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Biosensors (Basel) ; 13(2)2023 Jan 26.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-2215583


The demand for new devices that enable the detection of severe acute respiratory syndrome-coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) at a relatively low cost and that are fast and feasible to be used as point-of-care is required overtime on a large scale. In this sense, the use of sustainable materials, for example, the bio-based poly (ethylene terephthalate) (Bio-PET) can be an alternative to current standard diagnostics. In this work, we present a flexible disposable printed electrode based on a platinum thin film on Bio-PET as a substrate for the development of a sensor and immunosensor for the monitoring of COVID-19 biomarkers, by the detection of L-cysteine and the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, respectively. The electrode was applied in conjunction with 3D printing technology to generate a portable and easy-to-analyze device with a low sample volume. For the L-cysteine determination, chronoamperometry was used, which achieved two linear dynamic ranges (LDR) of 3.98-39.0 µmol L-1 and 39.0-145 µmol L-1, and a limit of detection (LOD) of 0.70 µmol L-1. The detection of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein was achieved by both square wave voltammetry (SWV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) by a label-free immunosensor, using potassium ferro-ferricyanide solution as the electrochemical probe. An LDR of 0.70-7.0 and 1.0-30 pmol L-1, with an LOD of 0.70 and 1.0 pmol L-1 were obtained by SWV and EIS, respectively. As a proof of concept, the immunosensor was successfully applied for the detection of the SARS-CoV-2 spike protein in enriched synthetic saliva samples, which demonstrates the potential of using the proposed sensor as an alternative platform for the diagnosis of COVID-19 in the future.

Biosensing Techniques , COVID-19 , Humans , SARS-CoV-2 , Platinum , Biosensing Techniques/methods , Cysteine , Electrochemical Techniques/methods , Immunoassay/methods
Anal Chim Acta ; 1159: 338384, 2021 May 15.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1279519


Viruses are the causing agents for many relevant diseases, including influenza, Ebola, HIV/AIDS, and COVID-19. Its rapid replication and high transmissibility can lead to serious consequences not only to the individual but also to collective health, causing deep economic impacts. In this scenario, diagnosis tools are of significant importance, allowing the rapid, precise, and low-cost testing of a substantial number of individuals. Currently, PCR-based techniques are the gold standard for the diagnosis of viral diseases. Although these allow the diagnosis of different illnesses with high precision, they still present significant drawbacks. Their main disadvantages include long periods for obtaining results and the need for specialized professionals and equipment, requiring the tests to be performed in research centers. In this scenario, biosensors have been presented as promising alternatives for the rapid, precise, low-cost, and on-site diagnosis of viral diseases. This critical review article describes the advancements achieved in the last five years regarding electrochemical biosensors for the diagnosis of viral infections. First, genosensors and aptasensors for the detection of virus and the diagnosis of viral diseases are presented in detail regarding probe immobilization approaches, detection methods (label-free and sandwich), and amplification strategies. Following, immunosensors are highlighted, including many different construction strategies such as label-free, sandwich, competitive, and lateral-flow assays. Then, biosensors for the detection of viral-diseases-related biomarkers are presented and discussed, as well as point of care systems and their advantages when compared to traditional techniques. Last, the difficulties of commercializing electrochemical devices are critically discussed in conjunction with future trends such as lab-on-a-chip and flexible sensors.

Biosensing Techniques , Electrochemical Techniques , Virus Diseases/diagnosis , Viruses/isolation & purification , Humans , Immunoassay