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1.
Le infezioni in medicina ; 30(3):353-361, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2033744

ABSTRACT

SUMMARY Several clusters and individual cases of acute hepatitis have been reported in the US, Europe and recently in Asia and Central America since October 2021. A laboratory investigation of the common viral hepatitis agents (HAV, HBV, HCV, HDV and HEV) yielded negative results prompting the use of the term “acute non HepA-E hepatitis” to describe this condition. As of 24 June of 2022, WHO have reported 920 probable cases of severe acute hepatitis of unknown origin among pediatrics in 33 countries in five WHO regions. Since the previous reports on 27 May 2022, 270 new probable cases have been increased, including from four new countries, some of whom were also found to be positive for SARS-CoV-2. All the patients showed symptoms such as vomiting, diarrhea, jaundice, and abdominal pain. The patients’ liver enzymes were remarkably increased. No connection with SARS-CoV-2 or its vaccine has been found so far. However, the suspected cause is adenovirus, including its genomic variations, because its pathogenesis and laboratory investigations have been positively linked. Until further evidence emerges, hygiene precautions could be helpful to prevent its spread.

2.
Eur J Pharmacol ; 933: 175267, 2022 Oct 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2031262

ABSTRACT

The ongoing COVID-19 pandemic is still a challenging problem in the case of infection treatment. The immunomodulatory effect of Nanocurcumin was investigated in the present study in an attempt to counterbalance the immune response and improve the patients' clinical symptoms. 60 confirmed COVID-19 patients and 60 healthy controls enrolled in the study. COVID-19 patients were divided into Nanocurcumin and placebo received groups. Due to the importance of the role of NK cells in this disease, the frequency, cytotoxicity, receptor gene expression of NK cells, and serum secretion levels of inflammatory cytokines IL-1ß, IL-6, TNF-α, as well as circulating C5a as a chemotactic factor an inflammatory mediator was evaluated by flow cytometry, real-time PCR and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in both experimental groups before and after the intervention. Given the role of measured factors in the progression and pathogenesis of COVID-19 disease, the results can help find appropriate treatments. The results of this study indicated that the Nanocurcumin could significantly increase the frequency and function of NK cells compared to the placebo-treated group. As an immunomodulatory agent, Nanocurcumin may be a helpful choice to improve NK cell function in COVID-19 patients and improve the clinical outcome of patients.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , COVID-19/drug therapy , Case-Control Studies , Chemotactic Factors/pharmacology , Cytokines/metabolism , Humans , Immunity , Inflammation Mediators/pharmacology , Interleukin-6 , Killer Cells, Natural , Pandemics , Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha/metabolism
3.
Infez Med ; 30(2): 180-193, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1893779

ABSTRACT

The priority of the Sustainable Development Goals for 2022 is to reduce all causes related to mortality. In this regard, microbial bioactive compounds with characteristics such as optimal compatibility and close interaction with the host immune system are considered a novel therapeutic approach. The fermentation process is one of the most well-known pathways involved in the natural synthesis of a diverse range of postbiotics. However, some postbiotics are a type of probiotic response behavior to environmental stimuli that usually play well-known biological roles. Also, postbiotics with unique structure and function are key mediators between intestinal microbiota and host cellular processes/metabolic pathways that play a significant role in maintaining homeostasis. By further understanding the nature of parent microbial cells, factors affecting their metabolic pathways, and the development of compatible extraction and identification methods, it is possible to achieve certain formulations of postbiotics with special efficiencies, which in turn will significantly improve the performance of health systems (especially in developing countries) toward a wide range of acute/chronic diseases. The present review aims to describe the fundamental role of postbiotics as the key mediators of the microbiota-host interactions. Besides, it presents the available current evidence regarding the interaction between postbiotics and host cells through potential cell receptors, stimulation/improvement of immune system function, and the enhancement of the composition and function of the human microbiome.

4.
Infez Med ; 30(1): 59-72, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1772290

ABSTRACT

Humanity is currently facing a life-threatening challenge from the infectious and epidemic disease SARS-CoV-2. To date, the various modes of transmission of the virus have not been fully elucidated. In this regard, there is a possibility of transmission of the virus through food products. The COVID-19 pandemic disease, like those associated with SARS and MERS, is transmitted mainly through the respiratory tract and airborne aerosol particles, but the presence of fragments of the genetic virus (RNA) in the feces of numerous patients proposes that their fecal-oral pathway may be expanded. In addition, people with gastrointestinal disorders such as atrophic gastritis and metaplasia may be susceptible to COVID-19 infection. Accordingly, food may act as a potential carrier of COVID-19 due to environmental or cross-contamination. According to the available evidence, the spread and possibility of transmission of COVID-19 contamination from humans to food products are possible. Beyond that, there is some evidence that some food sources of animal origin, such as pigs and rabbits, can be contaminated by COVID-19. Therefore, the transmission of the virus through some meat products may be conceivable. Due to the rapid release rate of COVID-19 and its stability in various milieus, especially food manufacturing circumstances, it may enter the matrix during different stages of traditional or industrial food processing. Therefore, preventive measures are recommended to be utilized in the food manufacturing sector. The present study explored the risk of different food matrices, including dairy products, bread, meat and meat products, vegetables, fruits, and processed foods, as potential carriers for the transmission of COVID-19.

5.
Iran J Public Health ; 50(7): 1303-1310, 2021 Jul.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1761431

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) was transported from China to Iran via passengers. The virus is transmitted through droplets from coughing, sneezing, talking and contact with infected surfaces. Due to high transmissibility in places such as clinics, medical offices, buses and offices where there are large crowds, it spread rapidly in Iran and caused the mortality of a significant number of people, especially the elderly with underlying disease. Preventing travel and gatherings, as well as applying house quarantine in Apr 2020, reduced COVID-19 somewhat but then due to lack of attention to social distancing, reducing the use of masks by the people and inappropriate decisions by the national committee on combating coronavirus (NCCC), including reducing the working hours of public offices and shops, reducing the staff of government offices, monopoly on the distribution of essential materials and supplies, the presence of overcrowding in clinics of medical centers, hospitals, and private clinics caused the decline of the disease in the country to decrease. Measures can be taken to prevent the spread of the virus as much as possible, including: rapid detection of infected people, their isolation, contact tracing, quarantine of people over 65 and under 15, protection of the elderly, prevention of gatherings, forcing the use of protective equipment in possible gatherings, and electronicizing public services.

6.
Gene Reports ; : 101572, 2022.
Article in English | ScienceDirect | ID: covidwho-1705097

ABSTRACT

Tuberculosis (TB) is considered one of the most infectious diseases in the world. In this study, we intended to examine the epidemiology of tuberculosis by MIRU-VNTR to define the changes that occur in the transmission of tuberculosis in the region during the COVID-19 era. A total of 120 Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates were collected from sputum samples of patients referred to East Azerbaijan Center TB from December 2020 to August 2021. Demographic information such as age, sex, place of birth, previous TB history, and relevant medical data was collected. The drug susceptibility testing was performed by the proportion method and the PCR-based MIRU-VNTR method was applied to identify molecular epidemiology relationships. The isolates were collected from 78 males (52%) and 72 females (48%) Iranian patients and 6 (4%) Azerbaijani patients. 120 distinct patterns were identified including 15 clustered patterns and 36 unique patterns. The largest cluster was composed of seven isolates. Furthermore,1 cluster with 7 isolates, 1 cluster with 5 members, 4 clusters with 3 members, and 9 clusters with 2 members. In MIRU-VNTR typing, 75 clusters belonged to Tabriz and just 3 clusters belonged to Azerbaijan. All isolates were sensitive to rifampin, isoniazid and ethambutol. Results of the current study showed COVID-19 pandemic had a direct effect on the transmission and diagnosis of tuberculosis. Less diagnosis and less clustering can indicate public controls and hygiene and the use of masks had a direct effect on the transmission and diagnosis of tuberculosis. However, misidentification and less focus on other respiratory infections are expected during the pandemic. Studies on co-infection of COVID-19 and tuberculosis and the role of mask and sanitization against TB are strongly recommended.

7.
Int J Biol Macromol ; 188: 740-750, 2021 Oct 01.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1356252

ABSTRACT

The world has been suffering from COVID-19 disease for more than a year, and it still has a high mortality rate. In addition to the need to minimize transmission of the virus through non-pharmacological measures such as the use of masks and social distance, many efforts are being made to develop a variety of vaccines to prevent the disease worldwide. So far, several vaccines have reached the final stages of safety and efficacy in various phases of clinical trials, and some, such as Moderna/NIAID and BioNTech/Pfizer, have reported very high safety and protection. The important point is that comparing different vaccines is not easy because there is no set standard for measuring neutralization. In this study, we have reviewed the common platforms of COVID-19 vaccines and tried to present the latest reports on the effectiveness of these vaccines.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Animals , COVID-19/immunology , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Humans , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Protein Subunits/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Vaccines, DNA/immunology , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology
8.
Mol Immunol ; 138: 121-127, 2021 10.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1347762

ABSTRACT

AIMS: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a novel viral infection threatening worldwide health as currently there exists no effective treatment strategy and vaccination programs are not publicly available yet. T lymphocytes play an important role in antiviral defenses. However, T cell frequency and functionality may be affected during the disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Total blood samples were collected from patients with mild and severe COVID-19, and the total lymphocyte number, as well as CD4+ and CD8 + T cells were assessed using flowcytometry. Besides, the expression of exhausted T cell markers was evaluated. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines were also investigated in the serum of all patients using enzyme-linked immunesorbent assay (ELISA). Finally, the obtained results were analyzed along with laboratory serological reports. RESULTS: COVID-19 patients showed lymphopenia and reduced CD4+ and CD8 + T cells, as well as high percentage of PD-1 expression by T cells, especially in severe cases. Serum secretion of TNF-α, IL-1ß, and IL-2 receptor (IL-2R) were remarkably increased in patients with severe symptoms, as compared with healthy controls. Moreover, high levels of triglyceride (TG) and low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C), were correlated with the severity of the disease. CONCLUSION: Reduced number and function of T cells were observed in COVID-19 patients, especially in severe patients. Meanwhile, the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines was increased as the disease developed. High level of serum IL-2R was also considered as a sign of lymphopenia. Additionally, hypercholesterolemia and hyperlipidemia could be important prognostic factors in determining the severity of the infection.


Subject(s)
CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Lymphopenia/immunology , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Adult , Aged , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/metabolism , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/virology , COVID-19/metabolism , COVID-19/virology , Cholesterol, LDL/blood , Cytokines/blood , Cytokines/immunology , Cytokines/metabolism , Disease Progression , Female , Humans , Lymphocyte Count , Lymphopenia/blood , Lymphopenia/virology , Male , Middle Aged , Prognosis , SARS-CoV-2/physiology , Severity of Illness Index , Triglycerides/blood
9.
Clin Case Rep ; 9(6): e04257, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287327

ABSTRACT

Reinfection with COVID-19 is possible after exposure to a high dose of the virus. Due to immunity acquired during the previous infection, light symptoms are expected. The finding indicates importance of continuous protection in healthcare workers.

10.
Gene Rep ; 23: 101140, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1179486

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: As the daily number of coronavirus infection disease 19 (COVID19) patients increases, the necessity of early diagnosis becomes more obvious. In this respect, we aimed to develop a serological test for specifically detecting anti-SARS-CoV2 antibodies. METHODS: We collected serum and saliva samples from 609 individuals who work at TBZMED affiliated hospitals in Tabriz, Iran, from April to June of 2020. Real-time PCR technique was used to detect SARS-CoV-2 genome using specific primers. An enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test was designed based on virus nucleocapsid (N), spike (S) and its receptor binding domain (RBD) protein, and the collected sera were subjected to IgM and/or IgG analysis. RESULT: Real-time PCR results showed that 66 people were infected with the SARS-CoV-2. Our designed ELISA kit showed 93.75% and 98% of sensitivity and specificity, respectively. In this study, 5.74% of participants had specific IgG against RBD, whereas the percentage for IgM positive individuals was 5.58%. Approximately the same results were observed for S protein. The number of positive participants for NP increased further, and the results of this antigen showed 7.38% for IgG and 7.06% for IgM. CONCLUSION: The ELISA test beside real-time PCR could provide a reliable serologic profile for the status of the disease progress and early detection of individuals. More importantly, it possesses the potential to identify the best candidates for plasma donation according to the antibody titers.

11.
Microb Pathog ; 149: 104556, 2020 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-813781

ABSTRACT

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) disease, which started in Wuhan, Chin, has now become a public health challenge in most countries around the world. Proper preventive measures are necessary to prevent the spread of the virus to help control the pandemic. Because, SARS-CoV-2 is new, its transmission route has not been fully understood. In this study, we aimed to investigate the presence of SARS-CoV-2 in the sweat secretion of COVID-19 patients. Sweat specimens of 25 COVID- 19 patients were collected and tested for SARS-CoV-2 RNA by Real-time Polymerase Chain Reaction (RT-PCR) method. After RNA extraction and cDNA amplification, all samples were examined for the presence of ORF-1ab and N genes related to COVID-19. Results annotated by Realtime PCR machines software based on Dynamic algorithm. The results of this study showed the absence of SARS-CoV-2 in the sweat samples taken from the foreheads of infected people. Therefore, it can be concluded that the sweat of patients with COVID- 19 cannot transmit SARS-CoV-2. However they can be easily contaminated with other body liquids.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/virology , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification , Sweat/virology , Adult , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/transmission , COVID-19 Testing , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , RNA, Viral/analysis , Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction/methods , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Software , Young Adult
12.
Microb Pathog ; 146: 104241, 2020 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-175788

ABSTRACT

The recent epidemic outbreak of a novel human coronavirus called SARS-CoV-2 and causing the respiratory tract disease COVID-19 has reached worldwide resonance and a global effort is being undertaken to characterize the molecular features and evolutionary origins of this virus. Therefore, rapid and accurate identification of pathogenic viruses plays a vital role in selecting appropriate treatments, saving people's lives and preventing epidemics. Additionally, general treatments, coronavirus-specific treatments, and antiviral treatments useful in fighting COVID-19 are addressed. This review sets out to shed light on the SARS-CoV-2 and host receptor recognition, a crucial factor for successful virus infection and taking immune-informatics approaches to identify B- and T-cell epitopes for surface glycoprotein of SARS-CoV-2. A variety of improved or new approaches also have been developed. It is anticipated that this will assist researchers and clinicians in developing better techniques for timely and effective detection of coronavirus infection. Moreover, the genomic sequence of the virus responsible for COVID-19, as well as the experimentally determined three-dimensional structure of the Main protease (Mpro) is available. The reported structure of the target Mpro was described in this review to identify potential drugs for COVID-19 using virtual high throughput screening.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Peptidyl-Dipeptidase A/metabolism , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Receptors, Virus/metabolism , Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 , Antiviral Agents/therapeutic use , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/immunology , COVID-19 , Coronavirus 3C Proteases , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/drug therapy , Coronavirus Nucleocapsid Proteins , Cysteine Endopeptidases/metabolism , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Humans , Nucleocapsid Proteins/metabolism , Pandemics , Phosphoproteins , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/drug therapy , Protein Conformation , SARS-CoV-2 , Viral Nonstructural Proteins/metabolism
13.
Infez Med ; 28(2): 185-191, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-51040

ABSTRACT

In late December 2019, reports from China of the incidence of pneumonia with unknown etiology were sent to the World Health Organization (WHO). Shortly afterwards, the cause of this disease was identified as the novel beta-coronavirus, SARS-CoV-2, and its genetic sequence was published on January 12, 2020. Human-to-human transmission via respiratory droplets and contact with aerosol infected surfaces are the major ways of transmitting this virus. Here we attempted to collect information on virus stability in the air and on surfaces and ways of preventing of SARS-CoV-2 spreading.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/physiology , Coronavirus Infections/prevention & control , Disinfectants/administration & dosage , Disinfection/methods , Environmental Microbiology , Pandemics/prevention & control , Personal Protective Equipment , Pneumonia, Viral/prevention & control , Betacoronavirus/drug effects , Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2
14.
Infez Med ; 28(2): 153-165, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-49876

ABSTRACT

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19), spreading from Wuhan, China, is one of the causes of respiratory infections that can spread to other people through respiratory particles, and can cause symptoms such as fever, dry cough, shortness of breath, anorexia, fatigue and sore throat in infected patients. This review summarizes current strategies on the diagnosis. Additionally, treatments, infection prevention and control of the SARS-CoV-2 are addressed. In addition to the respiratory system, this virus can infect the digestive system, the urinary system and the haematological system, which causes to observe the virus in the stool, urine and blood samples in addition to throat sample. The SARS-CoV-2 causes changes in blood cells and factors and makes lung abnormalities in patients, which can be detected by serological, molecular, and radiological techniques by detecting these changes and injuries. Radiological and serological methods are the most preferred among the other methods and the radiological method is the most preferred one which can diagnose the infection quickly and accurately with fewer false-negatives, that can be effective in protecting the patient's life by initiating treatment and preventing the transmission of infection to other people.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/isolation & purification , Coronavirus Infections/diagnosis , Coronavirus Infections/therapy , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/diagnosis , Pneumonia, Viral/therapy , Animals , Betacoronavirus/genetics , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Coronavirus Infections/epidemiology , Coronavirus Infections/physiopathology , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Pneumonia, Viral/epidemiology , Pneumonia, Viral/physiopathology , SARS-CoV-2
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