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1.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(646): eabn1252, 2022 05 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1784766

ABSTRACT

New variants of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) continue to arise and prolong the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Here, we used a cell-free expression workflow to rapidly screen and optimize constructs containing multiple computationally designed miniprotein inhibitors of SARS-CoV-2. We found the broadest efficacy was achieved with a homotrimeric version of the 75-residue angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) mimic AHB2 (TRI2-2) designed to geometrically match the trimeric spike architecture. Consistent with the design model, in the cryo-electron microscopy structure TRI2-2 forms a tripod at the apex of the spike protein that engaged all three receptor binding domains simultaneously. TRI2-2 neutralized Omicron (B.1.1.529), Delta (B.1.617.2), and all other variants tested with greater potency than the monoclonal antibodies used clinically for the treatment of COVID-19. TRI2-2 also conferred prophylactic and therapeutic protection against SARS-CoV-2 challenge when administered intranasally in mice. Designed miniprotein receptor mimics geometrically arrayed to match pathogen receptor binding sites could be a widely applicable antiviral therapeutic strategy with advantages over antibodies in greater resistance to viral escape and antigenic drift, and advantages over native receptor traps in lower chances of autoimmune responses.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Cryoelectron Microscopy , Humans , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
2.
Sci Transl Med ; 14(630): eabm3302, 2022 Feb 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1691437

ABSTRACT

Although mRNA vaccines encoding the spike protein of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) prevent COVID-19, the emergence of new viral variants jeopardizes their efficacy. Here, we assessed the immunogenicity and protective activity of historical (mRNA-1273, designed for Wuhan-1 spike protein) or modified (mRNA-1273.351, designed for B.1.351 spike protein) Moderna mRNA vaccines in 129S2 and K18-hACE2 mice. Mice were immunized with either high-dose or low-dose formulations of the mRNA vaccines, where low-dose vaccination modeled suboptimal immune responses. Immunization with formulations at either dose induced neutralizing antibodies in serum against ancestral SARS-CoV-2 WA1/2020 and several virus variants, although serum titers were lower against the B.1.617.2 (Delta) virus. Protection against weight loss and lung pathology was observed with all high-dose vaccines against all viruses. However, low-dose formulations of the vaccines, which produced lower magnitude antibody and T cell responses, showed breakthrough lung infections with B.1.617.2 and development of pneumonia in K18-hACE2 mice. Thus, in individuals with reduced immunity after mRNA vaccination, breakthrough infection and disease may occur with some SARS-CoV-2 variants.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic
3.
Non-conventional in English | MEDLINE, Grey literature | ID: grc-750513

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused millions of human infections and hundreds of thousands of deaths. Accordingly, an effective vaccine is of critical importance in mitigating coronavirus induced disease 2019 (COVID-19) and curtailing the pandemic. We developed a replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccine by introducing a modified form of the SARS-CoV-2 spike gene in place of the native glycoprotein gene (VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2). Immunization of mice with VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 elicits high titers of antibodies that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infection and target the receptor binding domain that engages human angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Upon challenge with a human isolate of SARS-CoV-2, mice expressing human ACE2 and immunized with VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 show profoundly reduced viral infection and inflammation in the lung indicating protection against pneumonia. Finally, passive transfer of sera from VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2-immunized animals protects naïve mice from SARS-CoV-2 challenge. These data support development of VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 as an attenuated, replication-competent vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.

4.
Non-conventional in English | [Unspecified Source], Grey literature | ID: grc-750512

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus -2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 and has spread worldwide resulting in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although animal models have been evaluated for SARS-CoV-2 infection, none have recapitulated the severe lung disease phenotypes seen in hospitalized human cases. Here, we evaluate heterozygous transgenic mice expressing the human ACE2 receptor driven by the epithelial cell cytokeratin-18 gene promoter (K18-hACE2) as a model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Intranasal inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 in K18-hACE2 mice results in high levels of viral infection in lung tissues with additional spread to other organs. Remarkably, a decline in pulmonary function, as measured by static and dynamic tests of respiratory capacity, occurs 4 days after peak viral titer and correlates with an inflammatory response marked by infiltration into the lung of monocytes, neutrophils, and activated T cells resulting in pneumonia. Cytokine profiling and RNA sequencing analysis of SARS-CoV-2-infected lung tissues show a massively upregulated innate immune response with prominent signatures of NF-kB-dependent, type I and II interferon signaling, and leukocyte activation pathways. Thus, the K18-hACE2 model of SARS-CoV-2 infection recapitulates many features of severe COVID-19 infection in humans and can be used to define the mechanistic basis of lung disease and test immune and antiviral-based countermeasures.

6.
Cell Host Microbe ; 29(7): 1151-1161.e5, 2021 07 14.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1283986

ABSTRACT

Despite the introduction of public health measures and spike protein-based vaccines to mitigate the COVID-19 pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 infections and deaths continue to have a global impact. Previously, we used a structural design approach to develop picomolar range miniproteins targeting the SARS-CoV-2 spike receptor-binding domain. Here, we investigated the capacity of modified versions of one lead miniprotein, LCB1, to protect against SARS-CoV-2-mediated lung disease in mice. Systemic administration of LCB1-Fc reduced viral burden, diminished immune cell infiltration and inflammation, and completely prevented lung disease and pathology. A single intranasal dose of LCB1v1.3 reduced SARS-CoV-2 infection in the lung when given as many as 5 days before or 2 days after virus inoculation. Importantly, LCB1v1.3 protected in vivo against a historical strain (WA1/2020), an emerging B.1.1.7 strain, and a strain encoding key E484K and N501Y spike protein substitutions. These data support development of LCB1v1.3 for prevention or treatment of SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Administration, Intranasal , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Lung/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pandemics/prevention & control , Serine C-Palmitoyltransferase , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Viral Load
7.
Cell ; 184(8): 2183-2200.e22, 2021 04 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1086819

ABSTRACT

Antibodies are crucial to immune protection against SARS-CoV-2, with some in emergency use as therapeutics. Here, we identify 377 human monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) recognizing the virus spike and focus mainly on 80 that bind the receptor binding domain (RBD). We devise a competition data-driven method to map RBD binding sites. We find that although antibody binding sites are widely dispersed, neutralizing antibody binding is focused, with nearly all highly inhibitory mAbs (IC50 < 0.1 µg/mL) blocking receptor interaction, except for one that binds a unique epitope in the N-terminal domain. Many of these neutralizing mAbs use public V-genes and are close to germline. We dissect the structural basis of recognition for this large panel of antibodies through X-ray crystallography and cryoelectron microscopy of 19 Fab-antigen structures. We find novel binding modes for some potently inhibitory antibodies and demonstrate that strongly neutralizing mAbs protect, prophylactically or therapeutically, in animal models.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Animals , Binding Sites, Antibody , CHO Cells , Chlorocebus aethiops , Cricetulus , Epitopes , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Models, Molecular , Protein Binding , Protein Structure, Tertiary , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Vero Cells
8.
Nat Immunol ; 21(11): 1327-1335, 2020 11.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-728991

ABSTRACT

Although animal models have been evaluated for severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, none have fully recapitulated the lung disease phenotypes seen in humans who have been hospitalized. Here, we evaluate transgenic mice expressing the human angiotensin I-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor driven by the cytokeratin-18 (K18) gene promoter (K18-hACE2) as a model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Intranasal inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 in K18-hACE2 mice results in high levels of viral infection in lungs, with spread to other organs. A decline in pulmonary function occurs 4 days after peak viral titer and correlates with infiltration of monocytes, neutrophils and activated T cells. SARS-CoV-2-infected lung tissues show a massively upregulated innate immune response with signatures of nuclear factor-κB-dependent, type I and II interferon signaling, and leukocyte activation pathways. Thus, the K18-hACE2 model of SARS-CoV-2 infection shares many features of severe COVID-19 infection and can be used to define the basis of lung disease and test immune and antiviral-based countermeasures.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Immunity, Innate/immunology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia/pathology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Disease Models, Animal , Female , Humans , Interferon Type I/immunology , Interferon-gamma/immunology , Keratin-18/genetics , Leukocytes/immunology , Lymphocyte Activation/immunology , Male , Mice , Mice, Transgenic , Monocytes/immunology , NF-kappa B/immunology , Neutrophil Infiltration/immunology , Neutrophils/immunology , Pandemics , Pneumonia/genetics , Pneumonia/virology , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Promoter Regions, Genetic/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Vero Cells , Virus Replication/immunology
9.
Cell ; 183(1): 169-184.e13, 2020 10 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-720448

ABSTRACT

The coronavirus disease 2019 pandemic has made deployment of an effective vaccine a global health priority. We evaluated the protective activity of a chimpanzee adenovirus-vectored vaccine encoding a prefusion stabilized spike protein (ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S) in challenge studies with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and mice expressing the human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 receptor. Intramuscular dosing of ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S induces robust systemic humoral and cell-mediated immune responses and protects against lung infection, inflammation, and pathology but does not confer sterilizing immunity, as evidenced by detection of viral RNA and induction of anti-nucleoprotein antibodies after SARS-CoV-2 challenge. In contrast, a single intranasal dose of ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S induces high levels of neutralizing antibodies, promotes systemic and mucosal immunoglobulin A (IgA) and T cell responses, and almost entirely prevents SARS-CoV-2 infection in both the upper and lower respiratory tracts. Intranasal administration of ChAd-SARS-CoV-2-S is a candidate for preventing SARS-CoV-2 infection and transmission and curtailing pandemic spread.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Adenoviridae/genetics , Administration, Intranasal , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Respiratory Mucosa/immunology , Respiratory Mucosa/pathology , Respiratory Mucosa/virology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vero Cells , Viral Vaccines/administration & dosage
10.
Cell Host Microbe ; 28(3): 465-474.e4, 2020 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-710174

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused millions of human infections, and an effective vaccine is critical to mitigate coronavirus-induced disease 2019 (COVID-19). Previously, we developed a replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) expressing a modified form of the SARS-CoV-2 spike gene in place of the native glycoprotein gene (VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2). Here, we show that vaccination with VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 generates neutralizing immune responses and protects mice from SARS-CoV-2. Immunization of mice with VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 elicits high antibody titers that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 and target the receptor binding domain that engages human angiotensin-converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Upon challenge with a human isolate of SARS-CoV-2, mice that expressed human ACE2 and were immunized with VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 show profoundly reduced viral infection and inflammation in the lung, indicating protection against pneumonia. Passive transfer of sera from VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2-immunized animals also protects naive mice from SARS-CoV-2 challenge. These data support development of VSV-SARS-CoV-2 as an attenuated, replication-competent vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/genetics , Viral Vaccines/genetics , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/blood , Antibodies, Viral/blood , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , COVID-19 Vaccines , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Genetic Vectors , Green Fluorescent Proteins/genetics , Host Microbial Interactions/immunology , Humans , Lung/immunology , Lung/pathology , Lung/virology , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Receptors, Virus/genetics , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccines, Synthetic/genetics , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/pharmacology , Vero Cells , Vesicular stomatitis Indiana virus/immunology , Viral Vaccines/immunology , Viral Vaccines/pharmacology
11.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-665969

ABSTRACT

Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus -2 (SARS-CoV-2) emerged in late 2019 and has spread worldwide resulting in the Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Although animal models have been evaluated for SARS-CoV-2 infection, none have recapitulated the severe lung disease phenotypes seen in hospitalized human cases. Here, we evaluate heterozygous transgenic mice expressing the human ACE2 receptor driven by the epithelial cell cytokeratin-18 gene promoter (K18-hACE2) as a model of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Intranasal inoculation of SARS-CoV-2 in K18-hACE2 mice results in high levels of viral infection in lung tissues with additional spread to other organs. Remarkably, a decline in pulmonary function, as measured by static and dynamic tests of respiratory capacity, occurs 4 days after peak viral titer and correlates with an inflammatory response marked by infiltration into the lung of monocytes, neutrophils, and activated T cells resulting in pneumonia. Cytokine profiling and RNA sequencing analysis of SARS-CoV-2-infected lung tissues show a massively upregulated innate immune response with prominent signatures of NF-kB-dependent, type I and II interferon signaling, and leukocyte activation pathways. Thus, the K18-hACE2 model of SARS-CoV-2 infection recapitulates many features of severe COVID-19 infection in humans and can be used to define the mechanistic basis of lung disease and test immune and antiviral-based countermeasures.

12.
bioRxiv ; 2020 Jul 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-663086

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused millions of human infections and hundreds of thousands of deaths. Accordingly, an effective vaccine is of critical importance in mitigating coronavirus induced disease 2019 (COVID-19) and curtailing the pandemic. We developed a replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV)-based vaccine by introducing a modified form of the SARS-CoV-2 spike gene in place of the native glycoprotein gene (VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2). Immunization of mice with VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 elicits high titers of antibodies that neutralize SARS-CoV-2 infection and target the receptor binding domain that engages human angiotensin converting enzyme-2 (ACE2). Upon challenge with a human isolate of SARS-CoV-2, mice expressing human ACE2 and immunized with VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 show profoundly reduced viral infection and inflammation in the lung indicating protection against pneumonia. Finally, passive transfer of sera from VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2-immunized animals protects naïve mice from SARS-CoV-2 challenge. These data support development of VSV-eGFP-SARS-CoV-2 as an attenuated, replication-competent vaccine against SARS-CoV-2.

13.
Nature ; 584(7821): 443-449, 2020 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-647154

ABSTRACT

The ongoing pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), which is caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), is a major threat to global health1 and the medical countermeasures available so far are limited2,3. Moreover, we currently lack a thorough understanding of the mechanisms of humoral immunity to SARS-CoV-24. Here we analyse a large panel of human monoclonal antibodies that target the spike (S) glycoprotein5, and identify several that exhibit potent neutralizing activity and fully block the receptor-binding domain of the S protein (SRBD) from interacting with human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Using competition-binding, structural and functional studies, we show that the monoclonal antibodies can be clustered into classes that recognize distinct epitopes on the SRBD, as well as distinct conformational states of the S trimer. Two potently neutralizing monoclonal antibodies, COV2-2196 and COV2-2130, which recognize non-overlapping sites, bound simultaneously to the S protein and neutralized wild-type SARS-CoV-2 virus in a synergistic manner. In two mouse models of SARS-CoV-2 infection, passive transfer of COV2-2196, COV2-2130 or a combination of both of these antibodies protected mice from weight loss and reduced the viral burden and levels of inflammation in the lungs. In addition, passive transfer of either of two of the most potent ACE2-blocking monoclonal antibodies (COV2-2196 or COV2-2381) as monotherapy protected rhesus macaques from SARS-CoV-2 infection. These results identify protective epitopes on the SRBD and provide a structure-based framework for rational vaccine design and the selection of robust immunotherapeutic agents.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Pandemics/prevention & control , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Betacoronavirus/chemistry , Binding, Competitive , COVID-19 , Cell Line , Cross Reactions , Disease Models, Animal , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/chemistry , Epitopes, B-Lymphocyte/immunology , Female , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Male , Mice , Middle Aged , Neutralization Tests , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis , SARS Virus/chemistry , SARS Virus/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism
14.
J Immunol ; 205(4): 915-922, 2020 08 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-616100

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) is responsible for millions of infections and hundreds of thousands of deaths globally. There are no widely available licensed therapeutics against SARS-CoV-2, highlighting an urgent need for effective interventions. The virus enters host cells through binding of a receptor-binding domain within its trimeric spike glycoprotein to human angiotensin-converting enzyme 2. In this article, we describe the generation and characterization of a panel of murine mAbs directed against the receptor-binding domain. One mAb, 2B04, neutralized wild-type SARS-CoV-2 in vitro with remarkable potency (half-maximal inhibitory concentration of <2 ng/ml). In a murine model of SARS-CoV-2 infection, 2B04 protected challenged animals from weight loss, reduced lung viral load, and blocked systemic dissemination. Thus, 2B04 is a promising candidate for an effective antiviral that can be used to prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Infections/immunology , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Pneumonia, Viral/immunology , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , Antibodies, Monoclonal/immunology , Antibodies, Monoclonal/pharmacology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/pharmacology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/pharmacology , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Disease Models, Animal , Epitope Mapping , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunodominant Epitopes/immunology , Mice , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/genetics , Protein Interaction Domains and Motifs/immunology , SARS-CoV-2 , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/metabolism , Transfection , Vero Cells
15.
Cell ; 182(3): 744-753.e4, 2020 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-592074

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused a pandemic with millions of human infections. One limitation to the evaluation of potential therapies and vaccines to inhibit SARS-CoV-2 infection and ameliorate disease is the lack of susceptible small animals in large numbers. Commercially available laboratory strains of mice are not readily infected by SARS-CoV-2 because of species-specific differences in their angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptors. Here, we transduced replication-defective adenoviruses encoding human ACE2 via intranasal administration into BALB/c mice and established receptor expression in lung tissues. hACE2-transduced mice were productively infected with SARS-CoV-2, and this resulted in high viral titers in the lung, lung pathology, and weight loss. Passive transfer of a neutralizing monoclonal antibody reduced viral burden in the lung and mitigated inflammation and weight loss. The development of an accessible mouse model of SARS-CoV-2 infection and pathogenesis will expedite the testing and deployment of therapeutics and vaccines.


Subject(s)
Antibodies, Monoclonal/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Neutralizing/therapeutic use , Antibodies, Viral/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/immunology , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Disease Models, Animal , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Animals , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Female , HEK293 Cells , Humans , Immunization, Passive/methods , Lung/metabolism , Lung/virology , Male , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Inbred C57BL , Mice, Inbred DBA , Mice, Knockout , Pandemics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/genetics , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Transduction, Genetic , Vero Cells , Viral Load/immunology
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