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Turk J Urol ; 2020 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-294278


Coronaviruses, which were generally considered harmless to humans before 2003, have appeared again with a pandemic threatening the world since December 2019 after the epidemics of SARS and MERS. It is known that transmission from person to person is the most important way to spread. However, due to the widespread host diversity, a detailed examination of the role of animals in this pandemic is essential to effectively fight against the outbreak. Although coronavirus infections in pets are known to be predominantly related to the gastrointestinal tract, it has been observed that there are human-to-animal transmissions in this outbreak and some animals have similar symptoms to humans. Although animal-to-animal transmission has been shown to be possible, there is no evidence of animal-to-human transmission.

Turk J Urol ; 46(3): 169-177, 2020 Apr 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-72934


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease which is caused by Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). It has had unprecedented effect on healthcare systems globally with severe impact on every specialist service within the hospital including urology. While it affects the respiratory system causing symptoms ranging from fever, cough, dyspnea, diarrhea, nausea, myalgia and fatigue, it eventually causes pneumonia and respiratory distress needing oxygenation and ventilation. Laboratory diagnosis is required to confirm the diagnosis of COVID-19. Radiological changes are seen on chest XR or CT scan of patients. The surge in patients affected by the disease has led to extreme pressures on healthcare systems by the overwhelming number of critically unwell patients. This scenario has presented challenges to maintain other emergency and essential services. Reallocation of staff, wards and equipment has resulted in cancellations of many surgical procedures, requiring urologists to select only the most essential or critical procedures. The outpatient face-to-face clinics are also cancelled or changed to telephone or video consultations. In some hospitals, urologists are required to work outside of their usual scope of practice helping their respiratory and intensive care unit colleagues. The pandemic is disrupting training and education opportunities for junior medical staff. In this review we provide guidance on the diagnosis and management of COVID-19, the influence it has on urological practice and consider the long-term implications that may be of consequence for years to come.