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1.
European Stroke Journal ; 7(1 SUPPL):447, 2022.
Article in English | EMBASE | ID: covidwho-1928081

ABSTRACT

Background and aims: Vaccine-induced immune thrombotic thrombocytopenia (VITT) is a rare but catastrophic syndrome characterized by venous and arterial thrombosis, with thrombocytopenia and antibodies against platelet factor-4 (PF4)/polyanion, typically 5-30 days from the first dose of a DNA viral vector vaccine. Very rarely, acute ischemic stroke (AIS) can be the result of VITT. The aim of this study was to define the clinical and radiological characteristics, outcome and therapeutic options of VITT patients with AIS. Methods: We carried out a systematic review of the literature till October 27, 2021 using MEDLINE, PUBMED and Google Scholar databases in order to collect all the published articles related to the development of AIS after vaccination against SARS-CoV-2. Results: We identified 16 patients from case reports or case series published in peer-reviewed journals affected by AIS and confirmed VITT. All patients had received the first dose of ChAdOx1 ncov19 vaccine within 10 days (median). 81% (n=13/16) of the patients had occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) or its branches, 43.7% (n=7/16) also had thrombotic occlusion of the intracranial internal carotid artery. 45.4% (n=5/16) of the patients with proximal MCA occlusion developed a malignant MCA infarct. Only one patient received intravenous thrombolysis, while three patients underwent mechanical thrombectomy. Conclusions: The management of AIS due to large vessel occlusion in VITT is challenging. Based on the available literature, we propose a therapeutic protocol for acute stroke patients presenting to the Emergency Department within the time window for reperfusion strategies.

2.
PubMed; 2020.
Preprint in English | PubMed | ID: ppcovidwho-333523

ABSTRACT

IMPORTANCE: Case series without control groups suggest that Covid-19 may cause ischemic stroke, but whether Covid-19 is associated with a higher risk of ischemic stroke than would be expected from a viral respiratory infection is uncertain. OBJECTIVE: To compare the rate of ischemic stroke between patients with Covid-19 and patients with influenza, a respiratory viral illness previously linked to stroke. DESIGN: A retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Two academic hospitals in New York City. PARTICIPANTS: We included adult patients with emergency department visits or hospitalizations with Covid-19 from March 4, 2020 through May 2, 2020. Our comparison cohort included adult patients with emergency department visits or hospitalizations with influenza A or B from January 1, 2016 through May 31, 2018 (calendar years spanning moderate and severe influenza seasons). Exposures: Covid-19 infection confirmed by evidence of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the nasopharynx by polymerase chain reaction, and laboratory-confirmed influenza A or B. Main Outcomes and Measures: A panel of neurologists adjudicated the primary outcome of acute ischemic stroke and its clinical characteristics, etiological mechanisms, and outcomes. We used logistic regression to compare the proportion of Covid-19 patients with ischemic stroke versus the proportion among patients with influenza. RESULTS: Among 2,132 patients with emergency department visits or hospitalizations with Covid-19, 31 patients (1.5%;95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0%-2.1%) had an acute ischemic stroke. The median age of patients with stroke was 69 years (interquartile range, 66-78) and 58% were men. Stroke was the reason for hospital presentation in 8 (26%) cases. For our comparison cohort, we identified 1,516 patients with influenza, of whom 0.2% (95% CI, 0.0-0.6%) had an acute ischemic stroke. After adjustment for age, sex, and race, the likelihood of stroke was significantly higher with Covid-19 than with influenza infection (odds ratio, 7.5;95% CI, 2.3-24.9). CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: Approximately 1.5% of patients with emergency department visits or hospitalizations with Covid-19 experienced ischemic stroke, a rate 7.5-fold higher than in patients with influenza. Future studies should investigate the thrombotic mechanisms in Covid-19 in order to determine optimal strategies to prevent disabling complications like ischemic stroke.

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