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1.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2072962

ABSTRACT

Background The influence of the host genome on coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) susceptibility and severity is supported by reports on monozygotic (MZ) twins where both were infected simultaneously with similar disease outcomes, including several who died due to the SARS-CoV-2 infection within days apart. However, successive exposures to pathogens throughout life along with other environmental factors make the immune response unique for each individual, even among MZ twins. Case presentation and methods Here we report a case of a young adult monozygotic twin pair, who caught attention since both presented simultaneously severe COVID-19 with the need for oxygen support despite age and good health conditions. One of the twins, who spent more time hospitalized, reported symptoms of long-COVID even 7 months after infection. Immune cell profile and specific responses to SARS-CoV-2 were evaluated as well as whole exome sequencing. Conclusion Although the MZ twin brothers shared the same genetic mutations which may be associated with their increased risk of developing severe COVID-19, their clinical progression was different, reinforcing the role of both immune response and genetics in the COVID-19 presentation and course. Besides, post-COVID syndrome was observed in one of them, corroborating an association between the duration of hospitalization and the occurrence of long-COVID symptoms.

2.
J Allergy Clin Immunol Glob ; 1(3): 112-121, 2022 Aug.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2049362

ABSTRACT

Background: Adaptive immunity in severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection is decisive for disease control. Delayed activation of T cells is associated with a worse outcome in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Although convalescent individuals exhibit solid T-cell immunity, to date, long-term immunity to SARS-CoV-2 is still under investigation. Objectives: We aimed to characterize the specific T-cell response on the basis of the in vitro recall of IFN-γ-producing cells to in silico-predicted peptides in samples from SARS-CoV-2 convalescent individuals. Methods: The sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 genome was screened, leading to the identification of specific and promiscuous peptides predicted to be recognized by CD4+ and CD8+ T cells. Next, we performed an in vitro recall of specific T cells from PBMC samples from the participants. The results were analyzed according to clinical features of the cohort and HLA diversity. Results: Our results indicated heterogeneous T-cell responsiveness among the participants. Compared with patients who exhibited mild symptoms, hospitalized patients had a significantly higher magnitude of response. In addition, male and older patients showed a lower number of IFN-γ-producing cells. Analysis of samples collected after 180 days revealed a reduction in the number of specific circulating IFN-γ-producing T cells, suggesting decreased immunity against viral peptides. Conclusion: Our data are evidence that in silico-predicted peptides are highly recognized by T cells from convalescent individuals, suggesting a possible application for vaccine design. However, the number of specific T cells decreases 180 days after infection, which might be associated with reduced protection against reinfection over time.

3.
Frontiers in medicine ; 9, 2022.
Article in English | EuropePMC | ID: covidwho-2044790

ABSTRACT

Background SARS-CoV-2 enters lung cells via angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor. Several studies suggest that interleukin-13, an important cytokine involved in T2 inflammation, reduces ACE2 expression, and therefore, asthma would not be a significant risk factor for the development of severe COVID-19. However, several asthma-related risk factors should be valued during the concurrent occurrence of asthma and COVID-19. The purpose of this study was to compare the evolution of asthma in patients who had COVID-19 with those who did not have the disease. Methods This was an observational and retrospective study involving asthmatic patients followed up at a tertiary center. Patients were assessed for severity of asthma, atopy, comorbidities, and COVID-19. Worsening of asthma was considered when, during the period of Sept 2020 to Oct 2021, patients referred an increasing of asthma symptoms and a need to increment their maintenance therapy. Results This study included 208 asthmatic patients, the mean age was 52.75 years, 79.81% were atopic asthmatics, and 59 (28.37%) had laboratory-confirmed coronavirus disease. Of all patients infected with the SARS-CoV-2, eleven (18.64%) needed hospitalization and required oxygen supply with an O2 mask. Comparing the worsening of asthma between patients who had COVID-19 and those who had not the disease, there was a statistically significant difference, 33.90 vs. 11.41%, respectively (p < 0.001). There was no statistical significance regarding asthma comorbidities. Conclusion This study assessed a group of asthmatic patients that had COVID-19, and that although the respiratory symptoms related to COVID-19 were mild to moderate, a subgroup of these asthmatic patients evolved with a chronic worsening of their asthma requiring an increment in asthma medication to control the disease.

4.
Nat Commun ; 13(1): 4831, 2022 08 17.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1991599

ABSTRACT

Both T cells and B cells have been shown to be generated after infection with SARS-CoV-2 yet protocols or experimental models to study one or the other are less common. Here, we generate a chimeric protein (SpiN) that comprises the receptor binding domain (RBD) from Spike (S) and the nucleocapsid (N) antigens from SARS-CoV-2. Memory CD4+ and CD8+ T cells specific for SpiN could be detected in the blood of both individuals vaccinated with Coronavac SARS-CoV-2 vaccine and COVID-19 convalescent donors. In mice, SpiN elicited a strong IFN-γ response by T cells and high levels of antibodies to the inactivated virus, but not detectable neutralizing antibodies (nAbs). Importantly, immunization of Syrian hamsters and the human Angiotensin Convertase Enzyme-2-transgenic (K18-ACE-2) mice with Poly ICLC-adjuvanted SpiN promotes robust resistance to the wild type SARS-CoV-2, as indicated by viral load, lung inflammation, clinical outcome and reduction of lethality. The protection induced by SpiN was ablated by depletion of CD4+ and CD8+ T cells and not transferred by antibodies from vaccinated mice. Finally, vaccination with SpiN also protects the K18-ACE-2 mice against infection with Delta and Omicron SARS-CoV-2 isolates. Hence, vaccine formulations that elicit effector T cells specific for the N and RBD proteins may be used to improve COVID-19 vaccines and potentially circumvent the immune escape by variants of concern.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Animals , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes , COVID-19/prevention & control , COVID-19 Vaccines , Humans , Mice , Nucleocapsid , Nucleocapsid Proteins , SARS-CoV-2/genetics , Spike Glycoprotein, Coronavirus
5.
Immunotherapy ; 14(11): 839-842, 2022 08.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1910921

ABSTRACT

The Federation of Clinical Immunology Societies (FOCIS) regularly organizes scientific meetings to foster advances in immunology. A new event of this type is FOCIS Goes South, a course and workshop organized by FOCIS Centers of Excellence (FCEs) from across Latin America, which consists of a course on advanced immunology, a flow cytometry workshop and seminars on cutting-edge research in autoimmunity, tolerance, cancer, infectious diseases and vaccines. Due to the COVID-19 pandemic, the second version of FOCIS Goes South, hosted by the Millennium Institute on Immunology and Immunotherapy in Chile, took place virtually from 15 to 18 November 2021, with more than 950 registered participants. The present article summarizes the key findings and insights discussed at FOCIS Goes South 2021.


Subject(s)
Allergy and Immunology , COVID-19 , Neoplasms , COVID-19/therapy , Chile , Humans , Immunotherapy , Pandemics
6.
Front Immunol ; 13: 812126, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1809385

ABSTRACT

CoronaVac is an inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine that has been rolled out in several low and middle-income countries including Brazil, where it was the mainstay of the first wave of immunization of healthcare workers and the elderly population. We aimed to assess the T cell and antibody responses of vaccinated individuals as compared to convalescent patients. We detected IgG against SARS-CoV-2 antigens, neutralizing antibodies against the reference Wuhan SARS-CoV-2 strain and used SARS-CoV-2 peptides to detect IFN-g and IL-2 specific T cell responses in a group of CoronaVac vaccinated individuals (N = 101) and convalescent (N = 72) individuals. The frequency among vaccinated individuals, of whom 96% displayed T cell and/or antibody responses to SARS-CoV-2, is comparable to 98.5% responses of convalescent individuals. We observed that among vaccinated individuals, men and individuals 55 years or older developed significantly lower anti-RBD, anti-NP and neutralization titers against the Wuhan strain and antigen-induced IL-2 production by T cells. Neutralizing antibody responses for Gamma variant were even lower than for the Wuhan strain. Even though some studies indicated CoronaVac helped reduce mortality among elderly people, considering the appearance of novel variants of concern, CoronaVac vaccinated individuals above 55 years old are likely to benefit from a heterologous third dose/booster vaccine to increase immune response and likely protection.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19 , Aged , Antibodies, Neutralizing , Antibodies, Viral , Antibody Formation , COVID-19/prevention & control , Humans , Immunization, Secondary , Interleukin-2 , Male , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , T-Lymphocytes
7.
EuropePMC; 2020.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-308818

ABSTRACT

Background: Healthcare workers (HW) are a vulnerable group to develop burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic. The aims of this study were to evaluate the perception of HW about the antibody test, and, secondarily, the prevalence of burnout and factors associated with burnout among HW who took the test. Methods: : In this cross-sectional study, we evaluated burnout among HW in a 600-bed building entirely dedicated to COVID-19 inpatients care at Hospital das Clinicas (HC), located in São Paulo, Brazil. The HW answered an online questionnaire that included questions on burnout, a single-item scale based on the Maslach Burnout Inventory;demographic data, professional category, type of Protective Personal Equipment (PPE) used, distancing from social support;and emotional reactions to their serology result. Bivariate and multivariate analyses were done to evaluate the risk of burnout. Outcomes: Among 4,417 HW tested, 528 (12.0%) were positive for SARS-CoV-2 and 1,945 answered the questionnaire. Burnout was reported by 308 (15.8%);anxiety, tenseness, and depression associated with COVID-19 were reported by 344 (17.7%);292 (15.1%);and 181(9.3%) of the participants, respectively. The risk factors for burnout were: being a physician [adjOR:1.604;(95%CI 1.604-1.080;p=0.019)];a physiotherapist [adjOR:2.047;(95%CI:1.285–3.261;p=0.003)];perceiving a decrease in public safety[adjOR:1.983;(95%CI:1.229–3.199;p=0.005)];anxiety [adjOR:2.721;(95%CI:1.812–4.085;p=<0.001)], and depression associated with COVID-19[adjOR:2.071;(95%CI:1.308–3.279;p=0.002)];and having negative feeling towards had a previously negative SARS-CoV-2 serology[adjOR:1,989;(95%CI:1.484-2.664;p<0.001)]. Interpretation: Routine serological testing was one of the strategies used in our hospital to promote the well-being of HW. We observed that those who had negative feeling regarding testing negative to COVID-19 in previous serologies were at higher risk of burnout, suggesting that the risk of contracting the disease is a major stressor for HW.

8.
EuropePMC;
Preprint in Portuguese | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-327954

ABSTRACT

SARS-Cov-2 is a virus easily transmitted by air and fomites causing  acute severe respiratory syndrome. Severity in some cases requires hospitalization and complex expensive intensive care treatments. Its rampant contagious led to a a fearful pandemic affecting the whole world with millions of infected humans and almost half a million deaths in a few months in the beginning of 2020 (until June 17, 2020). SARS-Cov2 is likely to have been spilled over from natural sylvatic cycles in bats from China. Our purpose is to comment on the human individual immune inflammatory responses to the infection of SARS-Cov2 and the reflections of these individual immunoinflammatory profiles on patterns of the severity of the disease, time for therapeutical intervention, pathogenesis, candidate drugs and indicative comparative drug prices for covid-19. Efficient treatment  for covid-19 may require: 1) early disease detection, 2) a combination of drugs being used for 3) targeting the virus replication cycle and 4) specific/ individualized drug treatment for given immunoinflammatory human profile responses in a 5) timely manner. Specific serum immuno-markers of covid-19 affected individuals at onset, in the follow-up, and in the resolution of the immunoinflammatory storm during the course of the disease may lead to individualized therapeutics with better outcomes.  Covid-19 is unlikely to be the last emergent human disease with fast pandemic potencial. To gather knowledge on the human host profiles and immunoinflamatory responses is an opportunity that could pave the way to faster, more efficient strategies to tackle upcoming diseases.

9.
Open Biol ; 12(2): 210240, 2022 02.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1662161

ABSTRACT

Recurrence of COVID-19 in recovered patients has been increasingly reported. However, the immune mechanisms behind the recurrence have not been thoroughly investigated. The presence of neutralizing antibodies (nAbs) in recurrence/reinfection cases suggests that other types of immune response are involved in protection against recurrence. Here, we investigated the innate type I/III interferon (IFN) response, binding and nAb assays and T-cell responses to severe acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) with IFN gamma (IFNγ) enzyme-linked spot assay (ELISPOT) in three pairs of young adult monozygotic (MZ) twins with previous confirmed COVID-19, one of them presenting a severe recurrence four months after the initial infection. Twin studies have been of paramount importance to comprehend the immunogenetics of infectious diseases. Each MZ twin pair was previously exposed to SARS-CoV-2, as seen by clinical reports. The six individuals presented similar overall recovered immune responses except for the recurrence case, who presented a drastically reduced number of recognized SARS-CoV-2 T-cell epitopes on ELISPOT as compared to her twin sister and the other twin pairs. Our results suggest that the lack of a broad T-cell response to initial infection may have led to recurrence, emphasizing that an effective SARS-CoV-2-specific T-cell immune response is key for complete viral control and avoidance of clinical recurrence of COVID-19.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , Immunity, Cellular , SARS-CoV-2/immunology , T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Twins, Monozygotic , Adolescent , Adult , Female , Humans , Male , Recurrence
10.
Vaccine ; 40(2): 239-246, 2022 01 21.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1586281

ABSTRACT

Over the last few decades, several emerging or reemerging viral diseases with no readily available vaccines have ravaged the world. A platform to fastly generate vaccines inducing potent and durable neutralizing antibody and T cell responses is sorely needed. Bioinformatically identified epitope-based vaccines can focus on immunodominant T cell epitopes and induce more potent immune responses than a whole antigen vaccine and may be deployed more rapidly and less costly than whole-gene vaccines. Increasing evidence has shown the importance of the CD4+ T cell response in protection against HIV and other viral infections. The previously described DNA vaccine HIVBr18 encodes 18 conserved, promiscuous epitopes binding to multiple HLA-DR-binding HIV epitopes amply recognized by HIV-1-infected patients. HIVBr18 elicited broad, polyfunctional, and durable CD4+and CD8+ T cell responses in BALB/c and mice transgenic to HLA class II alleles, showing cross-species promiscuity. To fully delineate the promiscuity of the HLA class II vaccine epitopes, we assessed their binding to 34 human class II (HLA-DR, DQ, and -DP) molecules, and immunized nonhuman primates. Results ascertained redundant 100% coverage of the human population for multiple peptides. We then immunized Rhesus macaques with HIVBr18 under in vivo electroporation. The immunization induced strong, predominantly polyfunctional CD4+ T cell responses in all animals to 13 out of the 18 epitopes; T cells from each animal recognized 7-11 epitopes. Our results provide a preliminary proof of concept that immunization with a vaccine encoding epitopes with high and redundant coverage of the human population can elicit potent T cell responses to multiple epitopes, across species and MHC barriers. This approach may facilitate the rapid deployment of immunogens eliciting cellular immunity against emerging infectious diseases, such as COVID-19.


Subject(s)
AIDS Vaccines , CD4-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , CD8-Positive T-Lymphocytes/immunology , Epitopes, T-Lymphocyte/immunology , AIDS Vaccines/immunology , Animals , Genes, MHC Class II , Humans , Macaca mulatta , Mice , Mice, Inbred BALB C , Mice, Transgenic
11.
2021.
Preprint in English | Other preprints | ID: ppcovidwho-295651

ABSTRACT

Recent SARS-CoV-2 variants pose important concerns due to their higher transmissibility ( 1 ) and escape ( 2 ) from previous infections or vaccine-induced neutralizing antibodies (nAb). The receptor binding domain (RBD) of the Spike protein is a major nAb target ( 3 ), but data on its B cell epitopes are still lacking. Using a peptide microarray, we identified an immunodominant epitope (S 415-429 ) recognized by 68% of sera from 71 convalescent Brazilians infected with the ancestral variant. In contrast with previous studies, we have identified a linear IgG and IgA antibody binding epitope within the RBD. IgG and IgA antibody levels for this epitope positively correlated with nAb titers, suggesting a potential target of antibody neutralizing activity. Interestingly, this immunodominant RBD region harbors the mutation hotspot site K417 present in P.1 (K417T) and B.1.351 (K417N) variants. In silico simulation analyses indicate impaired RBD binding to nAb in both variants and that a glycosylation in the B.1.351 417N could further hinder antibody binding as compared to the K417T mutation in P.1. This is in line with published data showing that nAb from either convalescents or anti-CoV-2 vaccinees are less effective towards B.1.351 than for P.1. Our data support the occurrence of immune pressure and selection involving this immunodominant epitope that may have critically contributed to the recent COVID-19 marked rise in Brazil and South Africa, and pinpoint a potential additional immune escape mechanism for SARS-CoV-2.

12.
EuropePMC; 2021.
Preprint in English | EuropePMC | ID: ppcovidwho-292383

ABSTRACT

The nucleocapsid (N) and the receptor binding domain (RBD) of the Spike (S) proteins elicit robust antibody and T cell responses either in vaccinated or COVID-19 convalescent individuals. We generated a chimeric protein that comprises the sequences of RBD from S and N antigens (SpiN). SpiN was highly immunogenic and elicited a strong IFNγ response from T cells and high levels of antibodies to the inactivated virus, but no neutralizing antibodies (nAb). Importantly, hamsters and the human Angiotensin Convertase Enzyme-2-transgenic mice immunized with SpiN were highly resistant to challenge with the wild type SARS-CoV-2, as indicated by viral load, clinical outcome, lung inflammation and lethality. This protective immunity was dependent of CD4+ T and CD8+ T cells, but not by transfer of antibody of vaccinated mice. Thus, our experiment provides an example T cell-mediated immunity and reinforce the concept that T cell target antigens other that the S protein maybe considered to improve SARS-CoV-2 vaccines, and eventually circumvent the immune scape by variants.

13.
Front Immunol ; 12: 742881, 2021.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1470759

ABSTRACT

Despite the high number of individuals infected by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) who develop coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) symptoms worldwide, many exposed individuals remain asymptomatic and/or uninfected and seronegative. This could be explained by a combination of environmental (exposure), immunological (previous infection), epigenetic, and genetic factors. Aiming to identify genetic factors involved in immune response in symptomatic COVID-19 as compared to asymptomatic exposed individuals, we analyzed 83 Brazilian couples where one individual was infected and symptomatic while the partner remained asymptomatic and serum-negative for at least 6 months despite sharing the same bedroom during the infection. We refer to these as "discordant couples". We performed whole-exome sequencing followed by a state-of-the-art method to call genotypes and haplotypes across the highly polymorphic major histocompatibility complex (MHC) region. The discordant partners had comparable ages and genetic ancestry, but women were overrepresented (65%) in the asymptomatic group. In the antigen-presentation pathway, we observed an association between HLA-DRB1 alleles encoding Lys at residue 71 (mostly DRB1*03:01 and DRB1*04:01) and DOB*01:02 with symptomatic infections and HLA-A alleles encoding 144Q/151R with asymptomatic seronegative women. Among the genes related to immune modulation, we detected variants in MICA and MICB associated with symptomatic infections. These variants are related to higher expression of soluble MICA and low expression of MICB. Thus, quantitative differences in these molecules that modulate natural killer (NK) activity could contribute to susceptibility to COVID-19 by downregulating NK cell cytotoxic activity in infected individuals but not in the asymptomatic partners.


Subject(s)
Asymptomatic Infections , COVID-19 , Histocompatibility Antigens , Major Histocompatibility Complex , SARS-CoV-2 , Adult , Aged , Brazil , COVID-19/genetics , COVID-19/immunology , Female , Genetic Predisposition to Disease , Genotype , Histocompatibility Antigens/genetics , Histocompatibility Antigens/immunology , Humans , Major Histocompatibility Complex/genetics , Major Histocompatibility Complex/immunology , Male , Middle Aged , Whole Exome Sequencing
14.
Clin Infect Dis ; 73(5): e1214-e1218, 2021 09 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1455274

ABSTRACT

We evaluated the seroprevalence of SARS-CoV-2 and risk factors among 4987 oligo/asymptomatic healthcare workers; seroprevalence was 14% and factors associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection were lower educational level (aOR, 1.93; 95% CI, 1.03-3.60), using public transport to work (aOR, 1.65; 95% CI, 1.07-2.62), and working in cleaning or security (aOR, 2.05; 95% CI, 1.04-4.03).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Cross-Sectional Studies , Health Personnel , Humans , Risk Factors , Seroepidemiologic Studies
15.
J Infect Dis ; 224(12): 1995-2000, 2021 12 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1233857

ABSTRACT

To speed the development of vaccines against SARS-CoV-2, the United States Federal Government has funded multiple phase 3 trials of candidate vaccines. A single 11-member data and safety monitoring board (DSMB) monitors all government-funded trials to ensure coordinated oversight, promote harmonized designs, and allow shared insights related to safety across trials. DSMB reviews encompass 3 domains: (1) the conduct of trials, including overall and subgroup accrual and data quality and completeness; (2) safety, including individual events of concern and comparisons by randomized group; and (3) interim analyses of efficacy when event-driven milestones are met. Challenges have included the scale and pace of the trials, the frequency of safety events related to the combined enrollment of over 100 000 participants, many of whom are older adults or have comorbid conditions that place them at independent risk of serious health events, and the politicized environment in which the trials have taken place.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , COVID-19/prevention & control , Aged , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , United States , Vaccines
16.
World Allergy Organ J ; 14(4): 100532, 2021 Apr.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1135595

ABSTRACT

Vaccination against coronavirus is essential to minimize the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic. Rare cases of anaphylaxis associated with the mRNA COVID-19 vaccines are being described, and the mechanisms involved in these reactions are poorly understood. A potential culprit agent of these vaccine-induced anaphylaxis events is polyethylene glycol, which has been reported as a cause of anaphylaxis. However, a cause-effect association has not been demonstrated, and the cases of anaphylaxis to mRNA COVID-19 vaccines should be further investigated. In this scenario, the recommendations are inaccurate and can lead to misinterpretation. At the moment, a more accurate recommendation would be the contraindication of mRNA COVID-19 vaccines in patients with immediate hypersensitivity reaction to polyethylene glycol or polysorbate. Patients with history of anaphylaxis to other or unknown causes should be referred to an allergist-immunologist for further orientation.

19.
PREPRINT-SCIELO; 2020.
Preprint in English | PREPRINT-SciELO | ID: ppcovidwho-4805

ABSTRACT

SARS-Cov-2 is a virus easily transmitted by air and fomites causing&#160;acute severe respiratory syndrome. Severity in some cases requires hospitalization and complex expensive intensive care treatments. Its rampant contagious led to a a fearful pandemic affecting the whole world with millions of infected humans and almost half a million deaths in a few months in the beginning of 2020 (until June 17, 2020). SARS-Cov2 is likely to have been spilled over from natural sylvatic cycles in bats from China. Our purpose is to comment on the human individual immune inflammatory responses to the infection of SARS-Cov2 and the reflections of these individual immunoinflammatory profiles on patterns of the severity of the disease, time for therapeutical intervention, pathogenesis, candidate drugs and indicative comparative drug prices for covid-19. Efficient treatment&#160;for covid-19 may require: 1) early disease detection, 2) a combination of drugs being used for 3) targeting the virus replication cycle and 4) specific/ individualized drug treatment for given immunoinflammatory human profile responses in a 5) timely manner. Specific serum immuno-markers of covid-19 affected individuals at onset, in the follow-up, and in the resolution of the immunoinflammatory storm during the course of the disease may lead to individualized therapeutics with better outcomes.&#160;Covid-19 is unlikely to be the last emergent human disease with fast pandemic potencial. To gather knowledge on the human host profiles and immunoinflamatory responses is an opportunity that could pave the way to faster, more efficient strategies to tackle upcoming diseases. El SARS-Cov-2 es un virus que se transmite fácilmente por aire y fómites y que causa el síndrome respiratorio agudo severo. La gravedad en algunos casos requiere hospitalización y complejos tratamientos caros de cuidados intensivos. Su contagio desenfrenado provocó una terrible pandemia que afectó a todo el mundo con millones de humanos infectados y casi medio millón de muertes en pocos meses a principios de 2020 (hasta el 17 de junio de 2020). Es probable que el SARS-Cov2 se haya derramado de los ciclos selváticos naturales en murciélagos de China. Nuestro propósito es comentar sobre las respuestas inflamatorias inmunitarias individuales humanas a la infección de SARS-Cov2 y los reflejos de estos perfiles inmunoinflamatorios individuales sobre los patrones de la gravedad de la enfermedad, el tiempo para la intervención terapéutica, la patogénesis, los fármacos candidatos y los precios indicativos de los medicamentos comparativos para covid-19. El tratamiento eficiente para covid-19 puede requerir: 1) detección temprana de la enfermedad, 2) una combinación de medicamentos que se utilizan para 3) dirigirse al ciclo de replicación del virus y 4) tratamiento farmacológico específico / individualizado para respuestas de perfil humano inmunoinflamatorio dado en una 5) conducta oportuna. Los inmunomarcadores séricos específicos de los individuos afectados por covid-19 al inicio, en el seguimiento y en la resolución de la tormenta inmunoinflamatoria durante el curso de la enfermedad pueden conducir a terapias individualizadas con mejores resultados. Covid-19 es poco probable que sea la última enfermedad humana emergente con un rápido potencial pandémico. Recopilar conocimiento sobre los perfiles del huésped humano y las respuestas inmunoinflamatorias es una oportunidad que podría allanar el camino hacia estrategias más rápidas y más eficientes para abordar las enfermedades futuras. O SARS-Cov-2 é um vírus facilmente transmitido pelo ar e fomites, causando síndrome respiratória aguda grave. A gravidade, em alguns casos, requer hospitalização e tratamentos de terapia intensiva caros e complexos. Seu contágio desenfreado levou a uma pandemia que afeta o mundo inteiro com milhões de seres humanos infectados e quase meio milhão de mortes em alguns meses no início de 2020 (até 17 de junho de 2020). É provável que o SARS-Cov2 tenha saído de ciclos silváticos naturais envolvendo morcegos na China. Nosso objetivo é comentar as respostas imunes inflamatórias individuais humanas à infecção por SARS-Cov2 e os reflexos desses perfis imunoinflamatórios individuais sobre padrões de gravidade da doença, tempo para intervenção terapêutica, patogênese, medicamentos candidatos e preços comparativos indicativos de medicamentos para covid-19. O tratamento eficiente da covid-19 pode exigir: 1) detecção precoce da doença, 2) uma combinação de drogas sendo usada para 3) intervir no ciclo de replicação do vírus e 4) tratamento medicamentoso específico / individualizado para determinadas respostas imunoinflamatórias do perfil humano no 5) tempo correto. Imunomarcadores séricos específicos de indivíduos covid-19 afetados no início, no acompanhamento e na resolução da tempestade imunoinflamatória durante o curso da doença podem levar a terapêuticas individualizadas com melhores resultados. É improvável que o Covid-19 seja a última doença humana emergente com rápido potencial de pandemia. Reunir conhecimento sobre os perfis do hospedeiro humano e respostas imunoinflamatórias é uma oportunidade que pode abrir caminho para estratégias mais rápidas e eficientes para combater doenças emergentes.

20.
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