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1.
Microbiol Spectr ; 11(3): e0431122, 2023 Jun 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2317294

ABSTRACT

Nelfinavir, an orally administered inhibitor of human immunodeficiency virus protease, inhibits the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro. We conducted a randomized controlled trial to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of nelfinavir in patients with SARS-CoV-2 infection. We included unvaccinated asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic adult patients who tested positive for SARS-CoV-2 infection within 3 days before enrollment. The patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to receive oral nelfinavir (750 mg; thrice daily for 14 days) combined with standard-of-care or standard-of-care alone. The primary endpoint was the time to viral clearance, confirmed using quantitative reverse-transcription PCR by assessors blinded to the assigned treatment. A total of 123 patients (63 in the nelfinavir group and 60 in the control group) were included. The median time to viral clearance was 8.0 (95% confidence interval [CI], 7.0 to 12.0) days in the nelfinavir group and 8.0 (95% CI, 7.0 to 10.0) days in the control group, with no significant difference between the treatment groups (hazard ratio, 0.815; 95% CI, 0.563 to 1.182; P = 0.1870). Adverse events were reported in 47 (74.6%) and 20 (33.3%) patients in the nelfinavir and control groups, respectively. The most common adverse event in the nelfinavir group was diarrhea (49.2%). Nelfinavir did not reduce the time to viral clearance in this setting. Our findings indicate that nelfinavir should not be recommended in asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic patients infected with SARS-CoV-2. The study is registered with the Japan Registry of Clinical Trials (jRCT2071200023). IMPORTANCE The anti-HIV drug nelfinavir suppresses the replication of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in vitro. However, its efficacy in patients with COVID-19 has not been studied. We conducted a multicenter, randomized controlled trial to evaluate the efficacy and safety of orally administered nelfinavir in patients with asymptomatic or mildly symptomatic COVID-19. Compared to standard-of-care alone, nelfinavir (750 mg, thrice daily) did not reduce the time to viral clearance, viral load, or the time to resolution of symptoms. More patients had adverse events in the nelfinavir group than in the control group (74.6% [47/63 patients] versus 33.3% [20/60 patients]). Our clinical study provides evidence that nelfinavir, despite its antiviral effects on SARS-CoV-2 in vitro, should not be recommended for the treatment of patients with COVID-19 having no or mild symptoms.


Subject(s)
Anti-HIV Agents , COVID-19 , Adult , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Nelfinavir/adverse effects , Time Factors , Treatment Outcome
2.
J Infect Dis ; 227(6): 780-787, 2023 03 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2273580

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Cross-neutralizing capacity of antibodies against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants is important in mitigating (re-)exposures. Role of antibody maturation, the process whereby selection of higher affinity antibodies augments host immunity, to determine SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing capacity was investigated. METHODS: Sera from SARS-CoV-2 convalescents at 2, 6, or 10 months postrecovery, and BNT162b2 vaccine recipients at 3 or 25 weeks postvaccination, were analyzed. Anti-spike IgG avidity was measured in urea-treated ELISAs. Neutralizing capacity was assessed by surrogate neutralization assays. Fold change between variant and wild-type neutralization inferred the breadth of neutralizing capacity. RESULTS: Compared with early-convalescent, avidity indices of late-convalescent sera were significantly higher (median, 37.7 [interquartile range 28.4-45.1] vs 64.9 [57.5-71.5], P < .0001). Urea-resistant, high-avidity IgG best predicted neutralizing capacity (Spearman r = 0.49 vs 0.67 [wild-type]; 0.18-0.52 vs 0.48-0.83 [variants]). Higher-avidity convalescent sera better cross-neutralized SARS-CoV-2 variants (P < .001 [Alpha]; P < .01 [Delta and Omicron]). Vaccinees only experienced meaningful avidity maturation following the booster dose, exhibiting rather limited cross-neutralizing capacity at week 25. CONCLUSIONS: Avidity maturation was progressive beyond acute recovery from infection, or became apparent after the booster vaccine dose, granting broader anti-SARS-CoV-2 neutralizing capacity. Understanding the maturation kinetics of the 2 building blocks of anti-SARS-CoV-2 humoral immunity is crucial.


Subject(s)
BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19 , Humans , Antibody Affinity , COVID-19 Serotherapy , SARS-CoV-2 , Urea , Vaccination , Immunoglobulin G , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
3.
J Infect Chemother ; 29(6): 580-585, 2023 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233928

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Invasive pulmonary aspergillosis (IPA) is an important complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), and while there are case reports and epidemiological studies, few studies have isolated Aspergillus strains from patients. Therefore, we analyzed the strains, sensitivities, and genetic homology of Aspergillus spp. Isolated from patients with COVID-19. METHODS: We investigated the Aspergillus strains detected from patients with COVID-19 hospitalized in Osaka Metropolitan University Hospital from December 2020 to June 2021. A molecular epidemiological analysis of Aspergillus spp. was performed using drug susceptibility tests and TRESPERG typing, and data on patient characteristics were collected from electronic medical records. RESULTS: Twelve strains of Aspergillus were detected in 11 of the 122 patients (9%) with COVID-19. A. fumigatus was the most common species detected, followed by one strain each of Aspergillus aureolus, Aspergillus nidulans, Aspergillus niger, and Aspergillus terreus. A. aureolus was resistant to voriconazole, and no resistance was found in other strains. All A. fumigatus strains were genetically distinct strains. Six of the 11 patients that harbored Aspergillus received antifungal drug treatment and tested positive for ß-D-glucan and/or Aspergillus galactomannan antigen. The results indicated that Aspergillus infections were acquired from outside the hospital and not from nosocomial infections. CONCLUSION: Strict surveillance of Aspergillus spp. is beneficial in patients at high-risk for IPA. When Aspergillus is detected, it is important to monitor the onset of IPA carefully and identify the strain, perform drug sensitivity tests, and facilitate early administration of therapeutic agents to patients with IPA.


Subject(s)
Aspergillosis , COVID-19 , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Humans , Antifungal Agents/pharmacology , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , Aspergillus/genetics , Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Voriconazole/therapeutic use , Invasive Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Microbial Sensitivity Tests
4.
Respiratory investigation ; 2023.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2231989

ABSTRACT

Background In Japan, the fourth round of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccination is ongoing and is targeted at medical staff and nursing home workers, individuals aged ≥60 years, and those with comorbidities or other high-risk factors, including body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2. The incidence of severe COVID-19 decreased markedly after widespread COVID-19 vaccination drives, and our hospital experienced a similar trend. We, therefore, examined the characteristics of our patients to clarify who benefited the most from vaccination. Methods We retrospectively investigated all patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in Osaka City Juso Hospital between March 1, 2021, and June 30, 2022. Using multivariable logistic analysis, we calculated the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for severe disease after vaccination in the whole dataset and in subsets stratified by age, sex, BMI, smoking history, pre-hospitalization location, and comorbidities. Results The analysis included 1041 patients. Multivariable logistic analysis showed that vaccination was associated with a low risk of severe disease, with an aOR of 0.21 (95% confidence interval: 0.12–0.36, p<0.001). On stratifying the analysis according to background characteristics, lower aORs for severe COVID-19 were found for patients aged ≥60 years and for those with diabetes or hypertension. Notably, patients with BMI >30 kg/m2 and those with BMI ≥18 kg/m2 and ≤30 kg/m2 benefited from vaccination. Conclusions Individuals with diabetes or hypertension and those of age ≥60 years benefited more from vaccination than did their counterparts. We recommend extending the fourth round of vaccinations to individuals with a BMI of 18–30 kg/m2.

5.
J Infect Chemother ; 2022 Nov 13.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2233655

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)-associated pulmonary aspergillosis (CAPA) is being increasingly recognized as a severe complication that contributes to poor prognoses among patients with COVID-19. However, little is known regarding the clinical course of CAPA with hematological malignancies, especially after allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT). A 29-year-old woman was diagnosed with proven CAPA with an Aspergillus fumigatus identified by cultures of bronchoalveolar lavage and lung biopsy four years after haploidentical HSCT for acute myelogenous leukemia. She had been taking oral prednisolone for bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome that developed after HSCT. Although prolonged RT-PCR positivity for SARS-CoV-2 (133 days after the onset of COVID-19) without shedding of viable virus was observed, the COVID-19 was treated with favipiravir, remdesivir, dexamethasone, and enoxaparin. However, the CAPA did not respond to combination therapy, which included triazole (voriconazole, itraconazole, posaconazole) and echinocandin (caspofungin, micafungin), even though the Aspergillus fumigatus isolate was found to be susceptible to these agents in vitro. Nevertheless, a total of 16 weeks of liposomal amphotericin B (L-AMB) therapy led to a favorable response, and the patient was discharged from the hospital on day 213. This case provided essential experience of CAPA treated with L-AMB in a recipient with chronic respiratory disease after HSCT.

6.
Respir Investig ; 61(2): 230-239, 2023 Mar.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2221297

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In Japan, the fourth round of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) vaccination is ongoing and is targeted at medical staff and nursing home workers, individuals aged ≥60 years, and those with comorbidities or other high-risk factors, including body mass index (BMI) ≥30 kg/m2. The incidence of severe COVID-19 decreased markedly after widespread COVID-19 vaccination drives, and our hospital experienced a similar trend. We, therefore, examined the characteristics of our patients to clarify who benefited the most from vaccination. METHODS: We retrospectively investigated all patients hospitalized for COVID-19 in Osaka City Juso Hospital between March 1, 2021, and June 30, 2022. Using multivariable logistic analysis, we calculated the adjusted odds ratios (aORs) for severe disease after vaccination in the whole dataset and in subsets stratified by age, sex, BMI, smoking history, pre-hospitalization location, and comorbidities. RESULTS: The analysis included 1041 patients. Multivariable logistic analysis showed that vaccination was associated with a low risk of severe disease, with an aOR of 0.21 (95% confidence interval: 0.12-0.36, p < 0.001). On stratifying the analysis according to background characteristics, lower aORs for severe COVID-19 were found for patients aged ≥60 years and for those with diabetes or hypertension. Notably, patients with BMI >30 kg/m2 and those with BMI ≥18 kg/m2 and ≤30 kg/m2 benefited from vaccination. CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with diabetes or hypertension and those of age ≥60 years benefited more from vaccination than did their counterparts. We recommend extending the fourth round of vaccinations to individuals with a BMI of 18-30 kg/m2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Diabetes Mellitus , Hypertension , Humans , COVID-19 Vaccines , SARS-CoV-2 , Retrospective Studies , Japan , Risk Factors , Hospitals , Vaccination
7.
Sci Rep ; 12(1): 22413, 2022 12 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2186010

ABSTRACT

Long-term sequelae of the coronavirus disease (COVID-19) constitute Long COVID. Although Long COVID has been reported globally, its risk factors and effects on quality of life (QOL) remain unclear. We conducted a cross-sectional study using questionnaires and electronic medical records of COVID-19 patients who were diagnosed or hospitalized at five facilities in Japan. Responses were obtained from 285 out of 1,150 patients. More than half of the participants reported Long COVID symptoms of varying severity 1 year after COVID-19. Common sequelae included fatigue, dyspnea, alopecia, concentration problems, memory problems, sleeplessness, and joint pain, which often significantly reduced their QOL. COVID-19 severity was strongly associated with sputum production, chest pain, dyspnea, sore throat, and diarrhea, but not with fatigue, dysgeusia, anosmia, alopecia, and sleeplessness. Fatigue, dysgeusia, anosmia, alopecia, and sleeplessness affected the QOL among participants with asymptomatic or mild COVID-19 during the acute phase. Moreover, these sequelae persisted for prolonged periods.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders , Humans , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19/complications , Cross-Sectional Studies , Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome , Quality of Life , Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders/complications , Anosmia , Dysgeusia , Prevalence , Risk Factors , Chest Pain , Dyspnea/epidemiology , Fatigue/epidemiology , Fatigue/complications , Alopecia/complications
9.
BMC Med ; 20(1): 342, 2022 09 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2053903

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: In vitro drug screening studies have indicated that camostat mesilate (FOY-305) may prevent SARS-CoV-2 infection into human airway epithelial cells. This study was conducted to investigate whether camostat mesilate is an effective treatment for SARS-CoV-2 infection (COVID-19). METHODS: This was a multicenter, double-blind, randomized, parallel-group, placebo-controlled study. Patients were enrolled if they were admitted to a hospital within 5 days of onset of COVID-19 symptoms or within 5 days of a positive test for asymptomatic patients. Severe cases (e.g., those requiring oxygenation/ventilation) were excluded. Patients were enrolled, randomized, and allocated to each group using an interactive web response system. Randomization was performed using a minimization method with the factors medical institution, age, and underlying diseases (chronic respiratory disease, chronic kidney disease, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cardiovascular diseases, and obesity). The patients, investigators/subinvestigators, study coordinators, and other study personnel were blinded throughout the study. Patients were administered camostat mesilate (600 mg qid; four to eight times higher than the clinical doses in Japan) or placebo for up to 14 days. The primary efficacy endpoint was the time to the first two consecutive negative tests for SARS-CoV-2. RESULTS: One-hundred fifty-five patients were randomized to receive camostat mesilate (n = 78) or placebo (n = 77). The median time to the first test was 11.0 days (95% confidence interval [CI]: 9.0-12.0) in the camostat mesilate group and 11.0 days (95% CI: 10.0-13.0) in the placebo group. Conversion to negative viral status by day 14 was observed in 45 of 74 patients (60.8%) in the camostat mesilate group and 47 of 74 patients (63.5%) in the placebo group. The primary (Bayesian) and secondary (frequentist) analyses found no significant differences in the primary endpoint between the two groups. No additional safety concerns beyond those already known for camostat mesilate were identified. CONCLUSIONS: Camostat mesilate did not substantially reduce the time to viral clearance, based on upper airway viral loads, compared with placebo for treating patients with mild to moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection with or without symptoms. TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04657497. Japan Registry for Clinical Trials, jRCT2031200198.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , Bayes Theorem , Double-Blind Method , Esters/adverse effects , Esters/therapeutic use , Guanidines/adverse effects , Guanidines/therapeutic use , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Treatment Outcome
10.
Vaccine ; 40(38): 5631-5640, 2022 09 09.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1984213

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Although several assays are used to measure anti-receptor-binding domain (RBD) antibodies induced after severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) vaccination, the assays are not fully comparable in practice. This study evaluated the immunogenicity of the BNT162b2 mRNA vaccine in healthy adults using two immunoassays. METHODS: This prospective cohort study included SARS-CoV-2-naïve adults, predominantly healthcare workers, aged 20-64 years, who received two BNT162b2 vaccine doses between March and May 2021. Blood samples were collected before the first vaccination (S0), before the second vaccination (S1), 4 weeks after the second vaccination (S2), and 6 months after the second vaccination (S3). anti-RBD antibodies were measured using the Architect SARS-CoV-2 IgG II Quant (Abbott Laboratory) and Elecsys anti-SARS-CoV-2 S (Roche Diagnostics) assays. RESULTS: Among the 385 participants, the geometric mean antibody titers (GMTs) on the Architect assay (AU/mL) were 7.5, 693, 7007, and 1030 for S0, S1, S2, and S3, respectively. The corresponding GMTs on the Elecsys assay (U/mL) were 0.40, 24, 928, and 659, respectively. The GMT ratio (S3/S2) was 0.15 on the Architect and 0.71 on the Elecsys assay. The correlation between antibody titers measured with the two assays were strong at all time points after vaccination (Spearman's correlation coefficient: 0.74 to 0.86, P < 0.01 for all). GMT was significantly lower in the older age group after vaccination (P < 0.01), with no significant differences according to sex. Seroprotection (≥5458 AU/mL on the Architect assay and ≥ 753 U/mL on the Elecsys) at each time point was 0 %, 1 %, 67 %, and 1 % on the Architect assay and 0 %, 1 %, 62 %, and 43 % on the Elecsys, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Two BNT162b2 vaccine doses resulted in adequate anti-RBD antibody response, which varied by age. As the two assays showed different kinetics, the results of single immunoassays should be interpreted with caution.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Viral Vaccines , Adult , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , BNT162 Vaccine , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunoassay , Japan , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic , mRNA Vaccines
11.
J Infect Chemother ; 28(5): 616-622, 2022 May.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1649513

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has greatly impacted medical care practices. Although the effects on infectious disease treatment and infection control, such as antimicrobial resistance, have been specified, very few reports exist on the specific effects of COVID-19. METHODS: We investigated the effects of COVID-19 on daily medical practices at a tertiary hospital in Japan by comparing the use of hand sanitizers, the detection of bacteria from blood cultures, and the amount dose of antibacterial drugs used for one year before (April 2019 to March 2020, fiscal year 2019.) and after COVID-19 admissions began (April 2020 to March 2021, fiscal year 2020). RESULTS: The use of hand sanitizers increased by 1.4-3 times during the year after COVID-19 admissions began; the incidence of methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus and all S. aureus detected in blood cultures reduced in all departments. No decrease was observed in the usage of all antibacterial drugs; rather, the usage of all antibacterial drugs tended to increase in all departments. Therefore, no significant change was observed in the detection of drug-resistant bacteria and the trends of antibacterial drug use based on the acceptance of COVID-19 patients. CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of drug-resistant bacteria and trends of antibacterial drug use remained unchanged despite the increased use of hand sanitizers due to the admission of patients with COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Drug Treatment , COVID-19 , Communicable Diseases , Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus , Staphylococcal Infections , Anti-Bacterial Agents/pharmacology , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/epidemiology , Communicable Diseases/drug therapy , Drug Resistance, Bacterial , Humans , Infection Control , Japan/epidemiology , Microbial Sensitivity Tests , Staphylococcal Infections/drug therapy , Staphylococcus aureus , Tertiary Care Centers
12.
Microbiol Spectr ; 9(3): e0096521, 2021 12 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1596481

ABSTRACT

The prompt rollout of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) mRNA vaccine is facilitating population immunity, which is becoming more dominant than natural infection-mediated immunity. In the midst of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) vaccine deployment, understanding the epitope profiles of vaccine-elicited antibodies will be the first step in assessing the functionality of vaccine-induced immunity. In this study, the high-resolution linear epitope profiles of Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 mRNA vaccine recipients and COVID-19 patients were delineated by using microarrays mapped with overlapping peptides of the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein. The vaccine-induced antibodies targeting the RBD had a broader distribution across the RBD than that induced by the natural infection. Half-maximal neutralization titers were measured in vitro by live virus neutralization assays. As a result, relatively lower neutralizability was observed in vaccine recipient sera, when normalized to a total anti-RBD IgG titer. However, mutation panel assays targeting the SARS-CoV-2 variants of concern have shown that the vaccine-induced epitope variety, rich in breadth, may grant resistance against future viral evolutionary escapes, serving as an advantage of vaccine-induced immunity. IMPORTANCE Establishing vaccine-based population immunity has been the key factor in attaining herd protection. Thanks to expedited worldwide research efforts, the potency of mRNA vaccines against the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is now incontestable. The next debate is regarding the coverage of SARS-CoV-2 variants. In the midst of vaccine deployment, it is of importance to describe the similarities and differences between the immune responses of COVID-19 vaccine recipients and naturally infected individuals. In this study, we demonstrated that the antibody profiles of vaccine recipients are richer in variety, targeting a key protein of the invading virus, than those of naturally infected individuals. Vaccine-elicited antibodies included more nonneutralizing antibodies than infection-elicited antibodies, and their breadth in antibody variations suggested possible resilience against future SARS-CoV-2 variants. The antibody profile achieved by vaccinations in naive individuals provides important insight into the first step toward vaccine-based population immunity.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/immunology , Epitope Mapping , Protein Binding , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/chemistry , mRNA Vaccines/immunology , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/chemistry , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines/chemistry , Humans , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus/immunology , Vaccination , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , mRNA Vaccines/chemistry
13.
Intern Med ; 60(23): 3827-3831, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1547076

ABSTRACT

A 73-year-old man previously treated with rituximab for his mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphoma suffered a suboptimal humoral immune response against an acquired SARS-CoV-2 infection. A detailed serological description revealed discrepant antigen-specific humoral immune responses. The titer of spike-targeting, "viral-neutralizing" antibodies remained below the detection level, in contrast to the anti-nucleocapsid, "binding" antibody response, which was comparable in both magnitude and kinetics. Accordingly, viral neutralizability and clearance was delayed, leading to prolonged RNAemia and persistent pneumonia. The present case highlights the need to closely monitor this unique population of recipients of B-cell-targeted therapies for their neutralizing antibody responses against SARS-CoV-2.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , Humans , Male , Rituximab/therapeutic use , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
14.
Respir Investig ; 60(1): 154-157, 2022 Jan.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1458829

ABSTRACT

An internet questionnaire survey for investigating empirical antibiotic usage and bacterial superinfections in patients with coronavirus disease-2019 (COVID-19) in Japan was conducted among the chief physicians of respiratory disease departments of 715 Japanese Respiratory Society-certified hospitals using Google Forms between January 28, 2021 and February 28, 2021. Responses to the questionnaire survey were obtained from 198 of 715 hospitals (27.6%). The survey revealed that the complication incidences of community-acquired pneumonia; hospital-acquired pneumonia, including ventilator-associated pneumonia; and sepsis were 2.86, 5.59, and 0.99%, respectively, among patients with moderate/severe and critical COVID-19. Bacterial co-infection and secondary infection rarely affected patients with COVID-19 in Japan, and the isolated pathogens were not specific to these patients. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory effects of macrolides for COVID-19 were not observed in several studies. These results might be useful in clinical practice for COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Superinfection , Anti-Bacterial Agents/therapeutic use , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , SARS-CoV-2 , Superinfection/drug therapy , Surveys and Questionnaires
15.
J Infect Public Health ; 14(9): 1263-1267, 2021 Sep.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1392421

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Healthcare workers (HCWs) who manage patients with the novel coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) are at an increased risk and fear of contracting the infection themselves. Hospitals must reduce both the physical and mental burden of HCWs on the front lines and ensure their safety. No prospective study has focused on the physical health complaints among HCWs engaged in the care of critically ill COVID-19 patients. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of various physical symptoms experienced by HCWs following their exposure to COVID-19 patients and investigate the association between occupation and the manifestation of physical symptoms among HCWs at a tertiary hospital in Japan during the current ongoing COVID-19 pandemic. METHODS: A twice-weekly questionnaire targeting HCWs who care for COVID-19 patients was performed at Osaka City University Hospital from April 30 to May 31, 2020. The demographic characteristics of the participants, frequency of exposure to at-risk care, and physical complaints were evaluated. RESULTS: Seventy-six HCWs participated in this study, of whom 24 (31.6%) were doctors, 43 (56.6%) were nurses, and 9 (11.8%) were technicians. The frequency of experiencing any physical symptom was 25.0% among HCWs. Exposure to at-risk care was significantly higher among nurses than among doctors (p < 0.001). Notably, the frequency of physical symptoms among the nurses was very high at 39.5% and obviously higher than that of physical symptoms among the doctors (p < 0.01). CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that hospital occupational health care must be provided to HCWs who are engaged in the care of COVID-19 patients and are thus highly exposed to at-risk care.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pandemics , Critical Illness , Health Personnel , Humans , Japan/epidemiology , Prospective Studies , SARS-CoV-2 , Tertiary Care Centers
16.
J Infect Chemother ; 27(6): 911-914, 2021 Jun.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1101366

ABSTRACT

CAPA (COVID-19 associated pulmonary aspergillosis) is an important complication of COVID-19. It has been reported that the incidence of CAPA is as high as 19%-33% worldwide. However, its onset has not been reported in Japan. A 72-year-old Japanese man was diagnosed with COVID-19 and was transferred to our hospital due to deterioration of respiratory condition. Treatment with remdesivir, dexamethasone (DEXA), and antibiotics was performed under mechanical ventilation. Although the condition improved temporarily, a new shadow appeared in the lung, and Aspergillus fumigatus was cultured from sputum. The patient was clinically diagnosed with CAPA and treated with voriconazole. However, his progress deteriorated and he died. High-risk COVID-19 patients should be tested for Aspergillus to ensure early diagnosis of CAPA.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Pulmonary Aspergillosis , Aged , Antifungal Agents/therapeutic use , COVID-19/complications , Fatal Outcome , Humans , Japan , Male , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/diagnosis , Pulmonary Aspergillosis/drug therapy , Respiration, Artificial
18.
JPRN; 25/09/2020; TrialID: JPRN-jRCTs051200060
Clinical Trial Register | ICTRP | ID: ictrp-JPRN-jRCTs051200060

ABSTRACT

Condition:

COVID-19 infection
COVID-19 infection;COVID-19 infection

Intervention:

One or two tables of hydroxychloroquine sulfate 200mg once in a day, after meal, oral, for 7 days;Hydroxychloroquine

Primary outcome:

Serious adverse events during the drug administration period

Criteria:

Inclusion criteria: 1) Male or female with age 18 or greater at the time of consent
(2) Is able to administrate the drug orally
(3) Is able to follow the schedule for medical exam defined in the research protocol
(4) Has provided written consent for participation

*The participants from age 18 to 20 have to provide written consents from both the subject and a legal guardian
*The participants are not limited to the workers who involve in infection control zone

Exclusion criteria: (1) History of COVID-19
(2) History of allergy for hydroxychroloquine
(3) weight less than 31kg
(4) Under medication with the drugs which are listed as contraindications for coadministration with HCQ
(5) History of retinopathy or macular degeneration
(6) Pregnant or planning pregnancy
(7) Breastfeeding
(8) Performance status of 2 or greater
(9) Advanced liver function abnormalities classified as grade C by the Child-Pugh criteria
(10) Renal disease classified CKD stage more than 4
(11) Allergy for quinine
(12) G-6-PD dificiency
(13) Porphyria
(14) scabies
(15) Under medication with gastrointestinal/neural/hematologic disorders
(16) Risk for ophthalmopathy
(17) Ventricular arrhythmia
(18) History of long QTc
(19) Deemed ineligible as determined by the principal investigator or a co-investigator

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