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Sci Rep ; 11(1): 21568, 2021 11 03.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1500503


We aimed to investigate the associations of previous influenza/URI with the susceptibility of COVID-19 patients compared to that of non-COVID-19 participants. A nationwide COVID-19 cohort database was collected by the Korea National Health Insurance Corporation. A total of 8,070 COVID-19 patients (1 January 2020 through 4 June 2020) were matched with 32,280 control participants. Severe COVID-19 morbidity was defined based on the treatment histories of the intensive care unit, invasive ventilation, and extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and death. The susceptibility/morbidity/mortality associated with prior histories of 1-14, 1-30, 1-90, 15-45, 15-90, and 31-90 days before COVID-19 onset were analyzed using conditional/unconditional logistic regression. Prior influenza infection was related to increased susceptibility to COVID-19 (adjusted odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 3.07 [1.61-5.85] for 1-14 days and 1.91 [1.54-2.37] for 1-90 days). Prior URI was also associated with increased susceptibility to COVID-19 (6.95 [6.38-7.58] for 1-14 days, 4.99 [4.64-5.37] for 1-30 days, and 2.70 [2.55-2.86] for 1-90 days). COVID-19 morbidity was positively associated with influenza (3.64 [1.55-9.21] and 3.59 [1.42-9.05]) and URI (1.40 [1.11-1.78] and 1.28 [1.02-1.61]) at 1-14 days and 1-30 days, respectively. Overall, previous influenza/URI did not show an association with COVID-19 mortality. Previous influenza/URI histories were associated with increased COVID-19 susceptibility and morbidity. Our findings indicate why controlling influenza/URI is important during the COVID-19 pandemic.

COVID-19 , Adult , Cohort Studies , Humans , Middle Aged , Morbidity , Republic of Korea
BMJ Open ; 11(10): e054753, 2021 10 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1462976


OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) among patients with COVID-19 and the association between RA and the outcome of COVID-19 remain unclear. We aimed to compare the prevalence of RA between participants with and without COVID-19; we then analysed the association between the presence of RA and the severity of COVID-19. DESIGN: A cross-sectional study. SETTING: Data from a nationwide COVID-19 cohort database by the Korea National Health Insurance Corporation were used. PARTICIPANTS AND INTERVENTIONS: A total of 8070 patients with COVID-19 (1 January 2020 through 4 June 2020) were matched with 32 280 control participants with regard to age, sex and income. Patients with COVID-19 were confirmed by SARS-CoV-2 PCR and controls were collected from the database. RA was confirmed using the diagnostic code (International Classification of Disease, Tenth Revision) and medication claim codes. Conditional/unconditional logistic regression was applied to analyse the association between RA and COVID-19. PRIMARY OUTCOME AND SECONDARY OUTCOME: Laboratory confirmation of SARS-CoV-2 infection was defined as the primary outcome. The secondary outcome was severe COVID-19 defined as a history of intensive care unit admission, invasive ventilation or death. RESULTS: The prevalence of RA in the COVID-19 (0.4%, 35/8070) and control (0.4%, 121/32,280) groups did not differ (p=0.446). After adjusting for underlying diseases, no association between RA and COVID-19 was observed (adjusted OR=1.14, 95% CI: 0.78 to 1.67) and COVID-19 severity was not associated with RA (adjusted OR=0.62, 95% CI: 0.14 to 7.29). The overall mortality rate was 2.9% (237/8070) and RA was not significantly associated with mortality (adjusted OR=1.64, 95% CI: 0.33 to 8.15). CONCLUSION: We did not find an association between the presence of RA and COVID-19. In addition, RA was not associated with the severity of COVID-19.

Arthritis, Rheumatoid , COVID-19 , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/complications , Arthritis, Rheumatoid/epidemiology , Cohort Studies , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Republic of Korea/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
J Clin Med ; 10(20)2021 Oct 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463728


BACKGROUND: There is controversial evidence of the associations of asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) with the risk and outcomes of Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19). We aimed to evaluate the effects of asthma and COPD on the susceptibility to and severity of COVID-19. METHODS: Data from a nationwide COVID-19 cohort database by the Korea National Health Insurance Corporation were utilized. A total of 4066 COVID-19 patients (1 January 2020 through 4 June 2020) were 1:4 matched with 16,264 controls with regard to age, sex, and income. Asthma and COPD were defined as diagnostic codes (ICD-10) and medication claim codes. Conditional and unconditional multivariate logistic regression were applied to analyze the susceptibility to and severity of COVID-19 associated with asthma and COPD. RESULTS: The prevalence of mild and severe asthma/COPD did not differ between the COVID-19 and control patients in the multivariate analyses. Among the total 4066 COVID-19 patients, 343 (8.4%) had severe COVID-19, of whom 132 (3.2% of the total COVID-19 patients) died. Regarding the outcomes of COVID-19, neither mild nor severe asthma were associated with the severity or mortality of COVID-19 after adjusting for other variables. However, severe COPD was a significant risk factor for severe COVID-19 (odds ratio (OR) = 2.23, 95% confidence intervals (CI): 1.08-4.60, p = 0.030) and the mortality of COVID-19 in the multivariate analyses (OR = 3.06, 95% CI: 1.14-8.2, p = 0.026). CONCLUSIONS: In a Korean nationwide cohort, neither asthma nor COPD were associated with COVID-19, but severe COPD was associated with the severity and mortality of COVID-19.