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1.
Journal of Convention & Event Tourism ; 23(2):179-188, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1868198
2.
Journal of Marketing Education ; : 02734753221093740, 2022.
Article in English | Sage | ID: covidwho-1861881

ABSTRACT

Colleges and universities in the United States swiftly shifted campus-based classes to virtual spaces as a response to extended campus closures necessitated by the COVID-19 pandemic. Synchronous online courses were mandated as a replacement for traditional face-to-face classes in many higher education institutions. We understand that the benefits and drawbacks of synchronous courses need to be reviewed in this environment that has been heavily impacted by the pandemic. Thus, two survey studies were conducted in the fall 2020 and spring 2021 semesters. The findings in Study 1 reveal that students felt more isolated in their studying in the early phase of the pandemic, which increased their preference for the synchronous modality. The results of Study 2 suggest that the perceived isolation effect no longer held. The results from both studies confirm that students prefer an equal split between synchronous and asynchronous components for conceptual courses but prefer additional synchronous components for quantitative courses. A series of regression analyses was conducted to account for such preferences. The results urge educators and administrators to develop a hybrid approach that leverages the benefits of synchronous and asynchronous courses and optimizes online learning and teaching experiences.

3.
Korean Economic Review ; 38(2):251-283, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1820527

ABSTRACT

Compliance with the public health authority guidelines is crucial to prevent the spread of COVID-19 successfully. By analyzing individual responses to a survey, we identify the weakest links, i.e., those who do not follow the guidelines as much as others do, and why they are failing. We find that individuals older than 60 are most enthusiastic in protecting their and others' health and that those younger than 30 are least enthusiastic. We categorize the factors possibly influencing the precautionary behavior into three groups: preference, belief and constraint. It turns out that although beliefs on the effectiveness of protective measures do predict individual differences in their endeavors, they do not vary significantly across gender and age groups. On the other hand, risk, time, and social preferences explain individual differences well and significantly differ across gender and age groups. We also derive an implication for managing long-term risks due to fatigue and depression.

4.
Service Business ; 2022.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1782940

ABSTRACT

This erratum is published as vendor introduced several errors during proof correction. Original article has been corrected. © The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature 2022.

6.
Biophysical Journal ; 121(3):344A-344A, 2022.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1755784
7.
Open Forum Infectious Diseases ; 8(SUPPL 1):S346, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1746506

ABSTRACT

Background. The temporal dynamics of SARS-CoV-2 infectivity in immunocompromised children (IC) are unknown but may have important infection control implications. We evaluated SARS-CoV-2 viral persistence and assessed factors associated with viral persistence and cycle threshold (CT) values as a surrogate of viral load for IC. Methods. We conducted a retrospective cohort study of SARS-CoV-2-positive IC at a large quaternary pediatric hospital from March 2020-2021. Immunocompromised status was defined as primary or secondary/acquired immunodeficiencies due to comorbidities or immunosuppressive treatment. The primary outcome was time to first-of-two consecutively negative SARS-CoV-2 PCR tests ≥ 24 hours apart. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) testing of sequential patient samples was conducted using the Centers for Disease Control 2019-nCoV Real-Time RT-PCR Diagnostic Panel (CDC assay). Chi-square, Fisher exact, and Wilcoxon tests were used to compare demographic and clinical characteristics. Kaplan-Meier curve median event times and log-rank tests were used to compare outcomes. Subjects without 2 consecutive negative tests censored at the last test. Analyses were conducted using SAS v 9.4. Results. Ninety-one children met inclusion criteria, and 67 children had more than 1 test (Figure 1). Median age was 15.5 years (IQR 8-18 yrs), 64% were male, 58% of children were white, and 43% were Latinx. Most (67%) were tested in outpatient settings, and 58% of children were asymptomatic. The median time to two negative tests was 42 days (IQR 25.0,55.0), with no difference in duration of positivity with specific diagnoses, degree of lymphopenia, or symptomatic vs asymptomatic illness. Five of 7 (71%) children with samples available for repeat testing had initial CT values < 30, indicating a moderate to high viral load, and of these, 4 (57%) had repeat testing 21 to 30 days later with CT values < 30 (Figure 2), suggesting persistence of moderate to high viral loads. Figure 1. Plot of immunocompromised children in cohort with positive SARS CoV2 PCR and subsequent testing (n = 67). Timelines of immunocompromised children in cohort with positive SARS CoV2 PCR and subsequent testing, grouped by immunocompromising condition. Each line represents an individual patient. Positive results are shown in light grey, negative results are shown in black. Figure 2. Plot of CT values from SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing over time among children with sequential samples available for retesting (n = 7) Plot of CT values (y axis) from SARS-CoV-2 PCR testing on the CDC assay over time (x axis) in days from initial positive test. Repeated testing which yielded a negative result on the CDC assay or intermittent negative results on clinical testing represented as CT value of 40. Each line represents a unique patient. Conclusion. The median duration of viral persistence among IC with SARS-CoV-2 infection was 6 weeks, with no significant difference in immunocompromised diagnoses or clinical presentation, with over half of children with testing on the same platform having moderate to high viral loads after 3 weeks, suggesting potential transmission risk.

9.
Annals of Applied Statistics ; 15(4):1583-1603, 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1731570

ABSTRACT

Motivated by the analysis of torsion (dihedral) angles in the backbone of proteins, we investigate clustering of bivariate angular data on the torus [-π,π) × [-π,π). We show that naive adaptations of clustering methods, designed for vector-valued data, to the torus are not satisfactory and propose a novel clustering approach based on the conformal prediction framework. We construct several prediction sets for toroidal data with guaranteed finitesample validity, based on a kernel density estimate and bivariate von Mises mixture models. From a prediction set built from a Gaussian approximation of the bivariate von Mises mixture, we propose a data-driven choice for the number of clusters and present algorithms for an automated cluster identification and cluster membership assignment. The proposed prediction sets and clustering approaches are applied to the torsion angles extracted from three strains of coronavirus spike glycoproteins (including SARS-CoV-2, contagious in humans). The analysis reveals a potential difference in the clusters of the SARS-CoV-2 torsion angles, compared to the clusters found in torsion angles from two different strains of coronavirus, contagious in animals. © Institute of Mathematical Statistics, 2021.

10.
Embase;
Preprint in English | EMBASE | ID: ppcovidwho-326761

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 Spike is a key protein that mediates viral entry into cells and elicits antibody responses. Its importance in infection, diagnostics, and vaccinations has created a large demand for purified Spike for clinical and research applications. Spike is difficult to express, prompting modifications to the protein and expression platforms to improve yields. Alternatively, Spike receptor binding domain (RBD) is commonly expressed with higher titers, though it has lower sensitivity in serological assays. Here, we improve transient Spike expression in Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells. We demonstrate that Spike titers increase significantly over the expression period, maximizing at 14 mg/L at day 7. In comparison, RBD titers peak at 54 mg/L at day 3. Next, we develop 8 Spike truncations (T1-T8) in pursuit of a truncation with high expression and antibody binding. The truncations T1 and T4 express at 130 mg/L and 73 mg/L, respectively, which are higher than our RBD titers. Purified proteins were evaluated for binding to antibodies raised against full-length Spike. T1 has similar sensitivity as Spike against a monoclonal antibody and even outperforms Spike for a polyclonal antibody. These results suggest T1 is a promising Spike alternative for use in various applications.

11.
American Studies ; 60(3/4):9-16, 2021.
Article in English | ProQuest Central | ID: covidwho-1678909

ABSTRACT

Overnight, public and communal installations of children's shoes appeared on the steps of governmental buildings and art galleries across the country. Critical inquiry into climate change and its impacts have taken off as interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary endeavors with activists, artists, and academics scrambling to make sense of what it means to be "living on a damaged planet" (Tsing et al., eds, 2017). Constituting what Chela Sandoval (2000) refers to as a "methodology of the oppressed," "a set of processes, procedures, and technologies for decolonizing the imagination" (68), the cultural forms included in this issue respond to the ways impending global impacts of climate change often lead to universalizing assumptions that promote colonialist power hierarchies and exacerbate, not eradicate, racial inequalities. Whether it is Betsy Huang's (2010) argument that Asian Americans can "retool" the genre, "providing different narratives lenses for revising generic imperatives and epistemologies" (102);Grace Dillon's (2012) observation that "Native slipstream thinking, which has been around for millennia, anticipated recent cutting-edge physics" (4);or Jayna Brown's (2021) assertion that "unburdened by investments in belonging to a system created to exclude [Black people] in the first place, we develop marvelous modes of being in and perceiving the universe" (7), there is a deep tradition of Indigenous scholars and scholars of color who understand how speculative fiction can illuminate the time and place of those who exist out of sync with settler temporality.

12.
JACCP Journal of the American College of Clinical Pharmacy ; 4(12):1742, 2021.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1615990

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Thrombocytopenia is associated with severe coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) with the reported incidence rate to be between 5-41.7%. Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is typically considered a minor contributor with low incidence of 0.2-3%. However, one study noted an 8% incidence of HIT in patients with severe COVID-19. Due to the potential higher risk of HIT and the baseline higher risk of thrombosis in severe COVID-19 infection, it is important to evaluate HIT prevalence in severe COVID-19 patients. We reviewed seven potential HIT cases. Case: All seven patients with positive heparin-PF4 antibodies had severe acute respiratory distress syndrome. D-dimer was elevated in four. Median duration of heparin and/or low-molecular-weight heparin exposure was 16 days. In five cases, HIT diagnosis was made greater than 10 days post exposure. All patients had intermediate to high pretest probability for HIT. Three patients had confirmed thrombosis, and one experienced multiple clotted lines (despite negative imaging for thrombosis). Argatroban was initiated in all patients. Serotonin release assay (SRA) was obtained for two patients-one resulted positive. Only two patients survived to be discharged from the intensive care unit/hospital. Discussion: HIT may be a larger contributor to thrombocytopenia in severe COVID-19 patients. When reviewing data from pre-COVID-19 years, the incidence rate of those screened for HIT ranged between 0-4.8%. During our study period, the incidence rate of those screened for HIT was 12.9%. 78% of those with positive antibodies had COVID-19. This potential increased incidence may be attributed to patient/disease specific factors or to increased doses of heparin treatment of possible thrombosis. Until it is further characterized, it is important to screen thrombocytopenic patients with severe COVID-19 for HIT. Conclusion: True incidence of HIT in severe COVID-19 is unclear, but it may be an important contributor to thrombocytopenia that can affect patients' thrombosis risk and anticoagulation choice which merits further review.

13.
European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences ; 25(23):7390-7397, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1576450

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Although remdesivir (GS-5734) has recently demonstrated clinical benefits against the pandemic outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), neuropsychological adverse reactions (ADRs) remain to be examined in real-world settings. Therefore, we aimed to identify and characterize the neuropsychological ADRs associated with remdesivir use. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We obtained data for this international pharmacovigilance cohort study from individual case safety reports (ICSRs) in a World Health Organization database (VigiBase) from the first report on remdesivir on February 17, 2020, until August 30, 2020 (n=1,403,532). ADRs reported to be relevant to remdesivir were compared with the full database by using a Bayesian neural network method to calculate the information component (IC). RESULTS: A total of 2,107 reported cases of neuropsychological ADRs suspected to be associated with remdesivir were identified from among all ICSRs in the database during the observation period. Although 108 neuropsychological ADRs (64 neurologic events and 44 psychologic events) were reported in association with the medication, no statistically significant pharmacovigilance signal could be detected;the ICO25 value was negative for all of the neuropsychological dysfunctions (anxiety [n=13, 0.62%], seizures [n=12, 0.57%], lethargy [n=6, 0.28%], agitation [n=5, 0.25%], cerebral infarction [n=3, 0.14%]. ischemic stroke [n=3, 0.14%], and hemiparesis [n=3, 0.14%]). CONCLUSIONS: Our study demonstrates that remdesivir, a novel drug applied to the treatment of COVID-19, does not have a significant association with adverse neurologic or psychiatric reactions in the real-world setting.

14.
J Med Virol ; 2021.
Article in English | PubMed | ID: covidwho-1549266

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVES: To analyze the clinical presentation and outcomes of myocarditis after administration of the SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine. METHODS: Nine case series and 15 case reports (74 patients) of myocarditis after administration of the BNT162b2 or mRNA-1273 vaccine were reviewed from PubMed, Scopus, Embase, and Web of Science. We analyzed clinical manifestations, diagnostic findings, and outcomes. In addition, we performed a pooled analysis and investigated risk factors leading to admission to ICU and recovery with conservative care. RESULTS: Most patients were male (94.6%), and the median age (range) was 17.6 (14-70) years. Patients who received the BNT162b2 (n=58, 78.4%) vaccine presented fewer systemic symptoms and left ventricular dysfunction than mRNA-1273 recipients. Although patients under 20 years experienced more fever and myalgia, they had better ejection fraction and less prominent myocardial inflammation in magnetic resonance imaging than older patients. The clinical course of all patients was favourable without mortality, and one-third of patients resolved with conservative care alone. Risk factor analyses revealed that patients with gastrointestinal symptoms required intensive care (OR:20.3, 95% CI 1.90-217, p=0.013). CONCLUSION: The risk of fatality in myocarditis subjected to mRNA vaccination seems to be low. While patients with gastrointestinal symptoms received more intensive care, a significant proportion of patients recovered with conservative management. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

15.
Pediatric Blood & Cancer ; 68:S398-S398, 2021.
Article in English | Web of Science | ID: covidwho-1535561
16.
J Am Soc Nephrol ; 32(11): 2958-2969, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1526711

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: The long-term outcome of COVID-19-associated collapsing glomerulopathy is unknown. METHODS: We retrospectively identified 76 native kidney biopsies from patients with history of COVID-19 between March 2020 and April 2021. Presenting and outcome data were obtained for all 23 patients with collapsing glomerulopathy and for seven patients with noncollapsing podocytopathies. We performed APOL1 genotyping by Sanger sequencing, immunostaining for spike and nucleocapsid proteins, and in situ hybridization for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: The 23 patients with COVID-19-associated collapsing glomerulopathy were median age 57 years (range, 35-72), included 16 men, and were predominantly (91%) Black. Severity of COVID-19 was mild or moderate in most (77%) patients. All but one patient presented with AKI, 17 had nephrotic-range proteinuria, and six had nephrotic syndrome. Fourteen (61%) patients required dialysis at presentation. Among 17 patients genotyped, 16 (94%) were high-risk APOL1. Among 22 (96%) patients with median follow-up at 155 days (range, 30-412), 11 (50%) received treatment for COVID-19, and eight (36%) received glucocorticoid therapy for podocytopathy. At follow-up, 19 (86%) patients were alive, and 15 (68%) were dialysis free, including seven of 14 who initially required dialysis. The dialysis-free patients included 64% (seven of 11) of those treated for COVID-19 and 75% (six of eight) of those treated with glucocorticoids for podocytopathy. Overall, 36% achieved partial remission of proteinuria, 32% had no remission, and 32% reached combined end points of ESKD or death. Viral infection of the kidney was not detected. CONCLUSIONS: Half of 14 patients with COVID-19-associated collapsing glomerulopathy requiring dialysis achieved dialysis independence, but the long-term prognosis of residual proteinuric CKD remains guarded, indicating a need for more effective therapy.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/complications , Kidney Glomerulus/pathology , Podocytes/pathology , Renal Insufficiency/pathology , Renal Insufficiency/virology , Adult , Aged , COVID-19/pathology , COVID-19/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Recovery of Function , Renal Dialysis , Renal Insufficiency/therapy , Retrospective Studies , Treatment Outcome
17.
Bulletin Epidemiologique Hebdomadaire ; 2021.
Article in French | GIM | ID: covidwho-1407601

ABSTRACT

Introduction - During the first lockdown of the Covid-19 pandemic in France (17 March-11 May 2020), the National Council for Public Health (HCSP) warned about the impact of the lockdown on children's lifestyle and physical and mental health. The goal of this article is to describe the impact of the first lockdown on key indicators of the health of pregnant women and children, and to compare these indicators between populations with different characteristics. It is based on data from surveys carried out in maternal and child-protection services (PMI) in Paris and in municipal day-care centres (EAPE) by the Department of Family and Early Childhood of the City of Paris (DFPE). Materials and method - The survey of the maternal and child-protection services (EPMI) is based on forms filled by users of the services in October 2020;the day-care survey (EEAPE) is based on a form sent by email in November 2020. Two forms were developed: one for the children, filled by their parents (QE), and one for women who were pregnant or had given birth (QF). All data collected comes from the answers given by the parents or the women. Four groups are considered based on the type of housing in which the families experienced lockdown: "in usual individual housing" and "in very low-income public housing" for the EPMI;"in usual individual housing" and "in another individual housing" for the EEAPE. The EPMI analysis population includes 500 children (between 7 months and 2 years old) and 956 women. The EAPE analysis includes 3,185 children. A descriptive analysis and a comparison of the characteristics between the populations of the same survey were carried out. Results - The families of the day-care survey experienced the lockdown in better conditions than in those in the maternal and child-protection services study, thanks to, on average, more spacious housing and the more frequent presence of the second parent. At least 20% of parents in the day-care survey and 25% of parents in the maternal and child-protection services study reported a negative impact of the first lockdown on the observed indicators of children's health. In the maternal and child-protection services study, the frequency of some negative indicators was higher for families in very low-income public housing, for example sleep disorder or difficulties in relationship with children whereas in the day-care survey the frequency of some of these disturbances was lower for families outside their usual housing. Among pregnant women, at least 68.8% were "particularly worried" during the first lockdown, and health appointments were cancelled for 29.5% of them. Conclusion - The first lockdown had an overall negative impact on the health of children and pregnant women. This impact appears to have differed depending on the conditions in which the confinement was experienced.

18.
IEEE Access ; 2021.
Article in English | Scopus | ID: covidwho-1393641

ABSTRACT

Machine learning requires a large volume of sample data, especially when it is used in high-accuracy medical applications. However, patient records are one of the most sensitive private information that is not usually shared among institutes. This paper presents spatio-temporal split learning, a distributed deep neural network framework, which is a turning point in allowing collaboration among privacy-sensitive organizations. Our spatio-temporal split learning presents how distributed machine learning can be efficiently conducted with minimal privacy concerns. The proposed split learning consists of a number of clients and a centralized server. Each client has only has one hidden layer, which acts as the privacy-preserving layer, and the centralized server comprises the other hidden layers and the output layer. Since the centralized server does not need to access the training data and trains the deep neural network with parameters received from the privacy-preserving layer, privacy of original data is guaranteed. We have coined the term, spatio-temporal split learning, as multiple clients are spatially distributed to cover diverse datasets from different participants, and we can temporally split the learning process, detaching the privacy preserving layer from the rest of the learning process to minimize privacy breaches. This paper shows how we can analyze the medical data whilst ensuring privacy using our proposed multi-site spatio-temporal split learning algorithm on Coronavirus Disease-19 (COVID-19) chest Computed Tomography (CT) scans, MUsculoskeletal RAdiographs (MURA) X-ray images, and cholesterol levels. Author

19.
Notf Rett Med ; 23(5): 356-363, 2020.
Article in German | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1384473

ABSTRACT

After the initial fulminant outbreak, the SARS-CoV­2 pandemic has now taken a more protracted course which, nevertheless, challenges hospitals in returning to a "normal" mode and in preparing for a worst-case scenario of a second wave. Not only the organization of the first contact with the patient and the admission in the emergency department but also the admission as an in-patient and the subsequent management requires both flexibility and clear directions of action for the medical personnel involved. The aim of the algorithm was to develop a structured, easy to implement and easy to follow guideline while simultaneously preserving resources. The algorithm covers some key points of decision making such as clinical signs, first contact, admission for in-patient treatment, consequences of swab and computed tomography (CT) results, and allocation and isolation measures within the hospital. The algorithm is not intended to guide diagnostics, decisions and treatment in the narrower medical sense but to provide more general instructions for the management of in-patients considering specific aspects of SARS-CoV­2.

20.
Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics ; 121(9, Supplement):A89, 2021.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1364174
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