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Int J Emerg Med ; 14(1): 30, 2021 May 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1219078

ABSTRACT

Sabah in Malaysian Borneo is among the Malaysian states which reported a high number of detected COVID-19 cases during the current pandemic. Due to geographical challenges and limited resources, clinicians developed novel strategies for managing patients. The use of a dual oxygen concentrator system for mechanical ventilation is one of the innovations developed by retrieval team members from the Emergency Department (ED) of the Sabah Women and Children's Hospital. Due to conditions requiring isolation of patients suspected of or positive for COVID-19, high-risk patients were treated in an ED extension area that lacked central wall oxygen. Direct access to oxygen tanks became the only viable option, but ensuring a continuous supply was laborious. The novel setup described within this paper has been used on intubated patients in the ED extension area with moderate to high ventilator settings successfully. This simple setup, designed to meet the limited resources within a pandemic environment, needed only a turbine-driven ventilator, two oxygen concentrators, a 3-way connector, and three oxygen tubing. The application of this setup could potentially save more critically ill patients who are being managed in resource-limited conditions such as in smaller district hospitals or out in the field.

2.
Neurology ; 95(10): 445-449, 2020 09 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-999777

ABSTRACT

Here, we report a case of COVID-19-related acute necrotizing encephalopathy where SARS-CoV-2 RNA was found in CSF 19 days after symptom onset after testing negative twice. Although monocytes and protein levels in CSF were only marginally increased, and our patient never experienced a hyperinflammatory state, her neurologic function deteriorated into coma. MRI of the brain showed pathologic signal symmetrically in central thalami, subinsular regions, medial temporal lobes, and brain stem. Extremely high concentrations of the neuronal injury markers neurofilament light and tau, as well as an astrocytic activation marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein, were measured in CSF. Neuronal rescue proteins and other pathways were elevated in the in-depth proteomics analysis. The patient received IV immunoglobulins and plasma exchange. Her neurologic status improved, and she was extubated 4 weeks after symptom onset. This case report highlights the neurotropism of SARS-CoV-2 in selected patients and emphasizes the importance of repeated lumbar punctures and CSF analyses in patients with suspected COVID-19 and neurologic symptoms.


Subject(s)
Brain/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/cerebrospinal fluid , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/cerebrospinal fluid , Pneumonia, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , RNA, Viral/cerebrospinal fluid , Acyclovir/therapeutic use , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/genetics , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/diagnostic imaging , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Female , Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein/cerebrospinal fluid , Humans , Immunoglobulins, Intravenous/therapeutic use , Immunologic Factors/therapeutic use , Interleukin-6/cerebrospinal fluid , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/diagnostic imaging , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/physiopathology , Leukoencephalitis, Acute Hemorrhagic/therapy , Magnetic Resonance Imaging , Middle Aged , Neurofilament Proteins/cerebrospinal fluid , Pandemics , Plasma Exchange , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnostic imaging , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction , SARS-CoV-2 , Tomography, X-Ray Computed , Viral Tropism , tau Proteins/cerebrospinal fluid
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