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J Clin Med ; 12(1)2022 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244103


Acute hepatitis has always been a public health concern, but the recent clustering of cases in various parts of the world has drawn some special attention. The sudden rise in cases has mainly been among the pediatric population of around 35 countries around the world, including developed countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and European countries. The outbreaks have had a devastating impact, with around 10% of the affected patients developing liver failure. The clinical presentation of patients resembles any other case of acute hepatitis, with the major symptoms being: jaundice (68.8%), vomiting (57.6%), and gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain (36.1%) and nausea (25.7%). Interestingly, the cases have tested negative for hepatotropic viruses Hep A, B, C, and E, thus giving rise to the terms Hepatitis of Unknown Origin or non-HepA-E hepatitis. Many causes have been attributed to the disease, with major evidence seen for adenovirus and SARS-CoV-2. International agencies have stressed on establishing diagnostic and management protocols to limit these outbreaks. As the understanding has evolved over time, diagnostic and management faculties have found more shape. The current review was designed to comprehensively compile all existing data and whittle it down to evidence-based conclusions to help clinicians.

Cureus ; 14(9): e29267, 2022 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2080874


Background and objective The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has highlighted the shortcomings worldwide in terms of preparedness protocols related to epidemics. A key area of research that is evidently overlooked across the globe is the mental health of family caregivers taking care of patients with COVID-19. In light of this, this study aimed to engage in a comparative analysis between the two worst affected countries, India and the United States of America (USA), which differ considerably in their demography, socio-epidemiological factors, and health system efficiency. Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted among 1,250 family caregivers of patients with COVID-19 in India and the USA to assess their stress, anxiety, and sleep disturbance levels using the 10-item Perceived Stress Scale (PSS-10), the 7-item Generalized Anxiety Disorder (GAD-7) scale, and the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), respectively. Psychological assessment questionnaires were administered through online mode, which gathered demographic information and responses on several self-reporting scales. The main outcome measures were self-reported ratings on PSS, GAD-7 scale, and PSQI. Results We found that 75.4% of the family members of COVID-19 patients suffered from mental health issues. The scores of all three scales were higher in caregivers from the USA than in India, more evident and pronounced in caregivers of hospitalized patients. The test scores were statistically significant (p<0.05) indicating a negative impact of having a dependent member in the family, being married, being of younger age, and having a longer duration of COVID-19 infection. Vaccines were found to have a life-enhancing effect. Conclusion Our findings highlight that the mental health of family caregivers is an ignored aspect and must be addressed. We recommend the implementation of well-researched and appropriate legislation, treatment programs, and health policies that involve not only the patients but also their families.