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J Clin Med ; 12(1)2022 Dec 20.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2244103


Acute hepatitis has always been a public health concern, but the recent clustering of cases in various parts of the world has drawn some special attention. The sudden rise in cases has mainly been among the pediatric population of around 35 countries around the world, including developed countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and European countries. The outbreaks have had a devastating impact, with around 10% of the affected patients developing liver failure. The clinical presentation of patients resembles any other case of acute hepatitis, with the major symptoms being: jaundice (68.8%), vomiting (57.6%), and gastrointestinal symptoms such as abdominal pain (36.1%) and nausea (25.7%). Interestingly, the cases have tested negative for hepatotropic viruses Hep A, B, C, and E, thus giving rise to the terms Hepatitis of Unknown Origin or non-HepA-E hepatitis. Many causes have been attributed to the disease, with major evidence seen for adenovirus and SARS-CoV-2. International agencies have stressed on establishing diagnostic and management protocols to limit these outbreaks. As the understanding has evolved over time, diagnostic and management faculties have found more shape. The current review was designed to comprehensively compile all existing data and whittle it down to evidence-based conclusions to help clinicians.

Ann Med Surg (Lond) ; 84: 104969, 2022 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2120359
Cureus ; 13(12): e20569, 2021 Dec.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662859


Introduction Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) disease attributed to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has shown associations with various fungal opportunistic infections such as mucormycosis, invasive candidiasis, and aspergillosis, which have contributed to the mortality of the disease. In India, the incidence of mucormycosis had risen rapidly during the second wave. There is ample literature demonstrating the role of iron in the pathogenesis of mucormycosis. The hyperferritinemia associated with COVID-19 may have played a significant role in promoting the invasion and extent of the fungus. Aims and objectives The study aimed to analyze the association between serum ferritin levels and the extent of involvement of mucormycosis in patients affected with COVID-19. Methodology A single-center cross-sectional study was conducted using retrospective hospital record data. G*Power statistical analysis software was used to compute the sample size of 62 (31+31). The radiological data were used to determine the extent of involvement. Results A statistically significant difference was seen in levels of serum ferritin (p = 0.008) between the radiologically judged two groups of the mild extent of invasion of mucormycosis (rhinosinusitis) and severe extent of invasion (rhino-orbital/cerebral mucormycosis), with a severe extent seen with the group having higher levels of serum ferritin. Severe extent of invasion was seen in 53.6% of patients with diabetes mellitus and 62.5% of patients with both diabetes and hypertension. Conclusion The hyperferritinemia not only presents as a marker of the systemic inflammatory process in COVID-19 but also indicates increased free iron, which thereby aids the growth and extent of involvement by the fungus (R hizopus oryzae). In individuals with diabetes and hypertension, the severity was greater. Controlling catastrophic outcomes in individuals with high serum ferritin levels necessitates extra caution.