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1.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308437

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with coagulation disorders, in particular high levels of D-dimers, and increased frequency of venous thromboembolism (VTE). We explore the association between D-dimers at admission and in-hospital mortality in hospitalized COVID-19 patients with or without symptomatic VTE. Methods: : From February 26 to April 20, 2020, D-dimer level at admission and outcomes of patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in medical wards (in-hospital mortality or VTE) were retrospectively analyzed in a multicenter study in 24 French hospitals. Results: : Among 2878 patients enrolled in the study, 1154 (40.9%) patients had D-dimer measurement at admission. A receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis identified D-dimer level above 1128 ng/mL as the optimum cutoff value to predict in-hospital mortality (Area Under the Curve of 64.9% (95% CI 0.60–0.69) with a sensitivity of 71.1% (95% CI 0.62–0.78) and a specificity of 55.6% (95% CI 0.52–0.58) that not differ in the subgroup of patients with VTE during hospitalization. Among 609 (52.8%) patients with D-dimers level < 1128 ng/mL at admission, only 35 (5.7%) deaths occurred during hospitalization. After adjustment, in a cox proportional hazard and logistic regression models, D-dimers above 1128 ng/mL at admission were also associated to a worth prognosis with a OR of 3.07 (95% CI 2.05–4.69, p < 0.001) and an unadjusted hazard ratio of 2.11 (95%CI 1.31–3.4, p < 0.01). Conclusions: : D-dimer level over 1128 ng/mL is a relevant predictive factor for in-hospital mortality in COVID-19 hospitalized patients in medical ward, regardless the occurrence of VTE during hospitalization.

2.
Vaccine ; 40(9): 1223-1230, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683647

ABSTRACT

Vaccine discovery and vaccination against preventable diseases are one of most important achievements of the human race. While medical, scientific & technological advancements have kept in pace and found their way into treatment options for a vast majority of diseases, vaccines as a prevention tool in the public health realm are found languishing in the gap between such innovations and their easy availability/accessibility to vulnerable populations. This paradox has been best highlighted during the unprecedented crisis of the COVID-19 pandemic. As part of a two series publication on the vaccine industry's view on how to accelerate the availability of vaccines worldwide, this paper offers a deep dive into detailed proposals to enable this objective. These first-of-its-kind technical proposals gleaned from challenges and learnings from the COVID-19 pandemic are applicable to vaccines that are already on the market for routine pathogens as well as for production of new(er) vaccines for emerging pathogens with a public health threat potential. The technical proposals offer feasible and sustainable solutions in pivotal areas such as process validation, comparability, stability, post-approval changes, release testing, packaging, genetically modified organisms and variants, which are linked to manufacturing and quality control of vaccines. Ultimately these proposals aim to ease high regulatory complexity and heterogeneity surrounding the manufacturing & distribution of vaccines, by advocating the use of (1) Science and Risk based approaches, (2) global regulatory harmonization, (3) use of reliance, work-sharing, and recognition processes and (4) digitalization. Capitalizing & collaborating on such new-world advancements into the science of vaccines will eventually benefit the world by turning vaccines into vaccination, ensuring the health of everyone.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination
3.
Vaccine ; 40(9): 1215-1222, 2022 02 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1683646

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic has shown itself to be an unprecedented challenge for vaccines which are widely recognized as the most important tool to exit this pandemic. We have witnessed vaccine scientists, developers, manufacturers, and stakeholders deliver several vaccines in just about a year. This is an unprecedented achievement in an environment that was not ready to manage such a global public health crisis. Indeed, the pandemic has highlighted some hurdles that need to be addressed in the system in order to streamline the regulatory processes and be in a situation where life-saving pharmaceutical solutions such as vaccines can be delivered quickly and equitably to people across the globe. More precisely, trade-offs had to be made between the need for regulatory flexibility in the requirements for manufacturing and controls to enable rapid availability of large volumes of vaccines vs the increased stringency and the lack of harmonization in the regulatory environment for vaccines globally. It is also characterized by a high heterogeneity in terms of review and approval processes, limiting equitable and timely access. We review and highlight the challenges relating to several topics, including process validation, comparability, stability, post-approval-changes, release testing, packaging, genetically modified organisms and variants. We see four areas for accelerating access to vaccines which provide solutions for the regulatory concerns, (1) science- and risk-based approaches, (2) global regulatory harmonization, (3) use of reliance, work-sharing, and recognition processes and (4) digitalization. These solutions are not new and have been previously highlighted. In recent months, we have seen some progress at the health authority level, but still much needs to be done. It is now time to reflect on the first lessons learnt from a devastating pandemic to ultimately ensure quick and wide access to medicines and vaccines for the citizens and patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Vaccines , Humans , Pandemics/prevention & control , Public Health , SARS-CoV-2
4.
J Am Heart Assoc ; 10(8): e018624, 2021 04 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1189969

ABSTRACT

Background Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a respiratory disease associated with thrombotic outcomes with coagulation and endothelial disorders. Based on that, several anticoagulation guidelines have been proposed. We aimed to determine whether anticoagulation therapy modifies the risk of developing severe COVID-19. Methods and Results Patients with COVID-19 initially admitted in medical wards of 24 French hospitals were included prospectively from February 26 to April 20, 2020. We used a Poisson regression model, Cox proportional hazard model, and matched propensity score to assess the effect of anticoagulation on outcomes (intensive care unit admission or in-hospital mortality). The study enrolled 2878 patients with COVID-19, among whom 382 (13.2%) were treated with oral anticoagulation therapy before hospitalization. After adjustment, anticoagulation therapy before hospitalization was associated with a better prognosis with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.70 (95% CI, 0.55-0.88). Analyses performed using propensity score matching confirmed that anticoagulation therapy before hospitalization was associated with a better prognosis, with an adjusted hazard ratio of 0.43 (95% CI, 0.29-0.63) for intensive care unit admission and adjusted hazard ratio of 0.76 (95% CI, 0.61-0.98) for composite criteria intensive care unit admission or death. In contrast, therapeutic or prophylactic low- or high-dose anticoagulation started during hospitalization were not associated with any of the outcomes. Conclusions Anticoagulation therapy used before hospitalization in medical wards was associated with a better prognosis in contrast with anticoagulation initiated during hospitalization. Anticoagulation therapy introduced in early disease could better prevent COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and endotheliopathy, and lead to a better prognosis.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19 , Intensive Care Units/statistics & numerical data , Thromboembolism/prevention & control , Blood Coagulation/drug effects , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19/therapy , Early Medical Intervention/methods , Endothelium, Vascular/drug effects , Endothelium, Vascular/physiopathology , Female , France/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Hospitalization/statistics & numerical data , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , Protective Factors , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Severity of Illness Index , Thromboembolism/epidemiology
5.
Arch Cardiovasc Dis ; 114(5): 381-393, 2021 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179190

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with coagulation disorders, in particular high concentrations of D-dimer, and increased frequency of venous thromboembolism. AIM: To explore the association between D-dimer at admission and in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalised for COVID-19, with or without symptomatic venous thromboembolism. METHODS: From 26 February to 20 April 2020, D-dimer concentration at admission and outcomes (in-hospital mortality and venous thromboembolism) of patients hospitalised for COVID-19 in medical wards were retrospectively analysed in a multicenter study in 24 French hospitals. RESULTS: Among 2878 patients enrolled in the study, 1154 (40.1%) patients had D-dimer measurement at admission. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified a D-dimer concentration>1128ng/mL as the best cut-off value for in-hospital mortality (area under the curve 64.9%, 95% confidence interval [CI] 60-69), with a sensitivity of 71.1% (95% CI 62-78) and a specificity of 55.6% (95% CI 52-58), which did not differ in the subgroup of patients with venous thromboembolism during hospitalisation. Among 545 (47.2%) patients with D-dimer concentration>1128ng/mL at admission, 86 (15.8%) deaths occurred during hospitalisation. After adjustment, in Cox proportional hazards and logistic regression models, D-dimer concentration>1128ng/mL at admission was also associated with a worse prognosis, with an odds ratio of 3.07 (95% CI 2.05-4.69; P<0.001) and an adjusted hazard ratio of 2.11 (95% CI 1.31-3.4; P<0.01). CONCLUSIONS: D-dimer concentration>1128ng/mL is a relevant predictive factor for in-hospital mortality in patients hospitalised for COVID-19 in a medical ward, regardless of the occurrence of venous thromboembolism during hospitalisation.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/blood , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Thrombophilia/blood , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Area Under Curve , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/mortality , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , Child , Child, Preschool , Electronic Health Records , France/epidemiology , Hospital Mortality , Humans , Infant , Infant, Newborn , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Patients' Rooms , Prognosis , Proportional Hazards Models , ROC Curve , Retrospective Studies , Thrombophilia/drug therapy , Thrombophilia/etiology , Venous Thromboembolism/epidemiology , Young Adult
6.
Front Med (Lausanne) ; 7: 586307, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-954333

ABSTRACT

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with cardiovascular complications and coagulation disorders. Objectives: To explore clinical and biological parameters of COVID-19 patients with hospitalization criteria that could predict referral to intensive care unit (ICU). Methods: Analyzing the clinical and biological profiles of COVID-19 patients at admission. Results: Among 99 consecutive patients that fulfilled criteria for hospitalization, 48 were hospitalized in the medicine department, 21 were first admitted to the medicine ward department and referred later to ICU, and 30 were directly admitted to ICU from the emergency department. At admission, patients requiring ICU were more likely to have lymphopenia, decreased SpO2, a D-dimer level above 1,000 ng/mL, and a higher high-sensitivity cardiac troponin (Hs-cTnI) level. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis identified Hs-cTnI above 9.75 pg/mL as the best predictive criteria for ICU referral [area under the curve (AUC), 86.4; 95% CI, 76.6-96.2]. This cutoff for Hs-cTnI was confirmed in univariate [odds ratio (OR), 22.8; 95% CI, 6.0-116.2] and multivariate analysis after adjustment for D-dimer level (adjusted OR, 20.85; 95% CI, 4.76-128.4). Transthoracic echocardiography parameters subsequently measured in 72 patients showed an increased right ventricular (RV) afterload correlated with Hs-cTnI (r = 0.42, p = 0.010) and D-dimer (r = 0.18, p = 0.047). Conclusion: Hs-cTnI appears to be the best relevant predictive factor for referring COVID-19 patients to ICU. This result associated with the correlation of D-dimer with RV dilatation probably reflects a myocardial injury due to an increased RV wall tension. This reinforces the hypothesis of a COVID-19-associated microvascular thrombosis inducing a higher RV afterload.

7.
J Thromb Haemost ; 18(9): 2391-2399, 2020 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-607342

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) has been associated with cardiovascular complications and coagulation disorders. OBJECTIVES: To explore the coagulopathy and endothelial dysfunction in COVID-19 patients. METHODS: The study analyzed clinical and biological profiles of patients with suspected COVID-19 infection at admission, including hemostasis tests and quantification of circulating endothelial cells (CECs). RESULTS: Among 96 consecutive COVID-19-suspected patients fulfilling criteria for hospitalization, 66 were tested positive for SARS-CoV-2. COVID-19-positive patients were more likely to present with fever (P = .02), cough (P = .03), and pneumonia at computed tomography (CT) scan (P = .002) at admission. Prevalence of D-dimer >500 ng/mL was higher in COVID-19-positive patients (74.2% versus 43.3%; P = .007). No sign of disseminated intravascular coagulation were identified. Adding D-dimers >500 ng/mL to gender and pneumonia at CT scan in receiver operating characteristic curve analysis significantly increased area under the curve for COVID-19 diagnosis. COVID-19-positive patients had significantly more CECs at admission (P = .008) than COVID-19-negative ones. COVID-19-positive patients treated with curative anticoagulant prior to admission had fewer CECs (P = .02) than those without. Interestingly, patients treated with curative anticoagulation and angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers had even fewer CECs (P = .007). CONCLUSION: Curative anticoagulation could prevent COVID-19-associated coagulopathy and endothelial lesion.


Subject(s)
Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , COVID-19/therapy , Aged , Angiotensin Receptor Antagonists/therapeutic use , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Disorders/complications , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Cardiovascular Diseases/complications , Endothelial Cells/metabolism , Female , Fibrin Fibrinogen Degradation Products/analysis , Hemostasis , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Patient Admission , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Prevalence , Prospective Studies , ROC Curve , Tomography, X-Ray Computed
8.
Angiogenesis ; 23(4): 611-620, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-377964

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19), a respiratory disease has been associated with ischemic complications, coagulation disorders, and an endotheliitis. OBJECTIVES: To explore endothelial damage and activation-related biomarkers in COVID-19 patients with criteria of hospitalization for referral to intensive care unit (ICU) and/or respiratory worsening. METHODS: Analysis of endothelial and angiogenic soluble markers in plasma from patients at admission. RESULTS: Study enrolled 40 consecutive COVID-19 patients admitted to emergency department that fulfilled criteria for hospitalization. Half of them were admitted in conventional wards without any ICU transfer during hospitalization; whereas the 20 others were directly transferred to ICU. Patients transferred in ICU were more likely to have lymphopenia, decreased SpO2 and increased D-dimer, CRP and creatinine levels. In those patients, soluble E-selectin and angiopoietin-2 were significantly increased (p value at 0.009 and 0.003, respectively). Increase in SELE gene expression (gene coding for E-selectin protein) was confirmed in an independent cohort of 32 patients using a whole blood gene expression profile analysis. In plasma, we found a strong association between angiopoetin-2 and CRP, creatinine and D-dimers (with p value at 0.001, 0.001 and 0.003, respectively). ROC curve analysis identified an Angiopoietin-2 cut-off of 5000 pg/mL as the best predictor for ICU outcome (Se = 80.1%, Sp = 70%, PPV = 72.7%, NPV = 77%), further confirmed in multivariate analysis after adjustment for creatinine, CRP or D-dimers. CONCLUSION: Angiopoietin-2 is a relevant predictive factor for ICU direct admission in COVID-19 patients. This result showing an endothelial activation reinforces the hypothesis of a COVID-19-associated microvascular dysfunction.


Subject(s)
Angiopoietin-2/blood , Coronavirus Infections/blood , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Endothelium, Vascular/metabolism , Intensive Care Units , Pneumonia, Viral/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Aged , Betacoronavirus , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19 , Critical Care/methods , E-Selectin/blood , Female , Gene Expression Profiling , Hospitalization , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Patient Admission , Prospective Studies , Respiration, Artificial , SARS-CoV-2
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