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1.
Food and Energy Security ; 11(2), 2022.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1871285

ABSTRACT

Improved canopy structure was instrumental in setting maize yield records, and yet it has rarely been examined in China. At Qitai Farm in Xinjiang, we conducted a 4‐year field experiment using China's six highest‐yielding maize hybrids sorted into three yield level groups that were grown at similar growth durations and at optimum densities. The average yield of high‐yield level (HL, 22.3 Mg ha−1) was 7.2% and 24.6% higher than that of medium‐yield level (ML) and low‐yield level (LL), respectively. For each yield level, we measured morphological traits that influence canopy structure and yield. They included plant height, ear height, ear ratio, internode length, leaf numbers, leaf angle, LOV, leaf area, and spatial density of leaf area. Among the preceding morphological traits of the three yield levels, HL’s best optimized the canopy structure, as shown by improved light distribution (19.0% light transmission at the ear) and increased light interception per unit leaf area per day (LIPA, 51.7 MJ m−2 day−1) in the canopy. In comparison, light transmission was 12.2% and 15.9% at the ear and the total LIPAs were 37.2 and 29.0 MJ m−2 day−1 at silking for ML and LL, respectively. HL had significantly longer leaf area duration and a higher photosynthetic rate, especially at the grain filling stage, and its total accumulated biomass at maturity was significantly better (by 13.9%) than LL’s. HL’s harvest index (0.54) was significantly higher than that of ML (0.52) and LL (0.48). HL’s radiation and heat use efficiencies were 2.61% and 1.37 g °C−1 day−1 m−2, both significantly greater than those of ML and LL. Therefore, optimum maize plant types can significantly improve canopy structure and increase resource use efficiency and grain yield.

2.
Energy ; 248:N.PAG-N.PAG, 2022.
Article in English | Academic Search Complete | ID: covidwho-1788055

ABSTRACT

Boosting natural gas consumption can contribute to a healthy China. To examine the link between natural gas consumption and mortality, this study utilizes a balanced panel dataset including 30 Chinese provinces from 2001 to 2019. The fully modified ordinary least squares (FMOLS) method is employed to reveal the long-term cointegration, and the Dumitrescu and Hurlin (D-H) test is further applied to explore the causal relations. Moreover, this study estimates the mediation effects of particulate matter (PM 2.5) emissions on mortality. The empirical results indicate that climbing natural gas consumption can effectively reduce the mortality rate. At the national level, a 1% increase in natural gas consumption leads to a 0.02% decrease in the mortality rate. In addition, the causality analysis uncovers the existence of significant regional heterogeneity. An increase in natural gas consumption will exert a stronger impact in curbing mortality in high gross domestic product (High-GDP) or high natural gas consumption (High-NG) regions. In addition to directly affecting mortality, natural gas consumption also has an indirect impact through the mediation effects of PM 2.5 emissions. Finally, implications for policy and practice are put forward for the Chinese government pertaining to build a healthy China and advance the natural gas industry. • The nexus between natural gas consumption and mortality in China is investigated for 2001–2019. • Natural gas consumption negatively affects mortality rates. • Bidirectional causality link between natural gas consumption and mortality rate is detected. • Natural gas consumption not only directly affects mortality but also indirectly affect mortality by influencing PM 2.5 emissions. [ FROM AUTHOR] Copyright of Energy is the property of Pergamon Press - An Imprint of Elsevier Science and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listserv without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. This may be abridged. No warranty is given about the accuracy of the copy. Users should refer to the original published version of the material for the full . (Copyright applies to all s.)

3.
Front Psychol ; 13: 810227, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1785406

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused a record global crisis, particularly and extremely, for the service sectors. Due to extensive security measures, many service sector employees have to work remotely to maintain services. Drawing upon the conservation of resources theory, this research investigates the impact of servant leadership on the task performance of employees in virtual working environments during the COVID-19 crisis. Our theoretical model was tested using data collected from 335 individual employees in the education sector of Pakistan. SPSS version 26.0 was applied to find the hypothesized relationship between the study variables. To find the indirect mediating effect, we applied Model 4; for moderation, we applied Model 1; and for the moderation and mediation effect, we applied Model 7 of the Process Macro model of Hayes. The results of the study revealed that servant leadership is positively related to task performance in a virtual environment during crises. Furthermore, psychological empowerment partially mediates the relationship between servant leadership and task performance. Perceived supervisor support positively moderates the relationship between servant leadership and task performance. Moreover, the indirect effect of servant leadership on task performance via psychological empowerment is moderated by perceived supervisor support. The results provided guidance to the educational sector on how to lead effectively in times of crisis when service sector employees work predominantly in virtual environments. The theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed.

4.
EuropePMC; 2022.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-329378

ABSTRACT

Objective: To clarify the accuracy of clusters of regularly spaced short palindrome repeats (CRISPR) technology and chest CT in the diagnosis of Corona Virus Disease2019(COVID-19). Methods: The term "Corona Virus Disease " "clustered regularly spaced short palindromic repeats" "CRISPR", "chest CT", "sensitivity and specificity" as the subject words or keywords were searched in databases such as Pubmed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Wiley and Scopus and Chinese academic databases (such as CNKI, Wanfang and Chongqing VIP data) for relevant literature on the use of CRISPR technology and chest CT for the diagnosis of COVID-19. Meta-analysis was performed after literature screening, quality assessment and data extraction . Results: A total of 418 articles were retrieved, and 17 articles were finally included. The results showed that the combined sensitivity of CRISPR technology for diagnosing new coronary pneumonia infection was 0.96 [95% CI (0.93, 0.98)], and the combined specificity was 1.00 [95% CI (0.92, 1.00)], the combined positive likelihood ratio is 458.69 [95%CI (11.51, 18280.8)], the combined negative likelihood ratio is 0.04 [95% CI (0.02, 0.07)], the area under the SROC curve is 0.99 [95%CI(0.97,0.99)]. The combined sensitivity of chest CT in diagnosing new coronary pneumonia infection was 0.94 [95%CI (0.83, 0.98)], combined specificity was 0.55 [95% CI (0.22, 0.83)], combined diagnostic odds ratio was 19.90 [95% CI (7.88, 50.25)], the combined positive likelihood ratio is 2.08 [95%CI (1.00, 4.32)], the combined negative likelihood ratio is 0.10 [95% CI (0.05, 0.23)], the area under the SROC curve is 0.91 [95% CI (0.88, 0.93)]. The Deek funnel chart indicates that there is no potential publication bias among the included studies (PCRISPR = 0.03, P chest CT = 0.55). Conclusion: CRISPR technology has a better ability to detect infections in patients with COVID-19, and is better than chest CT in disease diagnosis. CRISPR technology, especially non-SHERLOCK type and multi-target gene detection, can be used to diagnose COVID-19 with higher accuracy ,and can be used for large-scale population screening.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324295

ABSTRACT

Objective: To clarify the outcomes of elderly patients with COVID-19. Methods: : All 265 confirmed adult patients with COVID-19 were included in this retrospective study, 43 (16.2%) of whom were 65 years and older. Electronic medical records of the subjects were reviewed to obtain information on clinical characteristics and outcomes. The allocations of medical resource were also recorded. Results: : Only one death case occurred in the elderly. The mortality of elderly patients was no higher than that of young patients (2.3% vs. 0%, P = 0.126). The cure rate was 95.3% in elderly patients and 99.5% in young patients ( P = 0.067), and the duration of hospitalization is 27 days in elderly patients and 18 days in young patients ( P = 0.001). The elderly suffered from more comorbidities (67.4% vs. 24.8%, P < 0.001), most of which is hypertension. Significantly more severe cases occurred in elderly patients compared with young patients (37.2% vs. 16.7%, P = 0.004). The elderly were more likely to present with complications including acute respiratory distress syndrome, acute myocardial injury, septic shock and acute kidney injury (all P < 0.05), respectively. No medical staffs were infected during the treatment of COVID-19. Conclusion: The cure rate and the mortality of the elderly seemed to be no worse than that of the young, though the elderly were with longer hospitalization. Elderly patients with COVID-19 could be treatable if handled properly. More severe cases and complications in elderly patients should prompt for more complex treatment and special considerations.

6.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-324174

ABSTRACT

Background: Recently, investments in the construction of medical resources have been increasing annually China, and consequently, the allocation of these resources has improved. However, the outbreak of covid-19 in 2020 highlights the problems in the distribution of medical institutions. After the occurrence of public health emergencies, the joint action of different levels of medical and health institutions can bring the role of urban medical and health system into full play. Therefore, after a global public health emergency, the study of medical institution distribution needs to be reconsidered. Methods: : With the continuous application and development of GIS, the application of GIS in civil planning is relatively mature, and research investigating distribution has been conducted in depth. Based on this foundation, this paper analyzes the factors impacting distribution, such as the transportation system, land use characteristics and personal factors, by a weighted spatial separation model of a representative city in a cold region in China. Results: : A weighted spatial separation model was built and applied to comprehensively consider several factors affecting accessibility, including the spatial coverage separation, the service areas separation, the road network separation, the population separation and the weather separation. To calculate the accessibility of medical institutions using a weighted spatial separation model, Harbin was chosen as a case study. The accessibility of medical institutions was analyzed. Conclusions: : The accessibility of medical institutions in this representative cold city in China was comparatively analyzed in this paper through theoretical research, software computations/simulations and model analysis based on the GIS paradigm. This study will help optimize the layout of medical institutions and improve medical equality. Trial registration: An ethics review and approval for this study was not required according to the local legislation and institutional requirements.

7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-323648

ABSTRACT

Objective: To explore the early clinical characteristics of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and provide a reference for the early prevention and treatment of the disease. Methods: : We collected and analyzed demographic data, medical history, exposure history, underline diseases, symptoms, signs, laboratory data, chest computed tomographic (CT) scans, and treatment measures of COVID-19 patients admitted to the Sixth People's Hospital of Hangzhou from January 20 to February 23, 2020. Results: : Among 51 confirmed COVID-19 patients included in this study, 7.8% (4/51) patients were severe and 45.1% (23/51) were male. Median age was 43 years (IQR, 23). Fever (54.9%, 28/51) and cough (52.9%, 27/51) were the main symptoms. 74.5% (38/51) patients had a history of exposure and 17.6% (9/51) patients had a history of hypertension. Importantly, most (60.8%, 31/51) patients had an increase of urine β2 microglobulin. In addition, the inflammation indexes (C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A) of patients with elevated urine β2 microglobulin were significantly increased ( p = 0.017 and p = 0.049) and lymphocytes count was significantly reduced ( p = 0.012), compared with patients with normal urine β2 microglobulin. Correlation analysis showed that urine β2 microglobulin was positively correlated with C-reactive protein and serum amyloid A;but negatively correlated with lymphocytes count. Conclusions: : COVID-19 patients have obvious symptoms of lung injury, but the occurrence of early renal tubular injuries has to be monitored vigilantly.

8.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315626

ABSTRACT

The therapeutic effect of tocilizumab remains controversial. We aimed to evaluate whether tocilizumab might be beneficial in COVID-19 patients. We searched PubMed, Embase and Cochrane library from inception to June 23, 2020. Summary estimates of overall response rate (ORR) and all-cause death rate in all patients were analyzed. This study was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020191313). We included data from 28 articles including 991 COVID-19 patients who underwent tocilizumab administration. The pooled ORR was 72% (95% CI, 66-79%) and pooled all-cause death rate was 16% (95% CI, 11-22%). The optimal timing of administration was the 7.15 day from the symptom onset and with the lowest death rate of 13.11%. 562 patients were defined as with severe infection, and the pooled ORR was 78% (95% CI, 70-85%). The pooled ORR of 56 organ transplantation recipients was 53% (95% CI, 26-78%), which was lower than non-transplant patients [75% (95% CI, 69-81%)]. Nearly all studies confirmed the safety of tocilizumab administration. Tocilizumab improves the clinical outcome of COVID-19 patients, especially in severe cases, and the optimal timing of administration may provide the guidance for management. However, tocilizumab may be used with caution in solid transplant recipients for the suboptimal efficacy.

9.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315599

ABSTRACT

Background: Intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) is commonly used to treat severe COVID-19, although the clinical outcomes remain unclear. This study evaluated the effectiveness of IVIG treatment for severe COVID-19. Methods: : This retrospective multi-center study evaluated 28-day mortality and time for SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance in severe COVID-19 patients with or without IVIG treatment. Propensity score matching was used to control confounding factors. Logistic regression and competing risk analyses were performed. Results: : The study included 850 patients (421 patients received IVIG). No significant differences in 28-day mortality or time for SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance were observed ( p =0.357 and p =0.123, respectively). High-dose of IVIG treatment (>10 g/day) (n=27) was associated with decreased 28-day mortality (OR: 0.33, 95% CI: 0.14–0.77;p =0.011). The IVIG group had prolonged median hospitalization, less shock, and higher incidences of acute respiratory distress syndrome, myocardial injury. Furthermore, IVIG-treated patients were more likely to require non-invasive mechanical ventilation and less likely to require invasive mechanical ventilation. Conclusions: : IVIG treatment for severe COVID-19 patients was not associated with significant improvements in 28-day mortality or time for SARS-CoV-2 RNA clearance. However, some improvements in 28-day survival were observed for high-dose IVIG treatment (>10 g/day).

10.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315578

ABSTRACT

Background: Until 24:00 of April 26th 2020, 2,918,268 laboratory-confirmed cases of Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection have been reported worldwide, including 203,528 deaths. Bacterial infection is the main cause of sepsis, however, sepsis caused by virus is often ignored. Increased awareness, early recognition of viral sepsis, rapid administration of appropriate antiviral drugs, and urgent treatment can significantly reduce deaths of viral sepsis. Objectives: Given the rapid global spread of novel Corona Virus Disease (COVID-19), coupled with the high rate of missed diagnosis of viral sepsis caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is urgent to evaluate the multiple organ failure score and viral sepsis in COVID-19 patients, so as to determine the clinical characteristics of viral sepsis more accurately and reveal the risk factors related to mortality. Methods: Here we provide a full description of three cases of viral sepsis and subsequent multiple organ dysfunction (MODS) caused by SARS-CoV-2 infection imported to Guiyang from Wuhan. Results: Complete laboratory examination, imaging data and treatment methods for the patients are analyzed. Sepsis-related Organ Failure Assessment score (SOFA score) and Multiple organ dysfunction scores (MOD score) were daily assessed, aim to elucidate the clinical feature of viral sepsis and MODS and to attract enough attention by clinicians. Conclusions: Therefore, we strongly suggest to daily evaluate SOFA score and MOD score in severe and critically-ill COVID-19 patients, so as to early diagnose and prevention of sepsis and MODS.

11.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-315269

ABSTRACT

In this paper, we introduce Cross-modal Alignment with mixture experts Neural Network (CameNN) recommendation model for intral-city retail industry, which aims to provide fresh foods and groceries retailing within 5 hours delivery service arising for the outbreak of Coronavirus disease (COVID-19) pandemic around the world. We propose CameNN, which is a multi-task model with three tasks including Image to Text Alignment (ITA) task, Text to Image Alignment (TIA) task and CVR prediction task. We use pre-trained BERT to generate the text embedding and pre-trained InceptionV4 to generate image patch embedding (each image is split into small patches with the same pixels and treat each patch as an image token). Softmax gating networks follow to learn the weight of each transformer expert output and choose only a subset of experts conditioned on the input. Then transformer encoder is applied as the share-bottom layer to learn all input features' shared interaction. Next, mixture of transformer experts (MoE) layer is implemented to model different aspects of tasks. At top of the MoE layer, we deploy a transformer layer for each task as task tower to learn task-specific information. On the real word intra-city dataset, experiments demonstrate CameNN outperform baselines and achieve significant improvements on the image and text representation. In practice, we applied CameNN on CVR prediction in our intra-city recommender system which is one of the leading intra-city platforms operated in China.

12.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-312184

ABSTRACT

Understanding chest CT imaging of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) will help detect infections early and assess the disease progression. Especially, automated severity assessment of COVID-19 in CT images plays an essential role in identifying cases that are in great need of intensive clinical care. However, it is often challenging to accurately assess the severity of this disease in CT images, due to variable infection regions in the lungs, similar imaging biomarkers, and large inter-case variations. To this end, we propose a synergistic learning framework for automated severity assessment of COVID-19 in 3D CT images, by jointly performing lung lobe segmentation and multi-instance classification. Considering that only a few infection regions in a CT image are related to the severity assessment, we first represent each input image by a bag that contains a set of 2D image patches (with each cropped from a specific slice). A multi-task multi-instance deep network (called M$

13.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-309028

ABSTRACT

Background: The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by SARS-CoV-2 had spread all over the world, causing public health emergency. Although the diagnosis for COVID-19 such as nucleic acid test and antibody detection have been well defined, there is still a big gap of knowledge regarding for COVID-19 patients receiving convalescent plasma transfusion (CPT) therapy, especially patients with comorbidity of diabetes. Method: In this study, out of 3059 COVID-19 patients admitted in Wuhan Huoshenshan Hospital of China, we described the characteristics of 39 diabetes patients receiving the transfusion of ABO-compatible convalescent plasma, and compared the baseline information and clinical outcome with that of 328 diabetes patients receiving traditional treatment. Results: : It was found that the intervention of CPT therapy was effective and beneficial for COVID-19 patients, including severe or critical patients with comorbidity of diabetes, without obvious adverse effects observing during the treatments. The CPT therapy significantly improved the clinical outcome of diabetes patients with COVID-19 infection, especially the duration based on six categories compared to the patients with traditional therapy. Conclusions: : This study not only provided a better understanding of COVID-19 in diabetes people receiving CPT, but also highlighted the CPT therapy was helpful for COVID-19 patients with comorbidity of diabetes.

14.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308201

ABSTRACT

The spreading pattern of COVID-19 differ a lot across the US states under different quarantine measures and reopening policies. We proposed to cluster the US states into distinct communities based on the daily new confirmed case counts via a nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) followed by a k-means clustering procedure on the coefficients of the NMF basis. A cross-validation method was employed to select the rank of the NMF. Applying the method to the entire study period from March 22 to July 25, we clustered the 49 continental states (including District of Columbia) into 7 groups, two of which contained a single state. To investigate the dynamics of the clustering results over time, the same method was successively applied to the time periods with increment of one week, starting from the period of March 22 to March 28. The results suggested a change point in the clustering in the week starting on May 30, which might be explained by a combined impact of both quarantine measures and reopening policies.

15.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-477789

ABSTRACT

The widespread SARS-CoV-2 in humans results in the continuous emergence of new variants. Recently emerged Omicron variant with multiple spike mutations sharply increases the risk of breakthrough infection or reinfection, highlighting the urgent need for new vaccines with broad-spectrum antigenic coverage. Using inter-lineage chimera and mutation patch strategies, we engineered a recombinant monomeric spike variant (STFK1628x), which showed high immunogenicity and mutually complementary antigenicity to its prototypic form (STFK). In hamsters, a bivalent vaccine comprised of STFK and STFK1628x elicited high titers of broad-spectrum antibodies to neutralize all 14 circulating SARS-CoV-2 variants, including Omicron; and fully protected vaccinees from intranasal SARS-CoV-2 challenges of either the ancestral strain or immune-evasive Beta variant. Strikingly, the vaccination of hamsters with the bivalent vaccine completely blocked the within-cage virus transmission to unvaccinated sentinels, for either the ancestral SARS-CoV-2 or Beta variant. Thus, our study provides new insights and antigen candidates for developing next-generation COVID-19 vaccines.

16.
International Journal of Transportation Science and Technology ; 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1549841

ABSTRACT

University students are young, open to new technologies, and their perceptions of the Shared Autonomous Vehicles (SAVs) may indicate their travel behaviors in the future. College towns in small urban or suburban areas offer researchers a unique environment to understand the travel behaviors of future commuters, and test emerging mobility services, such as SAVs. The study performs a survey with the aim of understanding university student perception regarding SAVs. The survey was conducted among the University of Alabama students in Tuscaloosa. The key survey questions include their knowledge and attitudes about AV and shared mobility. The results showed 97% of respondents are aware of AVs, but only 41% know specific automation technologies. As for shared mobility services, 98% of respondents are familiar with Uber and Lyft services. The survey also asked survey participants to indicate their Willingness-To-Pay (WTP) for hypothetical SAV services in three price scenarios. The prices were assumed as relative to the cost of using ride-hailing services with human drivers such as Uber and Lyft. Random parameter ordered logit models were developed to uncover the correlates of the WTP for SAV services. The models identified significant relationships between the WTP and various factors related to respondents’ socio-demographics, awareness of AV companies, and experiences with human-driver ride-hailing services. The awareness of AV companies and ride-hailing services is positively related to the WTP for SAV services. Students who know more AV companies appear to have a greater WTP, and students who are heavy users of Uber or Lyft services are also likely to SAV users in the future. Significant variations were also found in model estimates, indicating that some relationships could vary significantly across observations due to the unobserved heterogeneity. The findings offer insights to decision-makers and investors trying to estimate the market potential of emerging mobility services with AVs.

17.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-293463

ABSTRACT

The severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a global pandemic of novel corona virus disease (COVID-19). The neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) targeting the receptor binding domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 are among the most promising strategies to prevent and treat COVID-19. However, SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern (VOCs) profoundly reduced the efficacies of most of mAbs and vaccines approved for clinical use. Herein, we demonstrated mAb 35B5 efficiently neutralizes both wild-type (WT) SARS-CoV-2 and VOCs, including B.1.617.2 (delta) variant, in vitro and in vivo . Cryo-electron microscopy (cryo-EM) revealed that 35B5 neutralizes SARS-CoV-2 by targeting a unique epitope that avoids the prevailing mutation sites on RBD identified in circulating VOCs, providing the molecular basis for its pan-neutralizing efficacy. The 35B5-binding epitope could also be exploited for the rational design of a universal SARS-CoV-2 vaccine.

18.
Preprint in English | bioRxiv | ID: ppbiorxiv-468472

ABSTRACT

Remarkable progress has been made in developing intramuscular vaccines against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2); however, they are limited with respect to eliciting local immunity in the respiratory tract, which is the primary infection site for SARS-CoV-2. To overcome the limitations of intramuscular vaccines, we constructed a nasal vaccine candidate based on an influenza vector by inserting a gene encoding the receptor-binding domain (RBD) of the spike protein of SARS-CoV-2, named CA4-dNS1-nCoV-RBD (dNS1-RBD). A preclinical study showed that in hamsters challenged 1 day and 7 days after single-dose vaccination or 6 months after booster vaccination, dNS1-RBD largely mitigated lung pathology, with no loss of body weight, caused by either the prototype-like strain or beta variant of SARS-CoV-2. Lasted data showed that the animals could be well protected against beta variant challenge 9 months after vaccination. Notably, the weight loss and lung pathological changes of hamsters could still be significantly reduced when the hamster was vaccinated 24 h after challenge. Moreover, such cellular immunity is relatively unimpaired for the most concerning SARS-CoV-2 variants. The protective immune mechanism of dNS1-RBD could be attributed to the innate immune response in the nasal epithelium, local RBD-specific T cell response in the lung, and RBD-specific IgA and IgG response. Thus, this study demonstrates that the intranasally delivered dNS1-RBD vaccine candidate may offer an important addition to fight against the ongoing COVID-19 pandemic, compensating limitations of current intramuscular vaccines, particularly at the start of an outbreak.

19.
Drug Evaluation Research ; 43(12):2557-2564, 2020.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1328260

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients are particularly critically ill, often accompanied by D-djurogen elevation, easy to induce or aggravate the occurrence of ischemic stroke. Both diseases have similar symptoms such as headache, vomiting, fever and shortness of breath in the early stages of their medical history, which can easily lead to misdiagnosis, missed diagnosis, and mutual influence, resulting in prolonged course of illness. For patients with COVID-19, anti-venom treatment should be actively taken as soon as possible, combined with stroke patients, the indicator change of D-diamer should be closely monitored, according to its indicators to give patients appropriate anti-thrombosis treatment, once the D-diamer rises, it is recommended to start anticoagulant immediately, while controlling the patient's blood pressure lipids and other high-risk factors. In this paper, combined with the research on stroke-related drug use, this paper discusses the rational drug use strategy and pharmacological care of high-risk groups such as COVID-19 combined with stroke, and provides reasonable drug use reference for such patients.

20.
China Tropical Medicine ; 21(2):128-133, 2021.
Article in Chinese | GIM | ID: covidwho-1190666

ABSTRACT

Objective: To summarize the follow-up results of COVID-19 patients half a year after discharge in Chengdu.

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