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Sci Rep ; 11(1): 16039, 2021 08 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1345587


Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causing coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) induces lung injury of varying severity, potentially causing severe acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Pulmonary injury patterns in COVID-19 patients differ from those in patients with other causes of ARDS. We aimed to explore the frequency and pathogenesis of cavitary lung lesions in critically ill patients with COVID-19. Retrospective study in 39 critically ill adult patients hospitalized with severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 including lung injury of varying severity in a tertiary care referral center during March and May 2020, Berlin/Germany. We observed lung cavitations in an unusually large proportion of 22/39 (56%) COVID-19 patients treated on intensive care units (ICU), including 3/5 patients without mechanical ventilation. Median interquartile range (IQR) time between onset of symptoms and ICU admission was 11.5 (6.25-17.75) days. In 15 patients, lung cavitations were already present on the first CT scan, performed after ICU admission; in seven patients they developed during a subsequent median (IQR) observation period of 48 (35-58) days. In seven patients we found at least one cavitation with a diameter > 2 cm (maximum 10 cm). Patients who developed cavitations were older and had a higher body mass index. Autopsy findings in three patients revealed that the cavitations reflected lung infarcts undergoing liquefaction, secondary to thrombotic pulmonary artery branch occlusions. Lung cavitations appear to be a frequent complication of severely ill COVID-19 patients, probably related to the prothrombotic state associated with COVID-19.

COVID-19/pathology , Lung/pathology , Pulmonary Embolism/pathology , Aged , COVID-19/complications , Critical Illness , Female , Humans , Intensive Care Units , Male , Middle Aged , Pulmonary Embolism/etiology , Retrospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2/isolation & purification
Sci Rep ; 11(1): 13325, 2021 06 25.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1281739


COVID 19 is associated with a hypercoagulable state and frequent thromboembolic complications. For how long this acquired abnormality lasts potentially requiring preventive measures, such as anticoagulation remains to be delineated. We used viscoelastic rotational thrombelastometry (ROTEM) in a single center cohort of 13 critical ill patients and performed follow up examinations three months after discharge from ICU. We found clear signs of a hypercoagulable state due to severe hypofibrinolysis and a high rate of thromboembolic complications during the phase of acute illness. Three month follow up revealed normalization of the initial coagulation abnormality and no evidence of venous thrombosis in all thirteen patients. In our cohort the coagulation profile was completely normalized three months after COVID-19. Based on these findings, discontinuation of anticoagulation can be discussed in patients with complete venous reperfusion.

Anticoagulants/therapeutic use , Blood Coagulation Disorders , COVID-19 , Thrombelastography , Thromboembolism , Venous Thrombosis , Aged , Blood Coagulation , Blood Coagulation Disorders/drug therapy , Blood Coagulation Disorders/pathology , COVID-19/blood , COVID-19/drug therapy , COVID-19/pathology , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Severity of Illness Index , Thromboembolism/drug therapy , Thromboembolism/pathology , Venous Thrombosis/drug therapy , Venous Thrombosis/pathology
Crit Care ; 24(1): 676, 2020 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962957


BACKGROUND: There is emerging evidence for enhanced blood coagulation in coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) patients, with thromboembolic complications contributing to morbidity and mortality. The mechanisms underlying this prothrombotic state remain enigmatic. Further data to guide anticoagulation strategies are urgently required. METHODS: We used viscoelastic rotational thromboelastometry (ROTEM) in a single-center cohort of 40 critically ill COVID-19 patients. RESULTS: Clear signs of a hypercoagulable state due to severe hypofibrinolysis were found. Maximum lysis, especially following stimulation of the extrinsic coagulation system, was inversely associated with an enhanced risk of thromboembolic complications. Combining values for maximum lysis with D-dimer concentrations revealed high sensitivity and specificity of thromboembolic risk prediction. CONCLUSIONS: The study identifies a reduction in fibrinolysis as an important mechanism in COVID-19-associated coagulopathy. The combination of ROTEM and D-dimer concentrations may prove valuable in identifying patients requiring higher intensity anticoagulation.

COVID-19/complications , Fibrinolysis/physiology , Thrombelastography/methods , Thromboembolism/diagnosis , Blood Coagulation/physiology , Blood Coagulation Tests/methods , Blood Coagulation Tests/standards , COVID-19/diagnostic imaging , COVID-19/physiopathology , Cohort Studies , Critical Illness/epidemiology , Critical Illness/therapy , Female , Humans , Male , Middle Aged , Point-of-Care Systems/standards , Point-of-Care Systems/statistics & numerical data , Thromboembolism/diagnostic imaging , Viscoelastic Substances/analysis , Viscoelastic Substances/therapeutic use