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1.
Lancet Rheumatol ; 2022 Mar 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1764076

ABSTRACT

Background: Multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) is a rare but serious complication of infection with SARS-CoV-2. A possible involvement of pathogenetically relevant autoantibodies has been discussed. Recently, neutralising autoantibodies against inflammatory receptor antagonists progranulin and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) were found in adult patients with critical COVID-19. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of such autoantibodies in MIS-C. Methods: In this multicentre, retrospective, cohort study, plasma and serum samples were collected from patients (0-18 years) with MIS-C (as per WHO criteria) treated at five clinical centres in Germany and Spain. As controls, we included plasma or serum samples from children with Kawasaki disease, children with inactive systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis, and children with suspected growth retardation (non-inflammatory control) across four clinical centres in Germany and Spain (all aged ≤18 years). Serum samples from the CoKiBa trial were used as two further control groups, from healthy children (negative for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies) and children with previous mild or asymptomatic COVID-19 (aged ≤17 years). MIS-C and control samples were analysed for autoantibodies against IL-1Ra and progranulin, and for IL-1Ra concentrations, by ELISA. Biochemical analysis of plasma IL-1Ra was performed with native Western blots and isoelectric focusing. Functional activity of the autoantibodies was examined by an in vitro IL-1ß-signalling reporter assay. Findings: Serum and plasma samples were collected between March 6, 2011, and June 2, 2021. Autoantibodies against IL-1Ra could be detected in 13 (62%) of 21 patients with MIS-C (11 girls and ten boys), but not in children with Kawasaki disease (n=24; nine girls and 15 boys), asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 (n=146; 72 girls and 74 boys), inactive systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (n=10; five girls and five boys), suspected growth retardation (n=33; 13 girls and 20 boys), or in healthy controls (n=462; 230 girls and 232 boys). Anti-IL-1Ra antibodies in patients with MIS-C belonged exclusively to the IgG1 subclass, except in one patient who had additional IL-1Ra-specific IgM antibodies. Autoantibodies against progranulin were only detected in one (5%) patient with MIS-C. In patients with MIS-C who were positive for anti-IL-1Ra antibodies, free plasma IL-1Ra concentrations were reduced, and immune-complexes of IL-1Ra were detected. Notably, an additional, hyperphosphorylated, transiently occurring atypical isoform of IL-1Ra was observed in all patients with MIS-C who were positive for anti-IL-1Ra antibodies. Anti-IL-1Ra antibodies impaired IL-1Ra function in reporter cell assays, resulting in amplified IL-1ß signalling. Interpretation: Anti-IL-1Ra autoantibodies were observed in a high proportion of patients with MIS-C and were specific to these patients. Generation of these autoantibodies might be triggered by an atypical, hyperphosphorylated isoform of IL-1Ra. These autoantibodies impair IL-1Ra bioactivity and might thus contribute to increased IL-1ß-signalling in MIS-C. Funding: NanoBioMed fund of the University of Saarland, José Carreras Center for Immuno and Gene Therapy, Dr Rolf M Schwiete Stiftung, Staatskanzlei Saarland, German Heart Foundation, Charity of the Blue Sisters, Bavarian Ministry of Health, the Center for Interdisciplinary Clinical Research at University Hospital Münster, EU Horizon 2020.

2.
Int J Environ Res Public Health ; 19(5)2022 02 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1715364

ABSTRACT

This study aimed to compare worries related to the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in families with young children in two regions in Germany differently affected by the pandemic (Regensburg in Southeast Germany, Leipzig in Eastern Germany) during the first and the second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic. 720 parents participating in the KUNO Kids health study in Regensburg (n = 507) or the LIFE Child study in Leipzig (n = 213) answered questions regarding COVID-19-related worries and trust in anti-pandemic policy measures during the first wave (spring 2020) and during the second wave (winter 2020/2021) of the pandemic. Ordinal mixed-effects models were performed to assess differences depending on region and time, adjusting for education and migration background. Participants worried most about the general economic situation and their family and least about their own health or financial situation. Worries about oneself, family, friends, hometown, and country were stronger during the second than during the first wave. In regional comparisons, worries about family, friends, and hometown increased more pronouncedly from wave 1 to wave 2 in Leipzig (OR ranging from 2.67 (95% CI 1.71-4.19) to 3.01 (95% CI 1.93-4.71), all p < 0.001) than in Regensburg (OR ranging from to 1.38 (95% CI 1.08-1.78) to 1.72 (95% CI 1.33-2.21), all p < 0.05), running parallel with the increase in SARS-CoV-2 infections. Trust in anti-pandemic policy measures, in contrast, decreased significantly between wave 1 and wave 2, with a stronger decrease in Regensburg (OR = 0.30 (95% CI 0.22-0.39), p < 0.001) than in Leipzig (OR = 0.91 (95% CI 0.59-1.41), n.s.). The degree of families' COVID-19-related worries differs by region and time, which might be related to differences in infection rates and public interest. Regional differences should be taken into account when developing communication strategies and policy measures during the COVID-19 pandemic.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Influenza, Human , COVID-19/epidemiology , Child , Child, Preschool , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Influenza, Human/epidemiology , Longitudinal Studies , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
3.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-307285

ABSTRACT

Background: The present study aimed to compare worries related to the Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) in families with young children in two regions in Germany differently affected by the pandemic (Regensburg in Southeast Germany, Leipzig in Eastern Germany) during the first and the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemicMethods720 parents participating in the KUNO Kids health study in Regensburg (n = 507) or the LIFE Child study in Leipzig (n = 213) answered questions regarding COVID-19-related worries and trust in anti-pandemic policy measures at two time points, during the first wave (spring 2020) and during the second wave (winter 2020/2021) of the pandemic. Ordinal mixed-effects models were performed to assess differences depending on region (Regensburg versus Leipzig) and time (first versus second wave), adjusting for education and migration background. ResultsParticipants worried most about the general economic situation and their family and least about their own health or financial situation. Most COVID-19-related worries were stronger during the second than during the first wave. In regional comparisons, worries about family, friends, and hometown increased more pronouncedly from wave 1 to wave 2 in Leipzig than in Regensburg, paralleling the increase in SARS-CoV-2 infections. Trust in anti-pandemic policy measures, in contrast, decreased significantly between wave 1 and wave 2, with a stronger decrease in Regensburg. ConclusionsThe degree of families’ COVID-19-related worries differs by region and time, which might be related to differences in infection rates and public interest.

4.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-305499

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) affects primarily the respiratory system but neurologic manifestations of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) are possible. Serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) has recently been considered as a specific biomarker to quantitate neuro-axonal damage. Concentrations of sNfL were determined in a prospective cohort study of 100 health care workers (84 females, 16 males) following a COVID-19 outbreak in a large hospital by using the single molecule array (Simoa) NF-light advantage kit. Twenty eight health care workers contracted mild-to-moderate COVID-19, recovered after 1-3 weeks without hospitalization and showed no or only minor neurological symptoms such as anosmia, fatigue or headache. sNfL levels were consistently higher in older persons and multivariable linear regression analysis revealed COVID-19 status as an independent predictor of sNfL (p=.005). In conclusion, increased sNfL levels in mild-to-moderate COVID-19 patients points towards a more general neuro-destructive capability of SARS-CoV-2.

5.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-314910

ABSTRACT

Background: Children are affected rather mildly by the acute phase of COVID-19, but predominantly in children and youths, the potentially severe and life threatening pediatric multiorgan immune syndrome (PMIS) occurs later on. To identify children at risk early on, we searched for antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 and searched for early and mild symptoms of PMIS in those with high levels of antibodies. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, children aged 1-17 were recruited through primary care pediatricians for the study (a), if they had an appointment for a regular health check-up or (b), or if parents and children volunteered to participate in the study. Two antibody tests were performed in parallel and children with antibody levels >97th percentile (in the commercially available test) were screened for signs and symptoms of PMIS and SARS-CoV-2 neutralization tests were performed. Results: We identified antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in 162 of 2832 eligible children (5.7%) between June and July 2020 in three, in part strongly affected regions of Bavaria. Approximately 60% of antibody positive children showed high levels of antibodies. In those who participated in the follow up screening, 30% showed some mild and minor symptoms similar to Kawasaki disease and in three children, cardiac and neuropsychological symptoms were identified. Symptoms correlated with high levels of non-neutralizing and concomitantly low levels of neutralizing antibodies and lower neutralizing capacity. Conclusions: Children exposed to SARS-CoV-2 should be screened for antibodies and those children with positive antibody responses should undergo a stepwise assessment for late COVID-19 effects.

6.
COVID ; 1(4):717-727, 2021.
Article in English | MDPI | ID: covidwho-1542442

ABSTRACT

(1) Background: With vaccination and new variants of SARS-CoV-2 on the horizon, efficient testing in schools may enable prevention of mass infection outbreaks, keeping schools safe places and buying time until decisions on feasibility and the necessity of vaccination in children and youth are made. We established, in the course of the WICOVIR (Where Is the COrona VIRus) study, that gargle-based pool-PCR testing offers a feasible, efficient, and safe testing system for schools in Germany when applied by central university laboratories. (2) Objectives: We evaluated whether this approach can be implemented in different rural and urban settings. (3) Methods: We assessed the arrangements required for successful implementation of the WICOVIR approach in a variety of settings in terms of transport logistics, data transfer and pre-existing laboratory set-up, as well as the time required to establish the set-up. (4) Results: We found that once regulatory issues have been overcome, all challenges pertaining to logistics, data transfer, and laboratory testing on different platforms can be solved within one month. Pooling and depooling of samples down to the individual test result were achievable within one working day in all settings. Local involvement of the community and decentralized set-ups were keys for success. (5) Conclusion: The WICOVIR gargle-based pool-PCR system is so robust and simple that it can be implemented within one month in all settings now or in future pandemics.

7.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 721518, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1518517

ABSTRACT

Background: Opening schools and keeping children safe from SARS-CoV-2 infections at the same time is urgently needed to protect children from direct and indirect consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic. To achieve this goal, a safe, efficient, and cost-effective SARS-CoV-2 testing system for schools in addition to standard hygiene measures is necessary. Methods: We implemented the screening WICOVIR concept for schools in the southeast of Germany, which is based on gargling at home, pooling of samples in schools, and assessment of SARS-CoV-2 by pool rRT-PCR, performed decentralized in numerous participating laboratories. Depooling was performed if pools were positive, and results were transmitted with software specifically developed for the project within a day. Here, we report the results after the first 13 weeks in the project. Findings: We developed and implemented the proof-of-concept test system within a pilot phase of 7 weeks based on almost 17,000 participants. After 6 weeks in the main phase of the project, we performed >100,000 tests in total, analyzed in 7,896 pools, identifying 19 cases in >100 participating schools. On average, positive children showed an individual CT value of 31 when identified in the pools. Up to 30 samples were pooled (mean 13) in general, based on school classes and attached school staff. All three participating laboratories detected positive samples reliably with their previously established rRT-PCR standard protocols. When self-administered antigen tests were performed concomitantly in positive cases, only one of these eight tests was positive, and when antigen tests performed after positive pool rRT-PCR results were already known were included, 3 out of 11 truly positive tests were also identified by antigen testing. After 3 weeks of repetitive WICOVIR testing twice weekly, the detection rate of positive children in that cohort decreased significantly from 0.042 to 0.012 (p = 0.008). Interpretation: Repeated gargle pool rRT-PCR testing can be implemented quickly in schools. It is an effective, valid, and well-received test system for schools, superior to antigen tests in sensitivity, acceptance, and costs.

8.
Front Pediatr ; 9: 678937, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1477849

ABSTRACT

Background: Children and youth are affected rather mildly in the acute phase of COVID-19 and thus, SARS-CoV-2 infection infection may easily be overlooked. In the light of current discussions on the vaccinations of children it seems necessary to better identify children who are immune against SARS-CoV-2 due to a previous infection and to better understand COVID-19 related immune reactions in children. Methods: In a cross-sectional design, children aged 1-17 were recruited through primary care pediatricians for the study (a) randomly, if they had an appointment for a regular health check-up or (b) if parents and children volunteered and actively wanted to participate in the study. Symptoms were recorded and two antibody tests were performed in parallel directed against S (in house test) and N (Roche Elecsys) viral proteins. In children with antibody response in either test, neutralization activity was determined. Results: We identified antibodies against SARS-CoV-2 in 162 of 2,832 eligible children (5.7%) between end of May and end of July 2020 in three, in part strongly affected regions of Bavaria in the first wave of the pandemic. Approximately 60% of antibody positive children (n = 97) showed high levels (>97th percentile) of antibodies against N-protein, and for the S-protein, similar results were found. Sufficient neutralizing activity was detected for only 135 antibody positive children (86%), irrespective of age and sex. Initial COVID-19 symptoms were unspecific in children except for the loss of smell and taste and unrelated to antibody responses or neutralization capacity. Approximately 30% of PCR positive children did not show seroconversion in our small subsample in which PCR tests were performed. Conclusions: Symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 infections are unspecific in children and antibody responses show a dichotomous structure with strong responses in many and no detectable antibodies in PCR positive children and missing neutralization activity in a relevant proportion of the young population.

9.
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 19521, 2021 09 30.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1447323

ABSTRACT

School closures have a negative impact on physical and mental well-being, and education, of children and adolescents. A surveillance programme to detect asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection could allow schools to remain open, while protecting the vulnerable. We assessed the feasibility of a programme employing gargle samples and pool testing of individually extracted RNA using rRT-qPCR in a primary and a secondary school in Germany, based on programme logistics and acceptance. Twice a week, five participants per class were selected to provide samples, using an algorithm weighted by a risk-based priority score to increase likelihood of case detection. The positive response rate was 54.8% (550 of 1003 pupils). Logistics evaluation revealed the rate-limiting steps: completing the regular pre-test questionnaire and handing in the samples. Acceptance questionnaire responses indicated strong support for research into developing a surveillance programme and a positive evaluation of gargle tests. Participation was voluntary. As not all pupils participated, individual reminders could lead to participant identification. School-wide implementation of the programme for infection monitoring purposes would enable reminders to be given to all school pupils to address these steps, without compromising participant anonymity. Such a programme would provide a feasible means to monitor asymptomatic respiratory tract infection in schools.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/prevention & control , Disease Outbreaks/prevention & control , Epidemiological Monitoring , Schools/statistics & numerical data , Adolescent , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing/statistics & numerical data , Child , Feasibility Studies , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Pandemics , Saliva/virology , Students/statistics & numerical data , Surveys and Questionnaires
10.
J Virol Methods ; 297: 114271, 2021 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1373176

ABSTRACT

The Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S immunoassay (Roche Diagnostics International Ltd, Rotkreuz, Switzerland) has been developed for the detection of antibodies to the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) spike (S) protein. We evaluated the assay performance using samples from seven sites in Germany, Austria, and Switzerland. For specificity and sensitivity analyses, 7880 presumed negative pre-pandemic samples and 827 SARS-CoV-2 PCR-confirmed single or sequential samples from 272 different patients were tested, respectively. The overall specificity and sensitivity (≥14 days post-PCR) for the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S immunoassay were 99.95% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 99.87-99.99; 7876/7880) and 97.92% (95% CI: 95.21-99.32; 235/240), respectively. The Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S immunoassay had significantly higher specificity compared with the LIAISON® SARS-CoV-2 S1/S2 IgG (99.95% [2032/2033] vs 98.82% [2009/2033]), ADVIA Centaur® SARS-CoV-2 Total (100% [928/928] vs 86.96% [807/928]), ARCHITECT SARS-CoV-2 IgG (99.97% [2931/2932] vs 99.69% [2923/2932]), iFlash-SARS-CoV-2 IgM (100.00% [928/928] vs 99.57% [924/928]), and EUROIMMUN Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG (100.00% [903/903] vs 97.45% [880/903]) and IgA (100.00% [895/895] vs 95.75% [857/895]) assays. The Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S immunoassay had significantly higher sensitivity (≥14 days post-PCR) compared with the ARCHITECT SARS-CoV-2 IgG (98.70% [76/77] vs 87.01% [67/77]), iFlash-SARS-CoV-2 IgG (100.00% [76/76] vs 93.42% [71/76]) and IgM (100.00% [76/76] vs 35.53% [27/76]), and EUROIMMUN Anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG (98.26% [113/115] vs 93.91% [108/115]) assays. Therefore, the Elecsys Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S assay demonstrated a reliable performance across various sample populations for the detection of anti-S antibodies.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral , Humans , Immunoassay , Sensitivity and Specificity
11.
JMIR Res Protoc ; 10(5): e28673, 2021 May 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1304552

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: School closures are a widely implemented strategy for limiting infection spread in the current COVID-19 pandemic. The negative impact of school closures on children and young people is increasingly apparent, however. OBJECTIVE: We aim to evaluate the feasibility of an infection monitoring program in schools to enable targeted quarantining to replace school closures. The program is currently being implemented in two model schools in Magdeburg, Germany, within the framework of the Study of Coronavirus Outbreak Prevention in Magdeburg Schools (Studie zur Ausbruchsvermeidung von Corona an Magdeburger Schulen [STACAMA]). METHODS: Five pupils per class are pseudorandomly selected twice a week and asked to provide a gargle sample over a 16-week evaluation period. RNA is extracted from each sample individually in a laboratory and pooled according to school class for real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) analysis. Immediate individual sample testing will be carried out in the case of a positive pool test. Individual RNA extraction prior to pooling and application of rRT-PCR result in high test sensitivity. Testing will be performed in strict adherence to data protection standards. All participating pupils will receive a 16-digit study code, which they will be able to use to access their test. RESULTS: When the study commenced on December 2, 2020, 520 (52%) pupils and their families or guardians had consented to study participation. The study was suspended after four test rounds due to renewed school closures resulting from rising regional infection incidence. Testing resumed when schools reopened on March 8, 2021, at which time consent to participation was provided for 54% of pupils. We will quantitatively and qualitatively evaluate the logistics and acceptability of the program. CONCLUSIONS: The findings from this study should inform the design of infection surveillance programs in schools based on gargle samples and a PCR-based pool testing procedure, enabling the identification of aspects that may require adaptation before large-scale implementation. Our focus on each step of the logistics and on the experiences of families should enable a robust assessment of the feasibility of such an approach. INTERNATIONAL REGISTERED REPORT IDENTIFIER (IRRID): DERR1-10.2196/28673.

12.
Viruses ; 13(6)2021 06 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1264531

ABSTRACT

SARS-CoV-2 infection fatality ratios (IFR) remain controversially discussed with implications for political measures. The German county of Tirschenreuth suffered a severe SARS-CoV-2 outbreak in spring 2020, with particularly high case fatality ratio (CFR). To estimate seroprevalence, underreported infections, and IFR for the Tirschenreuth population aged ≥14 years in June/July 2020, we conducted a population-based study including home visits for the elderly, and analyzed 4203 participants for SARS-CoV-2 antibodies via three antibody tests. Latent class analysis yielded 8.6% standardized county-wide seroprevalence, a factor of underreported infections of 5.0, and 2.5% overall IFR. Seroprevalence was two-fold higher among medical workers and one third among current smokers with similar proportions of registered infections. While seroprevalence did not show an age-trend, the factor of underreported infections was 12.2 in the young versus 1.7 for ≥85-year-old. Age-specific IFRs were <0.5% below 60 years of age, 1.0% for age 60-69, and 13.2% for age 70+. Senior care homes accounted for 45% of COVID-19-related deaths, reflected by an IFR of 7.5% among individuals aged 70+ and an overall IFR of 1.4% when excluding senior care home residents from our computation. Our data underscore senior care home infections as key determinant of IFR additionally to age, insufficient targeted testing in the young, and the need for further investigations on behavioral or molecular causes of the fewer infections among current smokers.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/mortality , Population Surveillance/methods , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Latent Class Analysis , Male , Middle Aged , Prospective Studies , Seasons , Seroepidemiologic Studies , Surveys and Questionnaires , Young Adult
13.
Eur J Pediatr ; 180(11): 3405-3410, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1230237

ABSTRACT

A COVID-19 vaccine can be an important key for mitigating the spread of the pandemic, provided that it is accepted by a sufficient proportion of the population. This study investigated parents' intention to get vaccinated and to have one's child vaccinated against COVID-19. In May 2020, 612 parents participating with their child in the KUNO-Kids health study completed an online survey. Multivariable logistic regression models were calculated to analyze predictors of intention to vaccinate. Fifty-eight percent of parents intended to get vaccinated against COVID-19, and 51% intended to have their child vaccinated. Significant predictors for the intention to get vaccinated and for having the child vaccinated included stronger parental confidence in one's knowledge about prevention measures and lower beliefs that policy measures were exaggerated.Conclusion: COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy was considerable in our sample of parents in Germany. However, our study revealed some potentially modifiable factors which should be addressed by a comprehensive and tailored communication and education strategy. What is Known? • A COVID-19 vaccine can mitigate the spread of the pandemic. • Many parents are skeptical about vaccinations in general. What is New? • COVID-19 vaccination hesitancy was considerable in our sample of parents from Germany, not only for getting vaccinated but also for having the child vaccinated. • Negative parental attitudes regarding policy measures to contain the pandemic were associated with a lower intention to vaccinate.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Knowledge, Attitudes, Practice , Humans , Intention , Parents , SARS-CoV-2 , Surveys and Questionnaires , Vaccination
14.
J Neurol ; 268(11): 3969-3974, 2021 Nov.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1210701

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Serum neurofilament light chain (sNfL) is an established biomarker of neuro-axonal damage in multiple neurological disorders. Raised sNfL levels have been reported in adults infected with pandemic coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Levels in children infected with COVID-19 have not as yet been reported. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether sNfL is elevated in children contracting COVID-19. METHODS: Between May 22 and July 22, 2020, a network of outpatient pediatricians in Bavaria, Germany, the Coronavirus antibody screening in children from Bavaria study network (CoKiBa), recruited healthy children into a cross-sectional study from two sources: an ongoing prevention program for 1-14 years, and referrals of 1-17 years consulting a pediatrician for possible infection with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). We determined sNfL levels by single molecule array immunoassay and SARS-CoV-2 antibody status by two independent quantitative methods. RESULTS: Of the 2652 included children, 148 (5.6%) were SARS-CoV-2 antibody positive with asymptomatic to moderate COVID-19 infection. Neurological symptoms-headache, dizziness, muscle aches, or loss of smell and taste-were present in 47/148 cases (31.8%). Mean sNfL levels were 5.5 pg/ml (SD 2.9) in the total cohort, 5.1 (SD 2.1) pg/ml in the children with SARS-CoV-2 antibodies, and 5.5 (SD 3.0) pg/ml in those without. Multivariate regression analysis revealed age-but neither antibody status, antibody levels, nor clinical severity-as an independent predictor of sNfL. Follow-up of children with pediatric multisystem inflammatory syndrome (n = 14) showed no association with sNfL. CONCLUSIONS: In this population study, children with asymptomatic to moderate COVID-19 showed no neurochemical evidence of neuronal damage.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Intermediate Filaments , Adult , Child , Cross-Sectional Studies , Humans , Neurofilament Proteins , SARS-CoV-2 , Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
16.
J Clin Virol ; 130: 104575, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-694356

ABSTRACT

OBJECTIVE: Currently, little is known about the progression of an immune response against SARSCoV- 2 upon infection or sub-infection-exposure over time. We examined the serologic response in healthcare workers up to 12 weeks after a well-documented and contained outbreak and compared results with findings from earlier serologic testing in the same population. METHODS: This study followed 166 health care workers of the University Perinatal Care Center, Regensburg, Germany, for up to 12 weeks. 27 of the subjects had previously tested positive for the presence of SARS-CoV-2 by PCR testing and developed COVID-19. Serologic responses were tested with two independent commercially available test kits. RESULTS: 77.8 % of COVID-19 study subjects developed a specific IgG-response over the course of the 12-week study, while none of the COVID-19 contact groups had a detectable IgG response. Amongst most COVID-19 patients the values of detectable IgG-responses significantly increased over time as confirmed with both tests, while that of positive IgA responses decreased. Between the number of reported symptoms and antibody responses in COVID-19 patients no correlation was found and no new cases of seroconversion were identified in asymptomatic coworkers with negative PCR during the outbreak. CONCLUSIONS: Immune response after COVID-19 increases significantly over time but still approximately 22 % of COVID-19 patients did not mount a measurable serologic immune response within 60 days. Exposed co-workers did not develop any relevant antibody levels at all. We conclude that immunity after infection increases over time, but the antibody response does not develop reliably in all infected people.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Health Personnel/statistics & numerical data , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Cross-Sectional Studies , Female , Germany , Humans , Longitudinal Studies , Male , Middle Aged , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroconversion , Young Adult
19.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 31(7): 841-847, 2020 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-273163

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Worldwide, the number of SARS-CoV-2 infections is increasing. Serological immunoglobulin tests may help to better understand the development of immune mechanisms against SARS-CoV-2 in COVID-19 cases and exposed but asymptomatic individuals. The aim of this study was to investigate exposure to SARS-CoV-2, symptoms, and antibody responses in a large sample of healthcare workers following a COVID-19 outbreak. METHODS: A COVID-19 outbreak among staff members of a major German children's and women's hospital was followed by massive RT-PCR SARS-CoV-2 tests and provided the opportunity to study symptoms, chains of infection, and SARS-CoV-2-specific antibody responses (IgG and IgA) by ELISA. Study participants were classified as COVID-19 cases, and persons with close, moderate, or no exposure to SARS-CoV-2 in the clinical setting, respectively. RESULTS: Out of 201 study participants, 31 were COVID-19 cases. While most study participants experienced many symptoms indicative for SARS-CoV-2 infection, anosmia and coughing were remarkably more frequent in COVID-19 cases. Approximately 80% of COVID-19 cases developed some specific antibody response (IgA and IgG) approximately 3 weeks after onset of symptoms. Subjects in the non-COVID-19 groups had also elevated IgG (1.8%) and IgA values (7.6%) irrespective of contact history with cases. CONCLUSION: We found that a significant number of diseased did not develop relevant antibody responses three weeks after symptom onset. Our data also suggest that exposure to COVID-19 positive co-workers in a hospital setting is not leading to the development of measurable immune responses in a significant proportion of asymptomatic contact persons.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19/immunology , Disease Outbreaks , Immunoglobulin A/blood , Immunoglobulin G/blood , Personnel, Hospital , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Asymptomatic Diseases , Biomarkers/blood , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/virology , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Cross-Sectional Studies , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Germany/epidemiology , Humans , Immunity, Herd , Male , Middle Aged , Occupational Diseases/diagnosis , Occupational Diseases/epidemiology , Occupational Diseases/immunology , Occupational Diseases/virology , Occupational Exposure , Young Adult
20.
Pediatr Allergy Immunol ; 31(5): 560-564, 2020 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-102331

ABSTRACT

With increasing number of SARS-CoV-2 infections and COVID-19 patients to be taken care of by the health system, more and more health workers become affected by the disease. It has been reported that right from the beginning of the outbreak in Lombardy up to 20% of the doctors and nurses became infected. Under these circumstances, the regular operation of health institutions already suffering from a shortage of staff becomes difficult. This has led to complete or partial shutdowns of hospitals, either due to a lack of uninfected personnel or because of uncontrollable chains of infection endangering patients. In one of the largest university perinatal center in Bavaria with more than 3000 births per year, an outbreak of COVID-19 occurred in March 2020, affecting 36 staff members, including doctors, nurses, and midwives. Here, we describe the outbreak and present the measures contributing to the successful containment of the outbreak within three weeks. At the same time, clinical services could be maintained, however, not without deployment of personnel exposed to employees infected with SARS-CoV-2. Apart from massive testing of personnel in pre-defined phases and increased hygiene measures, including a general obligation to wear surgical face masks, we identified the need to monitor cases of illness across all groups of employees, to ensure social distancing within personnel and to evaluate contacts of clinical personnel outside of the hospital environment, in order to be able to interpret chains of infections and to disrupt them. Overall, only a bundle of measures is needed to contain such an outbreak.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Health Personnel , Pandemics/prevention & control , Perinatal Care/methods , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , COVID-19 , Female , Germany , Hand Hygiene , Hospitals, Maternity , Humans , Masks , Pregnancy , Quarantine , SARS-CoV-2 , Social Isolation
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