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1.
J Clin Invest ; 131(19)2021 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1448084

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUNDThe angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) D allele is more prevalent among African Americans compared with other races and ethnicities and has previously been associated with severe coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pathogenesis through excessive ACE1 activity. ACE inhibitors/angiotensin receptor blockers (ACE-I/ARB) may counteract this mechanism, but their association with COVID-19 outcomes has not been specifically tested in the African American population.METHODSWe identified 6218 patients who were admitted into Mount Sinai hospitals with COVID-19 between February 24 and May 31, 2020, in New York City. We evaluated whether the outpatient and in-hospital use of ACE-I/ARB is associated with COVID-19 in-hospital mortality in an African American compared with non-African American population.RESULTSOf the 6218 patients with COVID-19, 1138 (18.3%) were ACE-I/ARB users. In a multivariate logistic regression model, ACE-I/ARB use was independently associated with a reduced risk of in-hospital mortality in the entire population (OR, 0.655; 95% CI, 0.505-0.850; P = 0.001), African American population (OR, 0.44; 95% CI, 0.249-0.779; P = 0.005), and non-African American population (OR, 0.748, 95% CI, 0.553-1.012, P = 0.06). In the African American population, in-hospital use of ACE-I/ARB was associated with improved mortality (OR, 0.378; 95% CI, 0.188-0.766; P = 0.006), whereas outpatient use was not (OR, 0.889; 95% CI, 0.375-2.158; P = 0.812). When analyzing each medication class separately, ARB in-hospital use was significantly associated with reduced in-hospital mortality in the African American population (OR, 0.196; 95% CI, 0.074-0.516; P = 0.001), whereas ACE-I use was not associated with impact on mortality in any population.CONCLUSIONIn-hospital use of ARB was associated with a significant reduction in in-hospital mortality among COVID-19-positive African American patients.FUNDINGNone.


Subject(s)
African Americans , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/administration & dosage , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/administration & dosage , COVID-19 , Hospital Mortality/ethnology , SARS-CoV-2/metabolism , Aged , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/ethnology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/mortality , Disease-Free Survival , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Retrospective Studies , Survival Rate
2.
Lung Cancer ; 160: 78-83, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1313324

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Patients with lung cancer (LC) are susceptible to severe outcomes from COVID-19. This study evaluated disruption to care of patients with LC during the COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: The COVID-19 and Cancer Outcomes Study (CCOS) is a prospective cohort study comprised of patients with a current or past history of hematological or solid malignancies with outpatient visits between March 2 and March 6, 2020, at two academic cancer centers in the Northeastern United States (US). Data was collected for the three months prior to the index week (baseline period) and the following three months (pandemic period). RESULTS: 313 of 2365 patients had LC, 1578 had other solid tumors, and 474 had hematological malignancies. Patients with LC were not at increased risk of COVID-19 diagnosis compared to patients with other solid or hematological malignancies. When comparing data from the pandemic period to the baseline period, patients with LC were more likely to have a decrease in in-person visits compared to patients with other solid tumors (aOR 1.94; 95% CI, 1.46-2.58), but without an increase in telehealth visits (aOR 1.13; 95% CI 0.85-1.50). Patients with LC were more likely to experience pandemic-related treatment delays than patients with other solid tumors (aOR 1.80; 95% CI 1.13-2.80) and were more likely to experience imaging/diagnostic procedure delays than patients with other solid tumors (aOR 2.59; 95% CI, 1.46-4.47) and hematological malignancies (aOR 2.01; 95% CI, 1.02-3.93). Among patients on systemic therapy, patients with LC were also at increased risk for decreased in-person visits and increased treatment delays compared to those with other solid tumors. DISCUSSION: Patients with LC experienced increased cancer care disruption compared to patients with other malignancies during the early phase of the COVID-19 pandemic. Focused efforts to ensure continuity of care for this patient population are warranted.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Lung Neoplasms , COVID-19 Testing , Humans , Lung Neoplasms/epidemiology , Lung Neoplasms/therapy , Pandemics , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2
3.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13913, 2021 07 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1298850

ABSTRACT

The global surge in COVID-19 cases underscores the need for fast, scalable, and reliable testing. Current COVID-19 diagnostic tests are limited by turnaround time, limited availability, or occasional false findings. Here, we developed a machine learning-based framework for predicting individual COVID-19 positive diagnosis relying only on readily-available baseline data, including patient demographics, comorbidities, and common lab values. Leveraging a cohort of 31,739 adults within an academic health system, we trained and tested multiple types of machine learning models, achieving an area under the curve of 0.75. Feature importance analyses highlighted serum calcium levels, temperature, age, lymphocyte count, smoking, hemoglobin levels, aspartate aminotransferase levels, and oxygen saturation as key predictors. Additionally, we developed a single decision tree model that provided an operable method for stratifying sub-populations. Overall, this study provides a proof-of-concept that COVID-19 diagnosis prediction models can be developed using only baseline data. The resulting prediction can complement existing tests to enhance screening and pandemic containment workflows.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Testing , COVID-19/diagnosis , Demography , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Adult , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Testing/methods , Cohort Studies , Demography/methods , Humans , Machine Learning , Prognosis , ROC Curve
5.
Cancer Med ; 9(22): 8571-8578, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-777421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients with malignancy are particularly vulnerable to infection with Severe Acute Respiratory Disease-Coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) given their immunodeficiency secondary to their underlying disease and cancer-directed therapy. We report a case series of patients with cancer who received convalescent plasma, an investigational therapy for severe Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). METHODS: Patients with cancer were identified who received convalescent plasma. Enrolled patients had confirmed COVID-19 with severe or life-threatening disease and were transfused with convalescent plasma from donors with a SARS-CoV-2 anti-spike antibody titer of ≥ 1:320 dilution. Oxygen requirements and clinical outcomes of interests were captured as well as laboratory parameters at baseline and 3 days after treatment. RESULTS: We identified 24 patients with cancer, 14 of whom had a hematological malignancy, who were treated with convalescent plasma. Fifteen patients (62.5%) were on cancer-directed treatment at the time of COVID-19 infection. After a median of hospital duration of 9 days, 13 patients (54.2%) had been discharged home, 1 patient (4.2%) was still hospitalized, and 10 patients had died (41.7%). Non-intubated patients, particularly those on nasal cannula alone, had favorable outcomes. Three mild febrile non-hemolytic transfusion reactions were observed. C-reactive protein significantly decreased after 3 days of treatment, while other laboratory parameters including ferritin and D-dimer remained unchanged. CONCLUSIONS: Convalescent plasma may be a promising therapy in cancer patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/complications , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Neoplasms/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/complications , Severity of Illness Index , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Coronavirus Infections/transmission , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , Humans , Immunization, Passive , Male , Middle Aged , Neoplasms/epidemiology , Neoplasms/virology , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/transmission , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Prognosis , Risk Factors , SARS-CoV-2 , Survival Rate , United States/epidemiology
6.
Thromb Res ; 196: 99-105, 2020 12.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-723004

ABSTRACT

Observational data suggest an acquired prothrombotic state may contribute to the pathophysiology of COVID-19. These data include elevated D-dimers observed among many COVID-19 patients. We present a retrospective analysis of admission D-dimer, and D-dimer trends, among 1065 adult hospitalized COVID-19 patients, across 6 New York Hospitals. The primary outcome was all-cause mortality. Secondary outcomes were intubation and venous thromboembolism (VTE). Three-hundred-thirteen patients (29.4%) died, 319 (30.0%) required intubation, and 30 (2.8%) had diagnosed VTE. Using Cox proportional-hazard modeling, each 1 µg/ml increase in admission D-dimer level was associated with a hazard ratio (HR) of 1.06 (95%CI 1.04-1.08, p < 0.0001) for death, 1.08 (95%CI 1.06-1.10, p < 0.0001) for intubation, and 1.08 (95%CI 1.03-1.13, p = 0.0087) for VTE. Time-dependent receiver-operator-curves for admission D-dimer as a predictor of death, intubation, and VTE yielded areas-under-the-curve of 0.694, 0.621, and 0.565 respectively. Joint-latent-class-modeling identified distinct groups of patients with respect to D-dimer trend. Patients with stable D-dimer trajectories had HRs of 0.29 (95%CI 0.17-0.49, p < 0.0001) and 0.22 (95%CI 0.10-0.45, p = 0.0001) relative to those with increasing D-dimer trajectories, for the outcomes death and intubation respectively. Patients with low-increasing D-dimer trajectories had a multivariable HR for VTE of 0.18 (95%CI 0.05-0.68, p = 0.0117) relative to those with high-decreasing D-dimer trajectories. Time-dependent receiver-operator-curves for D-dimer trend as a predictor of death, intubation, and VTE yielded areas-under-the-curve of 0.678, 0.699, and 0.722 respectively. Although admission D-dimer levels, and D-dimer trends, are associated with outcomes in COVID-19, they have limited performance characteristics as prognostic tests.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Venous Thromboembolism/etiology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Proportional Hazards Models , Retrospective Studies
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