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2.
Front Microbiol ; 13: 888195, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1911066

ABSTRACT

Background: During the second wave of the COVID-19 pandemic, outbreaks of Zika were reported from Kerala, Uttar Pradesh, and Maharashtra, India in 2021. The Dengue and Chikungunya negative samples were retrospectively screened to determine the presence of the Zika virus from different geographical regions of India. Methods: During May to October 2021, the clinical samples of 1475 patients, across 13 states and a union territory of India were screened and re-tested for Dengue, Chikungunya and Zika by CDC Trioplex Real time RT-PCR. The Zika rRTPCR positive samples were further screened with anti-Zika IgM and Plaque Reduction Neutralization Test. Next generation sequencing was used for further molecular characterization. Results: The positivity was observed for Zika (67), Dengue (121), and Chikungunya (10) amongst screened cases. The co-infections of Dengue/Chikungunya, Dengue/Zika, and Dengue/Chikungunya/Zika were also observed. All Zika cases were symptomatic with fever (84%) and rash (78%) as major presenting symptoms. Of them, four patients had respiratory distress, one presented with seizures, and one with suspected microcephaly at birth. The Asian Lineage of Zika and all four serotypes of Dengue were found in circulation. Conclusion: Our study indicates the spread of the Zika virus to several states of India and an urgent need to strengthen its surveillance.

4.
Front Public Health ; 10: 818545, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1731870

ABSTRACT

We report here a Nipah virus (NiV) outbreak in Kozhikode district of Kerala state, India, which had caused fatal encephalitis in a 12-year-old boy and the outbreak response, which led to the successful containment of the disease and the related investigations. Quantitative real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, ELISA-based antibody detection, and whole genome sequencing (WGS) were performed to confirm the NiV infection. Contacts of the index case were traced and isolated based on risk categorization. Bats from the areas near the epicenter of the outbreak were sampled for throat swabs, rectal swabs, and blood samples for NiV screening by real-time RT-PCR and anti-NiV bat immunoglobulin G (IgG) ELISA. A plaque reduction neutralization test was performed for the detection of neutralizing antibodies. Nipah viral RNA could be detected from blood, bronchial wash, endotracheal (ET) secretion, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and anti-NiV immunoglobulin M (IgM) antibodies from the serum sample of the index case. Rapid establishment of an onsite NiV diagnostic facility and contact tracing helped in quick containment of the outbreak. NiV sequences retrieved from the clinical specimen of the index case formed a sub-cluster with the earlier reported Nipah I genotype sequences from India with more than 95% similarity. Anti-NiV IgG positivity could be detected in 21% of Pteropus medius (P. medius) and 37.73% of Rousettus leschenaultia (R. leschenaultia). Neutralizing antibodies against NiV could be detected in P. medius. Stringent surveillance and awareness campaigns need to be implemented in the area to reduce human-bat interactions and minimize spillover events, which can lead to sporadic outbreaks of NiV.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , Nipah Virus , Child , Disease Outbreaks , Humans , Male , Nipah Virus/genetics , Pandemics , SARS-CoV-2
5.
Nat Commun ; 12(1): 1386, 2021 03 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1114712

ABSTRACT

The COVID-19 pandemic is a global health crisis that poses a great challenge to the public health system of affected countries. Safe and effective vaccines are needed to overcome this crisis. Here, we develop and assess the protective efficacy and immunogenicity of an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine in rhesus macaques. Twenty macaques were divided into four groups of five animals each. One group was administered a placebo, while three groups were immunized with three different vaccine candidates of BBV152 at 0 and 14 days. All the macaques were challenged with SARS-CoV-2 fourteen days after the second dose. The protective response was observed with increasing SARS-CoV-2 specific IgG and neutralizing antibody titers from 3rd-week post-immunization. Viral clearance was observed from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid, nasal swab, throat swab and lung tissues at 7 days post-infection in the vaccinated groups. No evidence of pneumonia was observed by histopathological examination in vaccinated groups, unlike the placebo group which exhibited interstitial pneumonia and localization of viral antigen in the alveolar epithelium and macrophages by immunohistochemistry. This vaccine candidate BBV152 has completed Phase I/II (NCT04471519) clinical trials in India and is presently in phase III, data of this study substantiates the immunogenicity and protective efficacy of the vaccine candidates.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/therapeutic use , SARS-CoV-2/pathogenicity , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing/immunology , Antibodies, Viral/immunology , Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay , Female , Immunohistochemistry , Lymphocytes/immunology , Lymphocytes/metabolism , Macaca mulatta , Male , Pneumonia/immunology , Pneumonia/metabolism
6.
Indian J Med Res ; 152(1 & 2): 70-76, 2020.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-710536

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND & OBJECTIVES: The genome of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), belonging to the family Coronaviridae, encodes for structural, non-structural, and accessory proteins, which are required for replication of the virus. These proteins are encoded by different genes present on the SARS-CoV-2 genome. The expression pattern of these genes in the host cells needs to be assessed. This study was undertaken to understand the transcription pattern of the SARS-CoV-2 genes in the Vero CCL-81 cells during the course of infection. METHODS: Vero CCL-81 cells were infected with the SARS-CoV-2 virus inoculum having a 0.1 multiplicity of infection. The supernatants and cell pellets were harvested after centrifugation at different time points, post-infection. The 50% tissue culture infective dose (TCID50)and cycle threshold (Ct) values of the E and the RdRp-2 genes were calculated. Next-generation sequencing of the harvested sample was carried out to observe the expression pattern of the virus by mapping to the SARS-CoV-2 Wuhan HU-1 reference sequence. The expressions were in terms of the reads per kilobase million (RPKM) values. RESULTS: In the inital six hours post-infection, the copy numbers of E and RdRp-2 genes were approximately constant, which raised 10 log-fold and continued to increase till the 12 h post-infection (hpi). The TCID50 was observed in the supernatant after 7 hpi, indicating the release of the viral progeny. ORF8 and ORF7a, along with the nucleocapsid transcript, were found to express at higher levels. INTERPRETATION & CONCLUSIONS: This study was a step towards understanding the growth kinetics of the SARS-CoV-2 replication cycle. The findings indicated that ORF8 and ORF7b gene transcripts were expressed in higher amounts indicating their essential role in viral replication. Future studies need to be conducted to explore their role in the SARS-CoV-2 replication.


Subject(s)
Betacoronavirus/genetics , Coronavirus Infections/genetics , Pneumonia, Viral/genetics , Transcriptome/genetics , Animals , Betacoronavirus/pathogenicity , COVID-19 , Chlorocebus aethiops , Coronavirus Infections/pathology , Coronavirus Infections/virology , Humans , Pandemics , Pneumonia, Viral/pathology , Pneumonia, Viral/virology , SARS-CoV-2 , Vero Cells/virology , Virus Replication/genetics
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