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1.
J Med Virol ; 94(6): 2402-2413, 2022 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1718416

ABSTRACT

The aim of this study is to provide a more accurate representation of COVID-19's case fatality rate (CFR) by performing meta-analyses by continents and income, and by comparing the result with pooled estimates. We used multiple worldwide data sources on COVID-19 for every country reporting COVID-19 cases. On the basis of data, we performed random and fixed meta-analyses for CFR of COVID-19 by continents and income according to each individual calendar date. CFR was estimated based on the different geographical regions and levels of income using three models: pooled estimates, fixed- and random-model. In Asia, all three types of CFR initially remained approximately between 2.0% and 3.0%. In the case of pooled estimates and the fixed model results, CFR increased to 4.0%, by then gradually decreasing, while in the case of random-model, CFR remained under 2.0%. Similarly, in Europe, initially, the two types of CFR peaked at 9.0% and 10.0%, respectively. The random-model results showed an increase near 5.0%. In high-income countries, pooled estimates and fixed-model showed gradually increasing trends with a final pooled estimates and random-model reached about 8.0% and 4.0%, respectively. In middle-income, the pooled estimates and fixed-model have gradually increased reaching up to 4.5%. in low-income countries, CFRs remained similar between 1.5% and 3.0%. Our study emphasizes that COVID-19 CFR is not a fixed or static value. Rather, it is a dynamic estimate that changes with time, population, socioeconomic factors, and the mitigatory efforts of individual countries.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Asia , COVID-19/epidemiology , Europe/epidemiology , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Socioeconomic Factors
2.
Ther Adv Vaccines Immunother ; 9: 25151355211059791, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1551191

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the COVID-19 pandemic, there has been a rapid expansion in vaccine research focusing on exploiting the novel discoveries on the pathophysiology, genomics, and molecular biology of the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. Although the current preventive measures are primarily socially distancing by maintaining a 1 m distance, it is supplemented using facial masks and other personal hygiene measures. However, the induction of vaccines as primary prevention is crucial to eradicating the disease to attempt restoration to normalcy. This literature review aims to describe the physiology of the vaccines and how the spike protein is used as a target to elicit an antibody-dependent immune response in humans. Furthermore, the overview, dosing strategies, efficacy, and side effects will be discussed for the notable vaccines: BioNTech/Pfizer, Moderna, AstraZeneca, Janssen, Gamaleya, and SinoVac. In addition, the development of other prominent COVID-19 vaccines will be highlighted alongside the sustainability of the vaccine-mediated immune response and current contraindications. As the research is rapidly expanding, we have looked at the association between pregnancy and COVID-19 vaccinations, in addition to the current reviews on the mixing of vaccines. Finally, the prominent emerging variants of concern are described, and the efficacy of the notable vaccines toward these variants has been summarized.

3.
World J Radiol ; 13(9): 258-282, 2021 Sep 28.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1463946

ABSTRACT

Since the outbreak of the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, over 103214008 cases have been reported, with more than 2231158 deaths as of January 31, 2021. Although the gold standard for diagnosis of this disease remains the reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction of nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal swabs, its false-negative rates have ignited the use of medical imaging as an important adjunct or alternative. Medical imaging assists in identifying the pathogenesis, the degree of pulmonary damage, and the characteristic features in each imaging modality. This literature review collates the characteristic radiographic findings of COVID-19 in various imaging modalities while keeping the preliminary focus on chest radiography, computed tomography (CT), and ultrasound scans. Given the higher sensitivity and greater proficiency in detecting characteristic findings during the early stages, CT scans are more reliable in diagnosis and serve as a practical method in following up the disease time course. As research rapidly expands, we have emphasized the CO-RADS classification system as a tool to aid in communicating the likelihood of COVID-19 suspicion among healthcare workers. Additionally, the utilization of other scoring systems such as MuLBSTA, Radiological Assessment of Lung Edema, and Brixia in this pandemic are reviewed as they integrate the radiographic findings into an objective scoring system to risk stratify the patients and predict the severity of disease. Furthermore, current progress in the utilization of artificial intelligence via radiomics is evaluated. Lastly, the lesson from the first wave and preparation for the second wave from the point of view of radiology are summarized.

4.
Cureus ; 12(4): e7560, 2020 Apr 06.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-47077

ABSTRACT

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a declared global pandemic. There are multiple parameters of the clinical course and management of the COVID-19 that need optimization. A hindrance to this development is the vast amount of misinformation present due to scarcely sourced manuscript preprints and social media. This literature review aims to presents accredited and the most current studies pertaining to the basic sciences of SARS-CoV-2, clinical presentation and disease course of COVID-19, public health interventions, and current epidemiological developments. The review on basic sciences aims to clarify the jargon in virology, describe the virion structure of SARS-CoV-2 and present pertinent details relevant to clinical practice. Another component discussed is the brief history on the series of experiments used to explore the origins and evolution of the phylogeny of the viral genome of SARS-CoV-2. Additionally, the clinical and epidemiological differences between COVID-19 and other infections causing outbreaks (SARS, MERS, H1N1) are elucidated. Emphasis is placed on evidence-based medicine to evaluate the frequency of presentation of various symptoms to create a stratification system of the most important epidemiological risk factors for COVID-19. These can be used to triage and expedite risk assessment. Furthermore, the limitations and statistical strength of the diagnostic tools currently in clinical practice are evaluated. Criteria on rapid screening, discharge from hospital and discontinuation of self-quarantine are clarified. Epidemiological factors influencing the rapid rate of spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus are described. Accurate information pertinent to improving prevention strategies is also discussed. The penultimate portion of the review aims to explain the involvement of micronutrients such as vitamin C and vitamin D in COVID19 treatment and prophylaxis. Furthermore, the biochemistry of the major candidates for novel therapies is briefly reviewed and a summary of their current status in the clinical trials is presented. Lastly, the current scientific data and status of governing bodies such as the Center of Disease Control (CDC) and the WHO on the usage of controversial therapies such as angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) (Ibuprofen), and corticosteroids usage in COVID-19 are discussed. The composite collection of accredited studies on each of these subtopics of COVID-19 within this review will enable clarification and focus on the current status and direction in the planning of the management of this global pandemic.

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