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2.
Frontiers in pharmacology ; 13, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2083572

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) seriously endangers global public health. Pupingqinghua prescription (PPQH) is an herbal formula from traditional Chinese medicine used for treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection. This study aims to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of PPQH in Chinese participants infected with the SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variant. Methods: A total of 873 SARS-CoV-2 (Omicron)-infected patients were included. Among them, the patients were divided into the PPQH group (653 cases) and LHQW group (220 cases) according to different medications. The effectiveness indicators (hematological indicators, Ct values of novel Coronavirus nucleic acid tests, and viral load-shedding time) and safety indicators (liver and kidney function and adverse events) were analyzed. Results: There was no significant difference in baseline characteristics between the PPQH group and the LHQW group, except the gender;After the treatment, the levels of IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, NK cells, and INF-α of the patients in the PPQH group showed a downward trend (p < 0.05);The viral load shedding time was 5.0 (5.0, 7.0) in the PPQH group and 5.0 (4.0, 7.0) in the LHQW group;both PPQH and LHQW can shorten the duration of symptoms of fever, cough, and sore throat. The re-positive rate of COVID-19 test was 1.5 % in the PPQH group and 2.3 % in the LHQW group. In terms of safety, the levels of γ-GTT decreased significantly (p < 0.01);gastrointestinal reaction was the primary adverse reaction, and the reaction rate was 4.7 % in the PPQH group and 9.5 % in the LHQW group. Conclusion: PPQH can shorten the length of hospital stay and improve clinical symptoms of patients with SARS-COV-2 (Omicron), and it also has a good safety profile.

3.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2215102.v1

ABSTRACT

Driven by various mutations on the viral Spike protein, diverse variants of SARS-CoV-2 have emerged and prevailed repeatedly, which necessitates the identification of key Spike mutations for fitness enhancement. To address the need, this manuscript formulates a principled framework of causal inference for evaluating Spike mutations. In the context of large-scale genomes of SARS-CoV-2, it estimates the contribution of mutations to viral fitness across lineages and validates mutational effects on the Spike stability, receptor-binding affinity, and potential for immune escape. Key fitness-enhancing mutations and protein regions are recognized and studied. The transmission capacity of any new variant possessing these mutations can be predicted based on our model, solely based on the viral sequence. This research produces an innovative and systematic insight into SARS-CoV-2 and promotes functional studies of its key mutations.


Subject(s)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
4.
researchsquare; 2022.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-2019874.v1

ABSTRACT

Background:There is a great controversy about lethal effect of Omicron Variant on vulnerable populations and the measure of full-open or zero community transmission policy. Thus, we designed an observational study to evaluate the outcomes of Omicron-infected patients with pancreatic & biliary cancer (the so-called “King of Cancer”) in order to provide potential evidence for the most appropriate strategy to counter Omicron transmission in Shanghai.Methods: Omicron infected patients with advanced pancreatic & biliary cancer were enrolled from April 15 to May 31, 2022. Four groups were set in this study: Group 1, Omicron-infected cancer patients (N=4); Group 2, non-infected cancer patients (N=4); Group 3, infected non-cancer-afflicted subjects (N=4); Group 4, non-infected non-cancer-afflicted subjects (N=4). On Day 0, 7 and 14 after infection, the blood samples were dynamically collected from all subjects. The primary endpoints were disease severity and survival. Results:By the endpoints in this observational study, Patients No. 2, 3 and 4 died separately at Day 11, 25 and 13 after viral infection, all of whom were patients with advanced cancer, with the death rate up to 75%. Group 1 presented an overall T cell exhaustion status compared with other groups with obviously lower T cell populations and higher B cell% and CD4+T/CD8+T ratio (P<0.05). Time-course cytokine monitoring results showed that IL-1β was significantly decreased in Group 1 (P<0.05) and generally kept at a low level without obvious fluctuation. IL-6 was markedly increased in infected cancer patients (P<0.01), but remained a low level and had no apparent change during the whole infection process in non-cancer-afflicted subjects. Furthermore, several inflammatory parameter indexes indicated a tight association of Omicron infection with disease course and prognosis of Omicron-infected cancer patients.Conclusions:For patients with advanced pancreatic & biliary cancer, the strict & comprehensive control strategy for COVID-19 epidemic in Shanghai provided a guarantee of low infection and death rate. Conclusively, this policy shall be persisted upon the consideration of the welfare of vulnerable populations.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
5.
Frontiers in public health ; 10, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-1836771

ABSTRACT

Background Respiratory viral infections (RVIs) are a major health concern, and some previous studies have shown that wearing masks was effective in preventing RVIs, while others failed to show such effect. Therefore, a systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to investigate the effectiveness of wearing masks. Methods PubMed, ScienceDirect, Web of Science, the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI), and Chinese Scientific Journal Database (VIP database) were searched for studies evaluating the effectiveness of wearing masks. The risk ratio (RR) was used to measure the effectiveness of wearing masks in preventing RVIs for randomized controlled trials (RCTs) and cohort studies, and the odds ratio (OR) was used for case-control studies. Forest plots were used to visually assess pooled estimates and corresponding 95% CIs. The I2 test was used to examine the heterogeneity, and subgroup analysis was used to explore the possible explanations for heterogeneity or compare the results between subgroups. Sensitivity analysis was conducted to assess robustness of the synthesized results. Begg's test and Egger's test were used to assess the publications bias. Results Thirty-one studies (13,329 participants) were eligible for meta-analyses. Overall, the results showed that wearing masks was effective in preventing RVIs. The sensitivity analysis showed that the results of those meta-analyses were robust and reliable. There was no significant publication bias in meta-analysis of case-control studies and most subgroup analyses. Conclusions Wearing masks might be effective in preventing RVIs. To reduce their RVI risk, people should wear masks when they go out in public. Systematic Review Registration https://www.crd.york.ac.uk/PROSPERO/, identifier: CRD42021296092.

6.
Management Decision ; 59(11):2660-2673, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1494240

ABSTRACT

(Ma et al., 2019) It is necessary for theoretical studies to further examine solution modes of a sharing economy that focus on social issues and how to promote social innovation and entrepreneurship by means of sharing values and concepts to verify the relationship between social innovation and social value creation and understand various problems, such as how social innovation and entrepreneurship and sharing values and concepts can realize interactive promotion. [...]it is necessary to explore how we can break through the conceptual limitations of the “means-ends” relationship in the economy and society, so as to not only improve the survival ability of social organizations but also prompt enterprises and organizations to return to their essential attributes: social subjects. [...]nonprofit organizations engage in voluntary public welfare or mutual assistance activities, which can make up for the shortcomings of the government and other public departments and help them provide more effective social services to meet social needs while creating social value. Theoretical studies based on the concept of sustainable development have addressed the issue through paradigms of active social changes, such as CSR, the bottom of the pyramid (BoP) and SE (Mair et al., 2016;Zahra and Wright, 2016). [...]increasingly more organizations are beginning to pay attention to economic value and social value simultaneously. [...]according to the organizational paradox theory, in theoretical studies, we must first recognize that these two value goals have long existed in enterprises and are interrelated and contradictory. [...]the paradox theory advocates treating the tension of contradiction as an organizational opportunity and finding innovative ways to solve complex problems, such as sustainable development, through the exploration of the relationship between the relevant elements of the contradiction (Hahn et al., 2018;Smith and Lewis, 2011), which is becoming the focus of theoretical studies.

7.
Semin Dial ; 35(1): 71-80, 2022 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1276770

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients are highly threatened in the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, but evidence of risk factors for mortality in this population is still lacking. METHODS: We followed outcomes of the overall MHD population of Wuhan, including 7154 MHD patients from 65 hemodialysis centers, from January 1 to May 4, 2020. Among them, 130 were diagnosed with COVID-19. The demographic and clinical data of them were collected and compared between survivors and nonsurvivors. RESULTS: Compared to the corresponding period of last year, the all-cause mortality rate of the Wuhan MHD population significantly rose in February, and dropped down in March 2020. Of the 130 COVID-19 cases, 51 (39.2%) were deceased. Advanced age, decreased oxygen saturation, low diastolic blood pressure (DBP) on admission, and complications including acute cardiac injury (HR 5.03 [95% CI 2.21-11.14], p < 0.001), cerebrovascular event (HR 2.80 [95% CI 1.14-6.86], p = 0.025) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (HR 3.50 [95% CI 1.63-7.51], p = 0.001) were identified as independent risk factors for the death of COVID-19. The median virus shedding period of survivors was 25 days, longer than the general population. CONCLUSIONS: Maintenance hemodialysis patients are a highly vulnerable population at increased risk of mortality and prolonged virus shedding period in the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. Advanced age, decreased oxygen saturation, low DBP on admission, and complications like acute cardiac injury are parameters independently associated with poor prognosis.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Humans , Oxygen Saturation , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2
8.
ssrn; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-SSRN | ID: ppzbmed-10.2139.ssrn.3873471

ABSTRACT

Under the impact of Covid-19 virus, remote control is of value in non-contact systems. Glove-based wearable systems are promising for precise and low-cost hand gesture recognition. Yet, preparing stable intelligent fibers using facile techniques for reliable machine learning is still challenging. Here, we propose a stable intelligent fiber via layer-by-layer assemble for reliable machine learning, which exhibits a gauge factor of 4. The adoption of PVA and PU film can improve adherence of CNTs and stability of intelligent fiber during cyclic deformations, thus improving electrical performances and service time. Besides, integrating a flexible hybrid electronic system, we demonstrate remote control of robots using our fabricated glove and a shallow neural network.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
9.
Emerging Markets, Finance & Trade ; 57(6):1652-1661, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1220020

ABSTRACT

Using representative loan-level data in China, this paper shows that bank loans for small businesses are more generous and flexible during the pandemic. In places more severely affected by the pandemic, loans for small businesses have lower costs, shorter maturities, larger amounts, are more likely to be unsecured loans. Small businesses are also more likely to extend the loan repayment, while the probability of defaulting shows no significant differences. Although the easy monetary policies implemented by central banks help small business financing, the government should pay attention to the potential NPL concerns in the post-pandemic periods.

10.
Mathematical Models & Methods in Applied Sciences ; : 1-30, 2021.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1194369

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a zoonotic illness which has spread rapidly and widely since December, 2019, and is identified as a global pandemic by the World Health Organization. The pandemic to date has been characterized by ongoing cluster community transmission. Quarantine intervention to prevent and control the transmission are expected to have a substantial impact on delaying the growth and mitigating the size of the epidemic. To our best knowledge, our study is among the initial efforts to analyze the interplay between transmission dynamics and quarantine intervention of the COVID-19 outbreak in a cluster community. In the paper, we propose a novel Transmission-Quarantine epidemiological model by nonlinear ordinary differential equations system. With the use of detailed epidemiologic data from the Cruise ship “Diamond Princess”, we design a Transmission-Quarantine work-flow to determine the optimal case-specific parameters, and validate the proposed model by comparing the simulated curve with the real data. First, we apply a general SEIR-type epidemic model to study the transmission dynamics of COVID-19 without quarantine intervention, and present the analytic and simulation results for the epidemiological parameters such as the basic reproduction number, the maximal scale of infectious cases, the instant number of recovered cases, the popularity level and the final scope of the epidemic of COVID-19. Second, we adopt the proposed Transmission-Quarantine interplay model to predict the varying trend of COVID-19 with quarantine intervention, and compare the transmission dynamics with and without quarantine to illustrate the effectiveness of the quarantine measure, which indicates that with quarantine intervention, the number of infectious cases in 7 days decrease by about 60%, compared with the scenario of no intervention. Finally, we conduct sensitivity analysis to simulate the impacts of different parameters and different quarantine measures, and identify the optimal quarantine strategy that will be used by the decision makers to achieve the maximal protection of population with the minimal interruption of economic and social development. [ABSTRACT FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Mathematical Models & Methods in Applied Sciences is the property of World Scientific Publishing Company and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This abstract may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full abstract. (Copyright applies to all Abstracts.)

11.
researchsquare; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-379845.v1

ABSTRACT

Since spring 2020, the human world seems to be exceptionally silent due to mobility reduction caused by COVID-19 pandemic. To better measure real-time decline of human mobility and changes of socio-economic activities in a timely manner, we constructed a silent index (SI) based on Google’s mobility data. We systematically investigated the relations between SI, new COVID-19 cases, government policy, and the level of economic development. Results showed a drastic impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on increasing SI. The impact of COVID-19 on human mobility varied significantly by country and places. Bi-directional causality between SI and the new COVID-19 cases was detected, with a lagging period of one to two weeks. The travel restriction and social policies could immediately affect SI in one week; however, could not effectively sustain in the long run. Underdeveloped countries are more affected by the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
12.
biorxiv; 2021.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2021.03.26.437123

ABSTRACT

Approximately half of the SARS-CoV-2 infections occur without apparent symptoms, raising questions regarding long-term humoral immunity in asymptomatic individuals. Plasma levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and M (IgM) against the viral spike or nucleoprotein were determined for 25,091 individuals enrolled in a surveillance program in Wuhan, China. We compared 405 asymptomatic individuals with 459 symptomatic COVID-19 patients. The well-defined duration of the SARS-CoV-2 endemic in Wuhan allowed a side-by-side comparison of antibody responses following symptomatic and asymptomatic infections without subsequent antigen re-exposure. IgM responses rapidly declined in both groups. However, both the prevalence and durability of IgG responses and neutralizing capacities correlated positively with symptoms. Regardless of sex, age, and body weight, asymptomatic individuals lost their SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG antibodies more often and rapidly than symptomatic patients. These findings have important implications for immunity and favour immunization programs including individuals after asymptomatic infections. One-Sentence SummaryPrevalence and durability of SARS-CoV-2-specific IgG responses and neutralizing capacities correlate with COVID-19 symptoms.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
15.
researchsquare; 2021.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-RESEARCHSQUARE | ID: ppzbmed-10.21203.rs.3.rs-145351.v1

ABSTRACT

Background: Remdesivir, a nucleoside analogue antiviral drug developed for Ebola, is approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of COVID-19. However, the findings of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) and observational studies vary regarding the effectiveness of remdesivir. We aimed to comprehensively review the available evidence identify the effectiveness and safety of remdesivir in patients with COVID-19.Methods: Seven databases (PubMed, Web of Science, Embase, Wanfang database, SinoMed, Chinese National Knowledge Infrastructure and Chinese Science Journal Database) were searched for literatures published until November 2020.Following the PRISMA flow diagram, we included RCTs and prospective observational studies that reported the effectiveness and safety of remdesivir in patients with COVID-19. With extracting study details, as well as patient characteristics and outcomes, data were meta-analyzed by using Review Manager software version 5.4.1. Meta-analyses were conducted with fixed-effect model or random-effect model to calculate risk ratio (RR).Results: Four studies involving 2,279 patients were included in this meta-analysis. Compared with placebo, 10-day remdesivir was associated with significant increased clinical improvement on days 14 and 28 with RR 1.19 (95%CI 1.09-1.30) and RR 1.09 (95%CI 1.03-1.16). The clinical improvement of 5-day remdesivir was better than 10-day remdesivir on days 7 with RR 1.20 (95%CI 1.02-1.41), but the efficacy advantage of 5-day remdesivir disappeared on days 14 (RR 1.08; 95%CI 0.90-1.29). Remdesivir was associated with lower serious adverse events rates and grade 3 or 4 adverse events rates as compared with placebo with RR 0.75(95%CI 0.63-0.89) and RR 0.89(95%CI 0.80-0.99). Compared with 10-day remdesivir, 5-day remdesivir for patients with COVID-19 decreased the risk of serious adverse events rates and grade 3 or 4 adverse events rates with RR 0.65(95%CI 0.47-0.88) and RR 0.74 (95%CI 0.58-0.95). Conclusions: Our meta-analysis suggested that remdesivir would increase clinical improvement conditions and decrease serious adverse events on patients with COVID-19. 5-day remdesivir had the similar clinical effectiveness and mortality with 10-day remdesivir, and had lower serious adverse events rate. Comprehensive considering the cost and benefit, 5-day remdesivir may be a better therapeutic option if available medical resources are limited.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
16.
Ther Apher Dial ; 25(1): 55-65, 2021 Feb.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-936606

ABSTRACT

HD care may experience great stress with the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. A modified HD modality named bed-sided short-duration renal replacement therapy (BSRRT) was used in noncritical maintenance HD (MHD) patients diagnosed with COVID-19 in Wuhan due to extreme situation. To determine the safety and efficacy as a substitution for intermittent HD (IHD), we conducted this study. We used the data of 88 noncritical COVID-19 MHD patients collected from 65 medical units at the hospitals in Wuhan, China, from January 1 to March 10, 2020. t-test, Wilcoxon rank sum test, and Fisher exact probability method were used to compare the baseline characteristics, treatment, and death. Log-rank test and Cox regression multivariate analysis was used to compare the survival of noncritical patients who were transferred to BSRRT modality versus those who were continued on the IHD. Univariate analysis showed the level of reported fatigue symptom at present, bilateral lung computed tomography infiltration and steroid treatment differed between the two groups. The outcome of death of the two groups did not show significant differences in univariate analysis (P = .0563). Multivariate Cox regression analysis dialysis showed modality of treatment after COVID-19 diagnosis was not a significant predictor of death (P = .1000). These data suggest that for noncritical COVID-19 MHD patients, the transfer from IHD to BSRRT does not have significant difference in the risk of death compared with IHD group. This finding suggests this modified modality could be an option for the substitution for IHD during the COVID-19 pandemic period.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/therapy , Point-of-Care Systems , Renal Replacement Therapy/methods , COVID-19/epidemiology , China/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
17.
Am J Kidney Dis ; 76(4): 490-499.e1, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-730121

ABSTRACT

RATIONALE & OBJECTIVE: Patients receiving maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) are highly vulnerable to infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). The current study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 infection based on both nucleic acid testing (NAT) and antibody testing in Chinese patients receiving MHD. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING & PARTICIPANTS: From December 1, 2019, to March 31, 2020, a total of 1,027 MHD patients in 5 large hemodialysis centers in Wuhan, China, were enrolled. Patients were screened for SARS-CoV-2 infection by symptoms and initial computed tomography (CT) of the chest. If patients developed symptoms after the initial screening was negative, repeat CT was performed. Patients suspected of being infected with SARS-CoV-2 were tested with 2 consecutive throat swabs for viral RNA. In mid-March 2020, antibody testing for SARS-CoV-2 was obtained for all MHD patients. EXPOSURE: NAT and antibody testing results for SARS-CoV-2. OUTCOMES: Morbidity, clinical features, and laboratory and radiologic findings. ANALYTICAL APPROACH: Differences between groups were examined using t test or Mann-Whitney U test, comparing those not infected with those infected and comparing those with infection detected using NAT with those with infection detected by positive serology test results. RESULTS: Among 1,027 patients receiving MHD, 99 were identified as having SARS-CoV-2 infection, for a prevalence of 9.6%. Among the 99 cases, 52 (53%) were initially diagnosed with SARS-CoV-2 infection by positive NAT; 47 (47%) were identified later by positive immunoglobulin G (IgG) or IgM antibodies against SARS-CoV-2. There was a spectrum of antibody profiles in these 47 patients: IgM antibodies in 5 (11%), IgG antibodies in 35 (74%), and both IgM and IgG antibodies in 7 (15%). Of the 99 cases, 51% were asymptomatic during the epidemic; 61% had ground-glass or patchy opacities on CT of the chest compared with 11.6% among uninfected patients (P<0.001). Patients with hypertensive kidney disease were more often found to have SARS-CoV-2 infection and were more likely to be symptomatic than patients with another primary cause of kidney failure. LIMITATIONS: Possible false-positive and false-negative results for both NAT and antibody testing; possible lack of generalizability to other dialysis populations. CONCLUSIONS: Half the SARS-CoV-2 infections in patients receiving MHD were subclinical and were not identified by universal CT of the chest and selective NAT. Serologic testing may help evaluate the overall prevalence and understand the diversity of clinical courses among patients receiving MHD who are infected with SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/analysis , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Renal Dialysis , COVID-19 , China/epidemiology , Comorbidity , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Prevalence , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Serologic Tests/methods , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
18.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.08.21.20179358

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) affects millions of people and killed hundred-thousands of individuals. While acute and intermediate interactions between SARS-CoV-2 and the immune system have been studied extensively, long-term impacts on the cellular immune system remained to be analyzed. Here, we comprehensively characterized immunological changes in peripheral blood mononuclear cells in 49 COVID-19 convalescent individuals (CI) in comparison to 27 matched SARS-CoV-2 unexposed individuals (UI). Despite recovery from the disease for more than 2 months, CI showed significant decreases in frequencies of invariant NKT and NKT-like cells compared to UI. Concomitant with the decrease in NKT-like cells, an increase in the percentage of Annexin V and 7-AAD double positive NKT-like cells was detected, suggesting that the reduction in NKT-like cells results from cell death months after recovery. Significant increases in regulatory T cell frequencies, TIM-3 expression on CD4 and CD8 T cells, as well as PD-L1 expression on B cells were also observed in CI, while the cytotoxic potential of T cells and NKT-like cells, defined by GzmB expression, was significantly diminished. However, both CD4 and CD8 T cells of CI showed increased Ki67 expression and were fully capable to proliferate and produce effector cytokines upon TCR stimulation. Collectively, we provide the first comprehensive characterization of immune signatures in patients recovering from SARS-CoV-2 infection, suggesting that the cellular immune system of COVID-19 patients is still under a sustained influence even months after the recovery from disease.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
19.
biorxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.07.24.217570

ABSTRACT

A novel STING agonist CDGSF unilaterally modified with phosphorothioate and fluorine was synthesized. CDGSF displayed better STING activity over dithio CDG. Immunization of SARS-CoV-2 Spike protein with CDGSF as an adjuvant elicited an exceptional high antibody titer and a robust T cell response, which were better than the group using aluminium hydroxide as a adjuvant. These results highlighted the adjuvant potential of STING agonist in SARS-CoV-2 vaccine preparation for the first time.


Subject(s)
Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome
20.
medrxiv; 2020.
Preprint in English | medRxiv | ID: ppzbmed-10.1101.2020.07.21.20159178

ABSTRACT

Long-term antibody responses and neutralizing activities following SARS-CoV-2 infections have not yet been elucidated. We quantified immunoglobulin M (IgM) and G (IgG) antibodies recognizing the SARS-CoV-2 receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike (S) or the nucleocapsid (N) protein, and neutralizing antibodies during a period of six months following COVID-19 disease onset in 349 symptomatic COVID-19 patients, which were among the first world-wide being infected. The positivity rate and magnitude of IgM-S and IgG-N responses increased rapidly. High levels of IgM-S/N and IgG-S/N at 2-3 weeks after disease onset were associated with virus control and IgG-S titers correlated closely with the capacity to neutralize SARS-CoV-2. While specific IgM-S/N became undetectable 12 weeks after disease onset in most patients, IgG-S/N titers showed an intermediate contraction phase, but stabilized at relatively high levels over the six months observation period. At late time points the positivity rates for binding and neutralizing SARS-CoV-2-specific antibodies was still over 70%. Taken together, our data indicate sustained humoral immunity in recovered patients who suffer from symptomatic COVID-19, suggesting prolonged immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19
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