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1.
Nephron ; 146(4): 335-342, 2022.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1582859

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients receiving in-centre haemodialysis (ICHD) are highly vulnerable to COVID-19. OBJECTIVE: We created a quality improvement (QI) project aimed to eliminate outbreaks of COVID-19 in haemodialysis units and evaluated the utility of surveillance rRT-PCR test and SARS-CoV-2 serum antibodies for prompt identification of patients infected with COVID-19. METHODS: A multifaceted QI programme including a bundle of infection prevention control (IPC) measures was implemented across 5 ICHD units following the first wave of the pandemic in June 2020. Primary outcomes evaluated before and after QI implementation were incidence of outbreaks and severe COVID-19 illness defined as COVID-19-related death or hospitalization. Secondary outcomes included the proportion of patients identified in the pre-symptomatic/asymptomatic phase on surveillance rRT-PCR screening and the incidence and longevity of SARS-CoV-2 antibody response. RESULTS: Following the implementation of the QI project, there were no further outbreaks. Pre- and post-implementation comparison showed a significant reduction in COVID-19-related mortality and hospitalization (26 vs. 13 events, respectively, p < 0.001). Surveillance rRT-PCR screening identified 39 asymptomatic or pre-symptomatic cases out of a total of 59 rRT-PCR-positive patients (39/59, 66%). SARS-CoV-2 antibody levels were detected in 72/74 (97%) rRT-PCR-positive patients. Amongst rRT-PCR-positive patients diagnosed before August 2020, 96% had detectable antibodies until January 2021 (days from the rRT-PCR test to last antibody testing, 245-280). CONCLUSIONS: Systematic implementation of a bundle of IPC measures using QI methodology and surveillance rRT-PCR eliminated outbreaks in HD facilities. Most HD patients mount and sustain antibody response to COVID-19 for over 8 months.


Subject(s)
COVID-19 , SARS-CoV-2 , Antibodies, Viral/analysis , COVID-19/diagnosis , Humans , Pharynx/chemistry , Quality Improvement , Renal Dialysis , Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
2.
Children (Basel) ; 9(1)2021 Dec 22.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1580987

ABSTRACT

Introduction: COVID-19 infections resulting in pathological kidney manifestations have frequently been reported in adults since the onset of the global COVID-19 pandemic in December 2019. Gradually, there have been an increased number of COVID-19-associated intrinsic kidney pathologies in children and adolescents reported as well. The pathophysiological mechanisms between COVID-19 and the onset of kidney pathology are not fully known in children; it remains a challenge to distinguish between intrinsic kidney pathologies that were caused directly by COVID-19 viral invasion, and cases which occurred as a result of multisystem inflammatory syndrome due to the infection. This challenge is made more difficult in children, due to the ethical limitations of performing kidney biopsies to reach a biopsy-proven diagnosis. Although previous systematic reviews have summarized the various pathological kidney manifestations that have occurred in adults following acute COVID-19 infection, such reviews have not yet been published for children and adolescents. We describe the results of a systematic review for intrinsic kidney pathology following COVID-19 infection in children and adolescents. Methods: A systematic literature search of published data up until 31 October was completed through the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA) guidelines. Research articles reporting new-onset or relapsed intrinsic kidney pathology in children or adolescents (≤18 years) following acute COVID-19 infection were included for qualitative review. COVID-19 infection status was defined by a positive result from a RT-PCR, or nuclear antibody testing. Only full-text articles published in the English language were selected for review. Results: Twenty-nine cases from fifteen articles were included in the qualitative synthesis of this systematic review. Nephrotic syndrome, as an umbrella condition, appeared as the most frequently observed presentation (20 cases) with disease remission noted in all cases with steroid treatment. Other cases included numerous glomerulonephritides, such as acute necrotizing glomerulonephritis, MPO vasculitis and collapsing glomerulopathy, and thrombotic microangiopathies, such as aHUS. For patients with transplanted kidneys, T-cell-mediated rejection and mild tubular interstitial infiltration were noted following testing positive for COVID-19. There were no mortalities reported in any of the included cases, although two patients remained dialysis dependent at hospital discharge. Conclusion: This systematic review highlights the various intrinsic pathological kidney manifestations in children and adolescents as a result of acute COVID-19 infection. The clinical timeline and presentation of these cases support the mechanistic hypothesis between COVID-19 infection and the onset of intrinsic kidney pathologies within this context. The progressive introduction of vaccination programs for children and adolescents may hopefully reduce the severity of COVID-19-associated illnesses, and pathological kidney manifestations in this population.

3.
World J Transplant ; 11(11): 480-502, 2021 Nov 18.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1555563

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) can result in clinically significant multi-system disease including involvement in the kidney. The underlying histopathological processes were unknown at the start of the pandemic. As case reports and series have been published describing the underlying renal histopathology from kidney biopsies, we have started to gain an insight into the renal manifestations of this novel disease. AIM: To provide an overview of the current literature on the renal histopathological features and mechanistic insights described in association with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) infection. METHODS: A systematic review was performed by conducting a literature search in the following websites-'PubMed', 'Web of Science', 'Embase' and 'Medline-ProQuest' with the following search terms-"COVID-19 AND kidney biopsy", "COVID-19 AND renal biopsy", "SARS-CoV-2 AND kidney biopsy" and "SARS-CoV-2 AND renal biopsy". We have included published data up until February 15, 2021, which includes kidney biopsies (native, transplant and postmortem) from patients with COVID-19. Data on clinical presentation, histopathological features, management and outcome was extracted from the reported studies. RESULTS: The total number of biopsies reported on here is 288, of which 189 are postmortem, 84 native and 15 transplants. The results are varied and show underlying pathologies ranging from collapsing glomerulopathy and acute tubular injury (ATI) to anti-nuclear cytoplasmic antibody associated vasculitis and pigment nephropathy. There was variation in the specific treatment used for the various renal conditions, which included steroids, hydroxychloroquine, eculizumab, convalescent plasma, rituximab, anakinra, cyclophosphamide and renal replacement therapy, amongst others. The pathological process which occurs in the kidney following COVID-19 infection and leads to the described biopsy findings has been hypothesized in some conditions but not others (for example, sepsis related hypoperfusion for ATI). It is important to note that this represents a very small minority of the total number of cases of COVID-19 related kidney disease, and as such there may be inherent selection bias in the results described. Further work will be required to determine the pathogenetic link, if any, between COVID-19 and the other renal pathologies. CONCLUSION: This report has clinical relevance as certain renal pathologies have specific management, with the implication that kidney biopsy in the setting of renal disease and COVID-19 should be an early consideration, dependent upon the clinical presentation.

4.
Vaccines (Basel) ; 9(11)2021 Oct 29.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1488805

ABSTRACT

INTRODUCTION: The introduction of COVID-19 vaccination programs has become an integral part of the major strategy to reduce COVID-19 numbers worldwide. New-onset and relapsed kidney histopathology have been reported following COVID-19 vaccination, sparking debate on whether there are causal associations. How these vaccines achieve an immune response to COVID-19 and the mechanism that this triggers kidney pathology remains unestablished. We describe the results of a systematic review for new-onset and relapsed kidney histopathology following COVID-19 vaccination. METHODS: A systematic literature search of published data up until 31 August 2021 was completed through the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses (PRISMA) guideline. Research articles reporting new onset or relapsed kidney histopathology in adult patients (>18 years) following COVID-19 vaccination were included for qualitative review. Only full-text articles published in the English language were selected for review. RESULTS: Forty-eight cases from thirty-six articles were included in the qualitative synthesis of this systematic review. Minimal change disease (19 cases) was the most frequent pathology observed, followed by IgA nephropathy (14 cases) and vasculitis (10 cases). Other cases include relapse of membranous nephropathy, acute rejection of kidney transplant, relapse of IgG4 nephritis, new-onset renal thrombotic microangiopathy, and scleroderma renal crisis following COVID-19 vaccination. There was no mortality reported in any of the included cases. Patients in all but one case largely recovered and did not require long-term renal replacement therapy. CONCLUSION: This systematic review provides insight into the relationship between various kidney pathologies that may have followed COVID-19 vaccination. Despite these reported cases, the protective benefits offered by COVID-19 vaccination far outweigh its risks. It would be recommended to consider early biopsy to identify histopathology amongst patients presenting with symptoms relating to new-onset kidney disease following vaccination and to monitor symptoms for those with potential relapsed disease.

6.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 269, 2021 07 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1322928

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is a recognised complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), yet the reported incidence varies widely and the associated risk factors are poorly understood. METHODS: Data was collected on all adult patients who returned a positive COVID-19 swab while hospitalised at a large UK teaching hospital between 1st March 2020 and 3rd June 2020. Patients were stratified into community- and hospital-acquired AKI based on the timing of AKI onset. RESULTS: Out of the 448 eligible patients with COVID-19, 118 (26.3 %) recorded an AKI during their admission. Significant independent risk factors for community-acquired AKI were chronic kidney disease (CKD), diabetes, clinical frailty score and admission C-reactive protein (CRP), systolic blood pressure and respiratory rate. Similar risk factors were significant for hospital-acquired AKI including CKD and trough systolic blood pressure, peak heart rate, peak CRP and trough lymphocytes during admission. In addition, invasive mechanical ventilation was the most significant risk factor for hospital-acquired AKI (adjusted odds ratio 9.1, p < 0.0001) while atrial fibrillation conferred a protective effect (adjusted odds ratio 0.29, p < 0.0209). Mortality was significantly higher for patients who had an AKI compared to those who didn't have an AKI (54.3 % vs. 29.4 % respectively, p < 0.0001). On Cox regression, hospital-acquired AKI was significantly associated with mortality (adjusted hazard ratio 4.64, p < 0.0001) while community-acquired AKI was not. CONCLUSIONS: AKI occurred in over a quarter of our hospitalised COVID-19 patients. Community- and hospital-acquired AKI have many shared risk factors which appear to converge on a pre-renal mechanism of injury. Hospital- but not community acquired AKI was a significant risk factor for death.


Subject(s)
Acute Kidney Injury/etiology , COVID-19/complications , Hospitalization , Acute Kidney Injury/epidemiology , Age Factors , Aged , COVID-19/mortality , Female , Humans , Incidence , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Middle Aged , Retrospective Studies , Risk Factors , United Kingdom/epidemiology
7.
N Engl J Med ; 385(13): 1172-1183, 2021 09 23.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1287849

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Early clinical data from studies of the NVX-CoV2373 vaccine (Novavax), a recombinant nanoparticle vaccine against severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) that contains the full-length spike glycoprotein of the prototype strain plus Matrix-M adjuvant, showed that the vaccine was safe and associated with a robust immune response in healthy adult participants. Additional data were needed regarding the efficacy, immunogenicity, and safety of this vaccine in a larger population. METHODS: In this phase 3, randomized, observer-blinded, placebo-controlled trial conducted at 33 sites in the United Kingdom, we assigned adults between the ages of 18 and 84 years in a 1:1 ratio to receive two intramuscular 5-µg doses of NVX-CoV2373 or placebo administered 21 days apart. The primary efficacy end point was virologically confirmed mild, moderate, or severe SARS-CoV-2 infection with an onset at least 7 days after the second injection in participants who were serologically negative at baseline. RESULTS: A total of 15,187 participants underwent randomization, and 14,039 were included in the per-protocol efficacy population. Of the participants, 27.9% were 65 years of age or older, and 44.6% had coexisting illnesses. Infections were reported in 10 participants in the vaccine group and in 96 in the placebo group, with a symptom onset of at least 7 days after the second injection, for a vaccine efficacy of 89.7% (95% confidence interval [CI], 80.2 to 94.6). No hospitalizations or deaths were reported among the 10 cases in the vaccine group. Five cases of severe infection were reported, all of which were in the placebo group. A post hoc analysis showed an efficacy of 86.3% (95% CI, 71.3 to 93.5) against the B.1.1.7 (or alpha) variant and 96.4% (95% CI, 73.8 to 99.5) against non-B.1.1.7 variants. Reactogenicity was generally mild and transient. The incidence of serious adverse events was low and similar in the two groups. CONCLUSIONS: A two-dose regimen of the NVX-CoV2373 vaccine administered to adult participants conferred 89.7% protection against SARS-CoV-2 infection and showed high efficacy against the B.1.1.7 variant. (Funded by Novavax; EudraCT number, 2020-004123-16.).


Subject(s)
COVID-19 Vaccines , COVID-19/prevention & control , Immunogenicity, Vaccine , Adolescent , Adult , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Vaccines/administration & dosage , COVID-19 Vaccines/adverse effects , COVID-19 Vaccines/immunology , Humans , Injections, Intramuscular/adverse effects , Middle Aged , SARS-CoV-2 , Single-Blind Method , Vaccines, Synthetic/immunology , Young Adult
8.
BMC Nephrol ; 22(1): 154, 2021 04 27.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-1204048

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: End-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients receiving haemodialysis (HD) are a vulnerable group of patients with increased mortality from COVID-19. Despite improved understanding, the duration of host immunity following COVID-19 infection and role of serological testing alone or in addition to real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (rRT-PCR) testing in the HD population is not fully understood, which this study aimed to investigate. METHODS: There were two parts to this study. Between 15th March 2020 to 15th July 2020, patients receiving HD who tested positive on rRT-PCR for SARS-CoV-2 were recruited into the COVID-19 arm, whilst asymptomatic patients without a previous diagnosis of COVID-19 were recruited to the epidemiological arm of the Salford Kidney Study (SKS). All patients underwent monthly testing for anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies as per routine clinical practice since August 2020. The aims were twofold: firstly, to determine seroprevalence and COVID-19 exposure in the epidemiological arm; secondly, to assess duration of the antibody response in the COVID-19 arm. Baseline characteristics were reviewed between groups. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS. Mann-Whitney U and Chi-squared tests were used for testing significance of difference between groups. RESULTS: In our total HD population of 411 patients, 32 were PCR-positive for COVID-19. Of the remaining patients, 237 were recruited into the SKS study, of whom 12 (5.1%) had detectable anti-SARS-CoV-2 antibodies. Of the 32 PCR-positive patients, 27 (84.4%) were symptomatic and 25 patients admitted to hospital due to their symptoms. Of the 22 patients in COVID-19 arm that underwent testing for anti-SARS-CoV-2 IgG antibodies beyond 7 months, all had detectable antibodies. A higher proportion of the patients with COVID-19 were frail compared to patients without a diagnosis of COVID-19 (64.3% vs 34.1%, p = 0.003). Other characteristics were similar between the groups. Over a median follow up of 7 months, a higher number of deaths were recorded in patients with a diagnosis of COVID-19 compared to those without (18.7% vs 5.9%, p = 0.003). CONCLUSIONS: Serological testing in the HD population is a valuable tool to determine seroprevalence, monitor exposure, and guide improvements for infection prevention and control (IPC) measures to help prevent local outbreaks. This study revealed HD patients mount a humoral response detectable until at least 7 months after COVID-19 infection and provides hope of similar protection with the vaccines recently approved.


Subject(s)
COVID-19/immunology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/immunology , Aged , COVID-19/diagnosis , COVID-19/epidemiology , COVID-19 Nucleic Acid Testing , COVID-19 Serological Testing , Case-Control Studies , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Renal Dialysis , SARS-CoV-2 , Seroepidemiologic Studies , United Kingdom/epidemiology
9.
BMC Nephrol ; 21(1): 532, 2020 12 07.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-962810

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: Patients undergoing haemodialysis (HD) are at higher risk of developing worse outcomes if they contract COVID-19. In our renal service we reduced HD frequency from thrice to twice-weekly in selected patients with the primary aim of reducing COVID 19 exposure and transmission between HD patients. METHODS: Dialysis unit nephrologists identified 166 suitable patients (38.4% of our HD population) to temporarily convert to twice-weekly haemodialysis immediately prior to the peak of the COVID-19 pandemic in our area. Changes in pre-dialysis weight, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and biochemistry were recorded weekly throughout the 4-week project. Hyperkalaemic patients (serum potassium > 6.0 mmol/L) were treated with a potassium binder, sodium bicarbonate and received responsive dietary advice. RESULTS: There were 12 deaths (5 due to COVID-19) in the HD population, 6 of which were in the twice weekly HD group; no deaths were definitively associated with change of dialysis protocol. A further 19 patients were either hospitalised and/or developed COVID-19 and thus transferred back to thrice weekly dialysis as per protocol. 113 (68.1%) were still receiving twice-weekly HD by the end of the 4-week project. Indications for transfer back to thrice weekly were; fluid overload (19), persistent hyperkalaemia (4), patient request (4) and compliance (1). There were statistically significant increases in SBP and pre-dialysis potassium during the project. CONCLUSIONS: Short term conversion of a large but selected HD population to twice-weekly dialysis sessions was possible and safe. This approach could help mitigate COVID-19 transmission amongst dialysis patients in centres with similar organisational pressures.


Subject(s)
Appointments and Schedules , COVID-19/prevention & control , Pandemics , Renal Dialysis/statistics & numerical data , SARS-CoV-2 , Aged , Ambulatory Care Facilities/organization & administration , Ambulatory Care Facilities/statistics & numerical data , Blood Pressure , Body Weight , COVID-19/epidemiology , Comorbidity , England/epidemiology , Female , Humans , Hyperkalemia/etiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/blood , Kidney Failure, Chronic/epidemiology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/physiopathology , Kidney Failure, Chronic/therapy , Male , Middle Aged , Potassium/blood , Procedures and Techniques Utilization/statistics & numerical data , Renal Dialysis/adverse effects
10.
BMC Geriatr ; 20(1): 409, 2020 10 16.
Article in English | MEDLINE | ID: covidwho-873942

ABSTRACT

BACKGROUND: There is a need for more observational studies across different clinical settings to better understand the epidemiology of the novel COVID-19 infection. Evidence on clinical characteristics of COVID-19 infection is scarce in secondary care settings in Western populations. METHODS: We describe the clinical characteristics of all consecutive COVID-19 positive patients (n = 215) admitted to the acute medical unit at Fairfield General Hospital (secondary care setting) between 23 March 2020 and 30 April 2020 based on the outcome at discharge (group 1: alive or group 2: deceased). We investigated the risk factors that were associated with mortality using binary logistic regression analysis. Kaplan-Meir (KM) curves were generated by following the outcome in all patients until 12 May 2020. RESULTS: The median age of our cohort was 74 years with a predominance of Caucasians (87.4%) and males (62%). Of the 215 patients, 86 (40%) died. A higher proportion of patients who died were frail (group 2: 63 vs group 1: 37%, p < 0.001), with a higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (group 2: 58 vs group 1: 33%, p < 0.001) and respiratory diseases (group 2: 38 vs group 1: 25%, p = 0.03). In the multivariate logistic regression models, older age (odds ratio (OR) 1.03; p = 0.03), frailty (OR 5.1; p < 0.001) and lower estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) on admission (OR 0.98; p = 0.01) were significant predictors of inpatient mortality. KM curves showed a significantly shorter survival time in the frail older patients. CONCLUSION: Older age and frailty are chief risk factors associated with mortality in COVID-19 patients hospitalised to an acute medical unit at secondary care level. A holistic approach by incorporating these factors is warranted in the management of patients with COVID-19 infection.


Subject(s)
Coronavirus Infections/mortality , Frail Elderly , Frailty/complications , Pneumonia, Viral/mortality , Age Factors , Aged , Aged, 80 and over , Betacoronavirus , COVID-19 , Cohort Studies , Female , Humans , Kaplan-Meier Estimate , Male , Pandemics , Prevalence , SARS-CoV-2 , Secondary Care
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