC curve to predict the disease severity were 0.698, 0.758 and 0.782 respectively. 8. In the follow-up of severe patients, left atrial and ventricular strain showed an increased trend.Conclusions: These findings suggested that left ventricular performance was subclinically impaired during COVID-9 infection irrespective of infection severity and the strain of LV and LA may predict the disease severity. The cardiac function had an increasing trend for severe patients treated in ICU. 

15.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.08.11.245704

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic caused by the novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 is a worldwide health emergency. The immense damage done to public health and economies has prompted a global race for cures and vaccines. In developing a COVID-19 vaccine, we applied technology previously used for MERS-CoV to produce a prefusion-stabilized SARS-CoV-2 spike protein by adding two proline substitutions at the top of the central helix (S-2P). To enhance immunogenicity and mitigate the potential vaccine-induced immunopathology, CpG 1018, a Th1-biasing synthetic toll-like receptor 9 (TLR9) agonist was selected as an adjuvant candidate. S-2P was combined with various adjuvants, including CpG 1018, and administered to mice to test its effectiveness in eliciting anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing antibodies. S-2P in combination with CpG 1018 and aluminum hydroxide (alum) was found to be the most potent immunogen and induced high titer of spike-specific antibodies in sera of immunized mice. The neutralizing abilities in pseudotyped lentivirus reporter or live wild-type SARS-CoV-2 were measured with reciprocal inhibiting dilution (ID50) titers of 5120 and 2560, respectively. In addition, the antibodies elicited were able to cross-neutralize pseudovirus containing the spike protein of the D614G variant, indicating the potential for broad spectrum protection. A marked Th-1 dominant response was noted from cytokines secreted by splenocytes of mice immunized with CpG 1018 and alum. No vaccine-related serious adverse effects were found in the dose-ranging study in rats administered single- or two-dose regimens with up to 50 g of S-2P combined with CpG 1018 alone or CpG 1018 with alum. These data support continued development of CHO-derived S-2P formulated with CpG 1018/alum as a candidate vaccine to prevent COVID-19 disease.

16.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.05.23.20111468

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has spread globally and the meteorological factors vary greatly across the world. Understanding the effect of meteorological factors and control strategies on COVID-19 transmission is critical to contain the epidemic. Using individual-level data in mainland China, Hong Kong, and Singapore, and the number of confirmed cases in other regions, we explore the effect of temperature, relative humidity, and control measures on the spread of COVID-19. We found that high temperature mitigates the transmission of the disease. High relative humidity promotes COVID-19 transmission when temperature is low, but tends to reduce transmission when temperature is high. Implementing classical control measures can dramatically slow the spread of the disease. However, due to the occurrence of pre-symptomatic infections, the effect of the measures to shorten onset-to-isolation time is markedly reduced and the importance of contact tracing and quarantine and social distancing increases. The analytic results also highlight the importance of early intervention to contain the spread of COVID-19.

17.
preprints.org; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-PREPRINTS.ORG | ID: ppzbmed-10.20944.preprints202004.0441.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: The Corona Virus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is spreading globally now. However, the clinical presentation that predict prognosis of the patients are still largely unknow. Methods: We enrolled 393 patients infected with COVID-19 and 30 patients with common pulmonary bulla and reviewed their clinical features to evaluate the potential prognostic value of pulmonary vesicles, especially in the patients with severe symptoms. One COVID-19 patient with vesicles was treated by bullectomy for last resort, and its characteristics of the patient’s perioperative laboratory tests was analyzed. The pathological findings of bullectomy were described and compared with those of common bulla cases. Results: Patients infected with COVID-19 showed more dependence on ventilator, occurrence of super resistant bacteria, and prone to vesicle formation than common bulla (p<0.05). Disease severity is associated with age, sex, and usage of ventilator, ECMO and antibiotics, super resistance bacteria and vesicle formation (p<0.05). The average mortality rate of COVID-19 patients was 4.10% (25.4% in severe patients, 0.00% in mild patients). Interestingly, the mortality rate further increased in severe patients with pulmonary vesicles than those without pulmonary vesicles (35.7% vs 22.4%, p=0.0442). One COVID-19 patient with vesicles underwent bullectomy and had a poor prognosis, who showed diffuse alveolar damage and extensive necrosis in bullectomy specimen. Conclusions: Patients infected with COVID-19 are more prone to form pulmonary vesicles showed on chest CT scans, as an important poor prognosis factor, especially in the severe patients.

18.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.04.10.20060558

ABSTRACT

Abstract Objectives To assess the efficacy and safety of hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) plus standard-of-care (SOC) compared with SOC alone in adult patients with COVID-19. Design Multicenter, open-label, randomized controlled trial. Setting 16 government-designated COVID-19 treatment centers in China through 11 to 29 in February 2020. Participants 150 patients hospitalized with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 were included in the intention to treat analysis. 75 patients were assigned to HCQ plus SOC and 75 to SOC alone. Interventions HCQ was administrated with a loading dose of 1, 200 mg daily for three days followed by a maintained dose of 800 mg daily for the remaining days (total treatment duration: 2 or 3 weeks for mild/moderate or severe patients, respectively). Main outcome measures The primary outcome was whether participants had a negative conversion of SARS-CoV-2 by 28 days, and was analyzed according to the intention-to-treat principle. Adverse events were analyzed in the safety population in which HCQ recipients were participants who actually received at least one dose of HCQ and HCQ non-recipients were those actually managed with SOC alone. Results Among 150 patients, 148 were with mild to moderate disease and 2 were with severe disease. The mean days ({+/-}standard deviation, min to max) from symptoms onset to randomization was 16.6 ({+/-}10.5 days, 3 to 41 days). The negative conversion probability by 28 days in SOC plus HCQ group was 85.4% (95% confidence interval (CI) 73.8% to 93.8%), similar to that in the SOC group 81.3% (95%CI 71.2% to 89.6%). Between-group difference was 4.1% (95%CI -10.3% to 18.5%). In the safety population, adverse events were recorded in 7 (8.8%) HCQ non-recipients (N=80) and in 21 (30%) HCQ recipients (N=70). The most common adverse event in the HCQ recipients was diarrhea, reported in 7 (10%) patients. Two HCQ recipients reported serious adverse events. Conclusions The administration of HCQ did not result in a significantly higher negative conversion probability than SOC alone in patients mainly hospitalized with persistent mild to moderate COVID-19. Adverse events were higher in HCQ recipients than in HCQ non-recipients. Trial registration ChiCTR2000029868

19.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.04.08.029769

ABSTRACT

ABSTRACTDespite the current devastation of the COVID-19 pandemic, several recent studies have suggested that the immunosuppressive drug Tocilizumab can powerfully treating inflammatory responses that occur in this disease. Here, by employing single-cell analysis of the immune cell composition of severe-stage COVID-19 patients and these same patients in post Tocilizumab-treatment remission, we have identified a monocyte subpopulation specific to severe disease that contributes to inflammatory storms in COVID-19 patients. Although Tocilizumab treatment attenuated the strong inflammatory immune response, we found that immune cells including plasma B cells and CD8+ T cells still exhibited an intense humoral and cell-mediated anti-virus immune response in COVID-19 patients after Tocilizumab treatment. Thus, in addition to providing a rich, very high-resolution data resource about the immune cell distribution at multiple stages of the COVID-19 disease, our work both helps explain Tocilizumab’s powerful therapeutic effects and defines a large number of potential new drug targets related to inflammatory storms.Competing Interest StatementJingwen Fang is the executive officer of HanGen BiotechView Full Text

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